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Issue Cover for Volume 20, Number 1—January 2014

Volume 20, Number 1—January 2014

[PDF - 7.80 MB - 179 pages]

Synopses

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, Shandong Province, China, 2011 [PDF - 471 KB - 5 pages]
H. Wen et al.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease in China. The incidence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of SFTS are not clearly defined. During May 22–October 2, 2011, a total of 24 patients with fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia were clinically diagnosed as having SFTS in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. We conducted laboratory tests for these SFTS patients. SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection was confirmed in 22 patients by using reverse transcription PCR and ELISA by acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples. Clinical and laboratory manifestations included fever (100%), gastrointestinal symptoms (91%), myalgia (55%), chills (41%), thrombocytopenia (100%), and leukopenia (95%).

EID Wen H, Zhao L, Zhai S, Chi Y, Cui F, Wang D, et al. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, Shandong Province, China, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):1-5. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.120532
AMA Wen H, Zhao L, Zhai S, et al. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, Shandong Province, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):1-5. doi:10.3201/eid2001.120532.
APA Wen, H., Zhao, L., Zhai, S., Chi, Y., Cui, F., Wang, D....Yu, X. (2014). Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, Shandong Province, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 1-5. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.120532.

A Historical Perspective of Influenza A(H1N2) Virus [PDF - 375 KB - 7 pages]
N. Komadina et al.

The emergence and transition to pandemic status of the influenza A(H1N1)A(H1N1)pdm09) virus in 2009 illustrated the potential for previously circulating human viruses to re-emerge in humans and cause a pandemic after decades of circulating among animals. Within a short time of the initial emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, novel reassortants were isolated from swine. In late 2011, a variant (v) H3N2 subtype was isolated from humans, and by 2012, the number of persons infected began to increase with limited person-to-person transmission. During 2012 in the United States, an A(H1N2)v virus was transmitted to humans from swine. During the same year, Australia recorded its first H1N2 subtype infection among swine. The A(H3N2)v and A(H1N2)v viruses contained the matrix protein from the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, raising the possibility of increased transmissibility among humans and underscoring the potential for influenza pandemics of novel swine-origin viruses. We report on the differing histories of A(H1N2) viruses among humans and animals.

EID Komadina N, McVernon J, Hall R, Leder K. A Historical Perspective of Influenza A(H1N2) Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):6-12. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.121848
AMA Komadina N, McVernon J, Hall R, et al. A Historical Perspective of Influenza A(H1N2) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):6-12. doi:10.3201/eid2001.121848.
APA Komadina, N., McVernon, J., Hall, R., & Leder, K. (2014). A Historical Perspective of Influenza A(H1N2) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 6-12. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.121848.
Research

Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions [PDF - 1.07 MB - 10 pages]
M. A. Barria et al.

The risks posed to human health by individual animal prion diseases cannot be determined a priori and are difficult to address empirically. The fundamental event in prion disease pathogenesis is thought to be the seeded conversion of normal prion protein to its pathologic isoform. We used a rapid molecular conversion assay (protein misfolding cyclic amplification) to test whether brain homogenates from specimens of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), atypical BSE (H-type BSE and L-type BSE), classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, and chronic wasting disease can convert normal human prion protein to the abnormal disease-associated form. None of the tested prion isolates from diseased animals were as efficient as classical BSE in converting human prion protein. However, in the case of chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.

EID Barria MA, Balachandran A, Morita M, Kitamoto T, Barron R, Manson J, et al. Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):88-97. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130858
AMA Barria MA, Balachandran A, Morita M, et al. Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):88-97. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130858.
APA Barria, M. A., Balachandran, A., Morita, M., Kitamoto, T., Barron, R., Manson, J....Head, M. W. (2014). Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 88-97. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130858.

Multisite Validation of Cryptococcal Antigen Lateral Flow Assay and Quantification by Laser Thermal Contrast [PDF - 459 KB - 9 pages]
D. R. Boulware et al.

Cryptococcal meningitis is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the need for data for a rapid, point-of-care cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA), we assessed diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, CRAG latex agglutination, India ink microscopy, and CRAG LFA for 832 HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis during 2006–2009 (n = 299) in Uganda and during 2010–2012 (n = 533) in Uganda and South Africa. CRAG LFA had the best performance (sensitivity 99.3%, specificity 99.1%). Culture sensitivity was dependent on CSF volume (82.4% for 10 μL, 94.2% for 100 μL). CRAG latex agglutination test sensitivity (97.0%–97.8%) and specificity (85.9%–100%) varied between manufacturers. India ink microscopy was 86% sensitive. Laser thermal contrast had 92% accuracy (R = 0.91, p<0.001) in quantifying CRAG titers from 1 LFA strip to within <1.5 dilutions of actual CRAG titers. CRAG LFA is a major advance for meningitis diagnostics in resource-limited settings.

EID Boulware DR, Rolfes MA, Rajasingham R, von Hohenberg M, Qin Z, Taseera K, et al. Multisite Validation of Cryptococcal Antigen Lateral Flow Assay and Quantification by Laser Thermal Contrast. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):45-53. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130906
AMA Boulware DR, Rolfes MA, Rajasingham R, et al. Multisite Validation of Cryptococcal Antigen Lateral Flow Assay and Quantification by Laser Thermal Contrast. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):45-53. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130906.
APA Boulware, D. R., Rolfes, M. A., Rajasingham, R., von Hohenberg, M., Qin, Z., Taseera, K....Meya, D. B. (2014). Multisite Validation of Cryptococcal Antigen Lateral Flow Assay and Quantification by Laser Thermal Contrast. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 45-53. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130906.

Population-based Surveillance for Bacterial Meningitis in China, September 2006–December 2009 [PDF - 580 KB - 9 pages]
Y. Li et al.

During September 2006–December 2009, we conducted active population and sentinel laboratory–based surveillance for bacterial meningitis pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, in 4 China prefectures. We identified 7,876 acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome cases, including 6,388 among prefecture residents. A total of 833 resident cases from sentinel hospitals met the World Health Organization case definition for probable bacterial meningitis; 339 of these cases were among children <5 years of age. Laboratory testing confirmed bacterial meningitis in 74 of 3,391 tested cases. The estimated annual incidence (per 100,000 population) of probable bacterial meningitis ranged from 1.84 to 2.93 for the entire population and from 6.95 to 22.30 for children <5 years old. Active surveillance with laboratory confirmation has provided a population-based estimate of the number of probable bacterial meningitis cases in China, but more complete laboratory testing is needed to better define the epidemiology of the disease in this country.

EID Li Y, Yin Z, Shao Z, Li M, Liang X, Sandhu HS, et al. Population-based Surveillance for Bacterial Meningitis in China, September 2006–December 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):61-69. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.120375
AMA Li Y, Yin Z, Shao Z, et al. Population-based Surveillance for Bacterial Meningitis in China, September 2006–December 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):61-69. doi:10.3201/eid2001.120375.
APA Li, Y., Yin, Z., Shao, Z., Li, M., Liang, X., Sandhu, H. S....Luo, H. (2014). Population-based Surveillance for Bacterial Meningitis in China, September 2006–December 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 61-69. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.120375.

Medscape CME Activity
Raw Milk Consumption among Patients with Non–Outbreak-related Enteric Infections, Minnesota, USA, 2001–2010 [PDF - 580 KB - 7 pages]
T. J. Robinson et al.

Raw milk has frequently been identified as the source of foodborne illness outbreaks; however, the number of illnesses ascertained as part of documented outbreaks likely represents a small proportion of the actual number of illnesses associated with this food product. Analysis of routine surveillance data involving illnesses caused by enteric pathogens that were reportable in Minnesota during 2001–2010 revealed that 3.7% of patients with sporadic, domestically acquired enteric infections had reported raw milk consumption during their exposure period. Children were disproportionately affected, and 76% of those <5 years of age were served raw milk from their own or a relative’s farm. Severe illness was noted, including hemolytic uremic syndrome among 21% of Escherichia coli O157–infected patients reporting raw milk consumption, and 1 death was reported. Raw milk consumers, potential consumers, and policy makers who might consider relaxing regulations regarding raw milk sales should be educated regarding illnesses associated with raw milk consumption.

EID Robinson TJ, Scheftel JM, Smith KE. Raw Milk Consumption among Patients with Non–Outbreak-related Enteric Infections, Minnesota, USA, 2001–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):38-44. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.120920
AMA Robinson TJ, Scheftel JM, Smith KE. Raw Milk Consumption among Patients with Non–Outbreak-related Enteric Infections, Minnesota, USA, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):38-44. doi:10.3201/eid2001.120920.
APA Robinson, T. J., Scheftel, J. M., & Smith, K. E. (2014). Raw Milk Consumption among Patients with Non–Outbreak-related Enteric Infections, Minnesota, USA, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 38-44. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.120920.

Effects of Drinking-Water Filtration on Cryptosporidium Seroepidemiology, Scotland [PDF - 399 KB - 7 pages]
C. N. Ramsay et al.

Continuous exposure to low levels of Cryptosporidium oocysts is associated with production of protective antibodies. We investigated prevalence of antibodies against the 27-kDa Cryptosporidium oocyst antigen among blood donors in 2 areas of Scotland supplied by drinking water from different sources with different filtration standards: Glasgow (not filtered) and Dundee (filtered). During 2006–2009, seroprevalence and risk factor data were collected; this period includes 2007, when enhanced filtration was introduced to the Glasgow supply. A serologic response to the 27-kDa antigen was found for ≈75% of donors in the 2 cohorts combined. Mixed regression modeling indicated a 32% step-change reduction in seroprevalence of antibodies against Cryptosporidium among persons in the Glasgow area, which was associated with introduction of enhanced filtration treatment. Removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water reduces the risk for waterborne exposure, sporadic infections, and outbreaks. Paradoxically, however, oocyst removal might lower immunity and increase the risk for infection from other sources.

EID Ramsay CN, Wagner AP, Robertson C, Smith HV, Pollock K. Effects of Drinking-Water Filtration on Cryptosporidium Seroepidemiology, Scotland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):71-78. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.120386
AMA Ramsay CN, Wagner AP, Robertson C, et al. Effects of Drinking-Water Filtration on Cryptosporidium Seroepidemiology, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):71-78. doi:10.3201/eid2001.120386.
APA Ramsay, C. N., Wagner, A. P., Robertson, C., Smith, H. V., & Pollock, K. (2014). Effects of Drinking-Water Filtration on Cryptosporidium Seroepidemiology, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 71-78. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.120386.

Dynamic Modeling of Cost-effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination, Kazakhstan [PDF - 501 KB - 9 pages]
B. Freiesleben de Blasio et al.

The government of Kazakhstan, a middle-income country in Central Asia, is considering the introduction of rotavirus vaccination into its national immunization program. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination spanning 20 years by using a synthesis of dynamic transmission models accounting for herd protection. We found that a vaccination program with 90% coverage would prevent ≈880 rotavirus deaths and save an average of 54,784 life-years for children <5 years of age. Indirect protection accounted for 40% and 60% reduction in severe and mild rotavirus gastroenteritis, respectively. Cost per life year gained was US $18,044 from a societal perspective and US $23,892 from a health care perspective. Comparing the 2 key parameters of cost-effectiveness, mortality rates and vaccine cost at <US $2.78 per dose, vaccination program costs would be entirely offset. To further evaluate efficacy of a vaccine program, benefits of indirect protection conferred by vaccination warrant further study.

EID Freiesleben de Blasio B, Flem E, Latipov R, Kuatbaeva A, Kristiansen I. Dynamic Modeling of Cost-effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination, Kazakhstan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):29-37. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130019
AMA Freiesleben de Blasio B, Flem E, Latipov R, et al. Dynamic Modeling of Cost-effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination, Kazakhstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):29-37. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130019.
APA Freiesleben de Blasio, B., Flem, E., Latipov, R., Kuatbaeva, A., & Kristiansen, I. (2014). Dynamic Modeling of Cost-effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination, Kazakhstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 29-37. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130019.

Use of Electronic Death Certificates for Influenza Death Surveillance [PDF - 381 KB - 5 pages]
E. A. Bancroft and S. Lee

Surveillance for influenza deaths has been used to gauge the severity of influenza seasons. Traditional surveillance, which relies on medical records review and laboratory testing, might not be sustainable during a pandemic. We examined whether electronic death certificates might provide a surveillance alternative. We compared information retrieved from electronic death certificates that listed influenza (or a synonym) with information retrieved from medical charts on which influenza deaths were reported by traditional means in Los Angeles County, California, USA, during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic and 2 subsequent influenza seasons. Electronic death certificate surveillance provided timely information, matched the demographics and epidemiologic curve of that obtained from traditional influenza-related death surveillance, and had a moderately positive predictive value. However, risk factors were underreported on death certificates. Because surveillance by electronic death certificates does not require obtaining and reviewing medical records, it requires fewer resources and is less burdensome on public health staff.

EID Bancroft EA, Lee S. Use of Electronic Death Certificates for Influenza Death Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):78-82. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130471
AMA Bancroft EA, Lee S. Use of Electronic Death Certificates for Influenza Death Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):78-82. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130471.
APA Bancroft, E. A., & Lee, S. (2014). Use of Electronic Death Certificates for Influenza Death Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 78-82. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130471.

Genetic Variation of Vibrio cholerae during Outbreaks, Bangladesh, 2010–2011 [PDF - 488 KB - 7 pages]
S. M. Rashed et al.

Cholera remains a major public health problem. To compare the relative contribution of strains from the environment with strains isolated from patients during outbreaks, we performed multilocus variable tandem repeat analyses on samples collected during the 2010 and 2011 outbreak seasons in 2 geographically distinct areas of Bangladesh. A total of 222 environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae O1 were systematically collected from Chhatak and Mathbaria. In Chhatak, 75 of 79 isolates were from the same clonal complex, in which extensive differentiation was found in a temporally consistent pattern of successive mutations at single loci. A total of 59 isolates were collected from 6 persons; most isolates from 1 person differed by sequential single-locus mutations. In Mathbaria, 60 of 84 isolates represented 2 separate clonal complexes. The small number of genetic lineages in isolates from patients, compared with those from the environment, is consistent with accelerated transmission of some strains among humans during an outbreak.

EID Rashed SM, Azman AS, Alam M, Li S, Sack DA, Morris J, et al. Genetic Variation of Vibrio cholerae during Outbreaks, Bangladesh, 2010–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):54-60. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130796
AMA Rashed SM, Azman AS, Alam M, et al. Genetic Variation of Vibrio cholerae during Outbreaks, Bangladesh, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):54-60. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130796.
APA Rashed, S. M., Azman, A. S., Alam, M., Li, S., Sack, D. A., Morris, J....Stine, O. (2014). Genetic Variation of Vibrio cholerae during Outbreaks, Bangladesh, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 54-60. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130796.

Genomic Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 Associated with Floods, Pakistan, 2010 [PDF - 545 KB - 8 pages]
M. Shah et al.

In August 2010, Pakistan experienced major floods and a subsequent cholera epidemic. To clarify the population dynamics and transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Pakistan, we sequenced the genomes of all V. cholerae O1 El Tor isolates and compared the sequences to a global collection of 146 V. cholerae strains. Within the global phylogeny, all isolates from Pakistan formed 2 new subclades (PSC-1 and PSC-2), lying in the third transmission wave of the seventh-pandemic lineage that could be distinguished by signature deletions and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Geographically, PSC-1 isolates originated from the coast, whereas PSC-2 isolates originated from inland areas flooded by the Indus River. Single-nucleotide polymorphism accumulation analysis correlated river flow direction with the spread of PSC-2. We found at least 2 sources of cholera in Pakistan during the 2010 epidemic and illustrate the value of a global genomic data bank in contextualizing cholera outbreaks.

EID Shah M, Mutreja A, Thomson N, Baker S, Parkhill J, Dougan G, et al. Genomic Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 Associated with Floods, Pakistan, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):13-20. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130428
AMA Shah M, Mutreja A, Thomson N, et al. Genomic Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 Associated with Floods, Pakistan, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):13-20. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130428.
APA Shah, M., Mutreja, A., Thomson, N., Baker, S., Parkhill, J., Dougan, G....Wren, B. W. (2014). Genomic Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 Associated with Floods, Pakistan, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 13-20. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130428.

Human Parechovirus Infection, Denmark [PDF - 335 KB - 5 pages]
T. K. Fischer et al.

Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) often cause severe illness among young children. National surveillance with routine testing of all cerebrospinal fluid, fecal, and tissue samples was conducted during January 2009–December 2012 in all counties in Denmark (6,817 samples from 4,804 children were screened for HPeV). We detected HPeV RNA in 202 (3.0%) specimens from 149 persons. Young infants were at highest risk for HPeV, and 9 (6%) of the HPeV-infected children died, probably of their HPeV illness. HPeV3 was the most common genotype identified, and 5 closely related clades of HPeV3 circulated in Denmark throughout the study period. Our study adds perspective on the prevalence and clinical and molecular virologic characteristics of HPeV infection.

EID Fischer TK, Midgley S, Dalgaard C, Nielsen AY. Human Parechovirus Infection, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):83-87. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130569
AMA Fischer TK, Midgley S, Dalgaard C, et al. Human Parechovirus Infection, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):83-87. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130569.
APA Fischer, T. K., Midgley, S., Dalgaard, C., & Nielsen, A. Y. (2014). Human Parechovirus Infection, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 83-87. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130569.

Progenitor “Mycobacterium canettii” Clone Responsible for Lymph Node Tuberculosis Epidemic, Djibouti [PDF - 492 KB - 8 pages]
Y. Blouin et al.

Mycobacterium canettii,” an opportunistic human pathogen living in an unknown environmental reservoir, is the progenitor species from which Mycobacterium tuberculosis emerged. Since its discovery in 1969, most of the ≈70 known M. canettii strains were isolated in the Republic of Djibouti, frequently from expatriate children and adults. We show here, by whole-genome sequencing, that most strains collected from February 2010 through March 2013, and associated with 2 outbreaks of lymph node tuberculosis in children, belong to a unique epidemic clone within M. canettii. Evolution of this clone, which has been recovered regularly since 1983, may mimic the birth of M. tuberculosis. Thus, recognizing this organism and identifying its reservoir are clinically important.

EID Blouin Y, Cazajous G, Dehan C, Soler C, Vong R, Hassan M, et al. Progenitor “Mycobacterium canettii” Clone Responsible for Lymph Node Tuberculosis Epidemic, Djibouti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):21-28. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130652
AMA Blouin Y, Cazajous G, Dehan C, et al. Progenitor “Mycobacterium canettii” Clone Responsible for Lymph Node Tuberculosis Epidemic, Djibouti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):21-28. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130652.
APA Blouin, Y., Cazajous, G., Dehan, C., Soler, C., Vong, R., Hassan, M....Vergnaud, G. (2014). Progenitor “Mycobacterium canettii” Clone Responsible for Lymph Node Tuberculosis Epidemic, Djibouti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 21-28. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130652.
Dispatches

Rapidly Fatal Hemorrhagic Pneumonia and Group A Streptococcus Serotype M1 [PDF - 411 KB - 4 pages]
M. Santagati et al.

We report 3 cases of fulminant hemorrhagic pneumonia in previously health patients. Sudden-onset hemoptysis and dyspnea developed; all 3 patients and died <12 h later of massive pulmonary bleeding, despite aggressive supportive care. Postmortem analysis showed that the illnesses were caused by group A Streptococcus emm1/sequence type 28 strains.

EID Santagati M, Spanu T, Scillato M, Santangelo R, Cavallaro F, Arena V, et al. Rapidly Fatal Hemorrhagic Pneumonia and Group A Streptococcus Serotype M1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):98-101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130233
AMA Santagati M, Spanu T, Scillato M, et al. Rapidly Fatal Hemorrhagic Pneumonia and Group A Streptococcus Serotype M1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):98-101. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130233.
APA Santagati, M., Spanu, T., Scillato, M., Santangelo, R., Cavallaro, F., Arena, V....Stefani, S. (2014). Rapidly Fatal Hemorrhagic Pneumonia and Group A Streptococcus Serotype M1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 98-101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130233.

Mother-to-Child Transmission of Congenital Chagas Disease, Japan [PDF - 321 KB - 3 pages]
K. Imai et al.

We report a patient with congenital Chagas disease in Japan. This report reemphasizes the role of neglected and emerging tropical diseases in the era of globalization. It also indicates the need for increased vigilance for detecting Chagas disease in non–disease-endemic countries.

EID Imai K, Maeda T, Sayama Y, Mikita K, Fujikura Y, Misawa K, et al. Mother-to-Child Transmission of Congenital Chagas Disease, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):146-148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131071
AMA Imai K, Maeda T, Sayama Y, et al. Mother-to-Child Transmission of Congenital Chagas Disease, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):146-148. doi:10.3201/eid2001.131071.
APA Imai, K., Maeda, T., Sayama, Y., Mikita, K., Fujikura, Y., Misawa, K....Miura, S. (2014). Mother-to-Child Transmission of Congenital Chagas Disease, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 146-148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131071.

Contact Tracing for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus–infected Passenger on International Flight [PDF - 321 KB - 3 pages]
A. G. Shankar et al.

In April 2009, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection was confirmed in a person who had been symptomatic while traveling on a commercial flight from Mexico to the United Kingdom. Retrospective public health investigation and contact tracing led to the identification of 8 additional confirmed cases among passengers and community contacts of passengers.

EID Shankar AG, Janmohamed K, Olowokure B, Smith GE, Hogan AH, De Souza V, et al. Contact Tracing for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus–infected Passenger on International Flight. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):118-120. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.120101
AMA Shankar AG, Janmohamed K, Olowokure B, et al. Contact Tracing for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus–infected Passenger on International Flight. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):118-120. doi:10.3201/eid2001.120101.
APA Shankar, A. G., Janmohamed, K., Olowokure, B., Smith, G. E., Hogan, A. H., De Souza, V....Ibbotson, S. (2014). Contact Tracing for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus–infected Passenger on International Flight. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 118-120. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.120101.

Resolution of Novel Human Papillomavirus–induced Warts after HPV Vaccination [PDF - 366 KB - 4 pages]
S. Silling et al.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) XS2 was isolated from warts on an immunosuppressed patient. After HPV vaccination, the warts resolved. HPVXS2 was also found in warts and normal skin of HIV-positive patients and rarely in HIV-negative controls. Further studies should elucidate the mechanisms that lead to wart clearance.

EID Silling S, Wieland U, Werner M, Pfister H, Potthoff A, Kreuter A. Resolution of Novel Human Papillomavirus–induced Warts after HPV Vaccination. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):142-145. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130999
AMA Silling S, Wieland U, Werner M, et al. Resolution of Novel Human Papillomavirus–induced Warts after HPV Vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):142-145. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130999.
APA Silling, S., Wieland, U., Werner, M., Pfister, H., Potthoff, A., & Kreuter, A. (2014). Resolution of Novel Human Papillomavirus–induced Warts after HPV Vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 142-145. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130999.

Avian Hepatitis E Virus in Chickens, Taiwan, 2013 [PDF - 807 KB - 3 pages]
I. Hsu and H. Tsai

A previously unidentified strain of avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) is now endemic among chickens in Taiwan. Analysis showed that the virus is 81.5%–86.5% similar to other aHEVs. In Taiwan, aHEV infection has been reported in chickens without aHEV exposure, suggesting transmission from asymptomatic cases or repeated introduction through an unknown common source(s).

EID Hsu I, Tsai H. Avian Hepatitis E Virus in Chickens, Taiwan, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):149-151. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131224
AMA Hsu I, Tsai H. Avian Hepatitis E Virus in Chickens, Taiwan, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):149-151. doi:10.3201/eid2001.131224.
APA Hsu, I., & Tsai, H. (2014). Avian Hepatitis E Virus in Chickens, Taiwan, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 149-151. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131224.

Dobrava-Belgrade Virus in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis Mice, Turkey [PDF - 497 KB - 5 pages]
I. Oktem et al.

In 2009, human Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) infections were reported on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Serologic and molecular studies of potential rodent reservoirs demonstrated DOBV infections in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis mice. Phylogenetic analysis of DOBV strains showed their similarity to A. flavicollis mice–borne DOBV in Greece, Slovenia, and Slovakia.

EID Oktem I, Uyar Y, Dincer E, Gozalan A, Schlegel M, Babur C, et al. Dobrava-Belgrade Virus in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis Mice, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):121-125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.121024
AMA Oktem I, Uyar Y, Dincer E, et al. Dobrava-Belgrade Virus in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis Mice, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):121-125. doi:10.3201/eid2001.121024.
APA Oktem, I., Uyar, Y., Dincer, E., Gozalan, A., Schlegel, M., Babur, C....Ozkul, A. (2014). Dobrava-Belgrade Virus in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis Mice, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 121-125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.121024.

Increasing Threat of Brucellosis to Low-Risk Persons in Urban Settings, China [PDF - 594 KB - 5 pages]
S. Chen et al.

Cases of brucellosis were diagnosed in 3-month-old twins and their mother. An epidemiologic survey suggested that raw sheep or goat meat might be the source of Brucella melitensis infection. This finding implies that the increasing threat of brucellosis might affect low-risk persons in urban settings in China.

EID Chen S, Zhang H, Liu X, Wang W, Hou S, Li T, et al. Increasing Threat of Brucellosis to Low-Risk Persons in Urban Settings, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):126-130. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130324
AMA Chen S, Zhang H, Liu X, et al. Increasing Threat of Brucellosis to Low-Risk Persons in Urban Settings, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):126-130. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130324.
APA Chen, S., Zhang, H., Liu, X., Wang, W., Hou, S., Li, T....Li, C. (2014). Increasing Threat of Brucellosis to Low-Risk Persons in Urban Settings, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 126-130. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130324.

Detection of Infectivity in Blood of Persons with Variant and Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease [PDF - 378 KB - 4 pages]
J. Douet et al.

We report the presence of infectivity in erythrocytes, leukocytes, and plasma of 1 person with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in the plasma of 2 in 4 persons whose tests were positive for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The measured infectivity levels were comparable to those reported in various animals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

EID Douet J, Zafar S, Perret-Liaudet A, Lacroux C, Lugan S, Aron N, et al. Detection of Infectivity in Blood of Persons with Variant and Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):114-117. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130353
AMA Douet J, Zafar S, Perret-Liaudet A, et al. Detection of Infectivity in Blood of Persons with Variant and Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):114-117. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130353.
APA Douet, J., Zafar, S., Perret-Liaudet, A., Lacroux, C., Lugan, S., Aron, N....Andreoletti, O. (2014). Detection of Infectivity in Blood of Persons with Variant and Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 114-117. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130353.

Schmallenberg Virus Infection among Red Deer, France, 2010–2012 [PDF - 575 KB - 4 pages]
E. Laloy et al.

Schmallenberg virus infection is emerging in European domestic and wild ruminants. We investigated the serologic status of 9 red deer populations to describe virus spread from September 2010 through March 2012 among wildlife in France. Deer in 7 populations exhibited seropositivity, with an average seroprevalence of 20%.

EID Laloy E, Bréard E, Sailleau C, Viarouge C, Desprat A, Zientara S, et al. Schmallenberg Virus Infection among Red Deer, France, 2010–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):131-134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130411
AMA Laloy E, Bréard E, Sailleau C, et al. Schmallenberg Virus Infection among Red Deer, France, 2010–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):131-134. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130411.
APA Laloy, E., Bréard, E., Sailleau, C., Viarouge, C., Desprat, A., Zientara, S....Rossi, S. (2014). Schmallenberg Virus Infection among Red Deer, France, 2010–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 131-134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130411.

Pathogenic Pseudorabies Virus, China, 2012 [PDF - 350 KB - 3 pages]
X. Yu et al.

In 2012, an unprecedented large-scale outbreak of disease in pigs in China caused great economic losses to the swine industry. Isolates from pseudorabies virus epidemics in swine herds were characterized. Evidence confirmed that the pathogenic pseudorabies virus was the etiologic agent of this epidemic.

EID Yu X, Zhou Z, Hu D, Zhang Q, Han T, Li X, et al. Pathogenic Pseudorabies Virus, China, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):102-104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130531
AMA Yu X, Zhou Z, Hu D, et al. Pathogenic Pseudorabies Virus, China, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):102-104. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130531.
APA Yu, X., Zhou, Z., Hu, D., Zhang, Q., Han, T., Li, X....Tian, K. (2014). Pathogenic Pseudorabies Virus, China, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 102-104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130531.

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in High-Risk Groups, Zimbabwe [PDF - 302 KB - 3 pages]
J. Z. Metcalfe et al.

To estimate prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in Harare, Zimbabwe, in 2012, we performed microbiologic testing on acid-fast bacilli smear-positive sputum samples from patients previously treated for TB. Twenty (24%) of 84 specimens were consistent with MDR TB. A national drug-resistance survey is needed to determine MDR TB prevalence in Zimbabwe.

EID Metcalfe JZ, Makumbirofa S, Makamure B, Sandy C, Bara W, Mungofa S, et al. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in High-Risk Groups, Zimbabwe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):135-137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130732
AMA Metcalfe JZ, Makumbirofa S, Makamure B, et al. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in High-Risk Groups, Zimbabwe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):135-137. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130732.
APA Metcalfe, J. Z., Makumbirofa, S., Makamure, B., Sandy, C., Bara, W., Mungofa, S....Mason, P. (2014). Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in High-Risk Groups, Zimbabwe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 135-137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130732.

Novel Avian Coronavirus and Fulminating Disease in Guinea Fowl, France [PDF - 511 KB - 4 pages]
E. Liais et al.

For decades, French guinea fowl have been affected by fulminating enteritis of unclear origin. By using metagenomics, we identified a novel avian gammacoronavirus associated with this disease that is distantly related to turkey coronaviruses. Fatal respiratory diseases in humans have recently been caused by coronaviruses of animal origin.

EID Liais E, Croville G, Mariette J, Delverdier M, Lucas M, Klopp C, et al. Novel Avian Coronavirus and Fulminating Disease in Guinea Fowl, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):105-108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130774
AMA Liais E, Croville G, Mariette J, et al. Novel Avian Coronavirus and Fulminating Disease in Guinea Fowl, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):105-108. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130774.
APA Liais, E., Croville, G., Mariette, J., Delverdier, M., Lucas, M., Klopp, C....Guérin, J. (2014). Novel Avian Coronavirus and Fulminating Disease in Guinea Fowl, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 105-108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130774.

Fatal Metacestode Infection in Bornean Orangutan Caused by Unknown Versteria Species [PDF - 550 KB - 5 pages]
T. L. Goldberg et al.

A captive juvenile Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) died from an unknown disseminated parasitic infection. Deep sequencing of DNA from infected tissues, followed by gene-specific PCR and sequencing, revealed a divergent species within the newly proposed genus Versteria (Cestoda: Taeniidae). Versteria may represent a previously unrecognized risk to primate health.

EID Goldberg TL, Gendron-Fitzpatrick A, Deering KM, Wallace RS, Clyde VL, Lauck M, et al. Fatal Metacestode Infection in Bornean Orangutan Caused by Unknown Versteria Species. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):109-113. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131191
AMA Goldberg TL, Gendron-Fitzpatrick A, Deering KM, et al. Fatal Metacestode Infection in Bornean Orangutan Caused by Unknown Versteria Species. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):109-113. doi:10.3201/eid2001.131191.
APA Goldberg, T. L., Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A., Deering, K. M., Wallace, R. S., Clyde, V. L., Lauck, M....O’Connor, D. H. (2014). Fatal Metacestode Infection in Bornean Orangutan Caused by Unknown Versteria Species. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 109-113. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131191.

Epidemiology of Influenza A Virus among Black-headed Gulls, the Netherlands, 2006–2010 [PDF - 492 KB - 4 pages]
J. H. Verhagen et al.

We sampled 7,511 black-headed gulls for influenza virus in the Netherlands during 2006–2010 and found that subtypes H13 and H16 caused annual epidemics in fledglings on colony sites. Our findings validate targeted surveillance of wild waterbirds and clarify underlying factors for influenza virus emergence in other species.

EID Verhagen JH, Majoor F, Lexmond P, Vuong O, Kasemir G, Lutterop D, et al. Epidemiology of Influenza A Virus among Black-headed Gulls, the Netherlands, 2006–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):138-141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130984
AMA Verhagen JH, Majoor F, Lexmond P, et al. Epidemiology of Influenza A Virus among Black-headed Gulls, the Netherlands, 2006–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):138-141. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130984.
APA Verhagen, J. H., Majoor, F., Lexmond, P., Vuong, O., Kasemir, G., Lutterop, D....Kuiken, T. (2014). Epidemiology of Influenza A Virus among Black-headed Gulls, the Netherlands, 2006–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 138-141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130984.
Letters

Co-Production of NDM-1 and OXA-232 by Klebsiella pneumoniae [PDF - 258 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Doi et al.
EID Doi Y, O’Hara JA, Lando JF, Querry AM, Townsend BM, Pasculle AW, et al. Co-Production of NDM-1 and OXA-232 by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):163-165. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130904
AMA Doi Y, O’Hara JA, Lando JF, et al. Co-Production of NDM-1 and OXA-232 by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):163-165. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130904.
APA Doi, Y., O’Hara, J. A., Lando, J. F., Querry, A. M., Townsend, B. M., Pasculle, A. W....Muto, C. A. (2014). Co-Production of NDM-1 and OXA-232 by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 163-165. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130904.

Salmonellosis and Meat Purchased at Live-Bird and Animal-Slaughter Markets, United States, 2007–2012 [PDF - 337 KB - 3 pages]
M. Imanishi et al.
EID Imanishi M, Anderson TC, Routh J, Brown C, Conidi G, Glenn L, et al. Salmonellosis and Meat Purchased at Live-Bird and Animal-Slaughter Markets, United States, 2007–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):167-169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131179
AMA Imanishi M, Anderson TC, Routh J, et al. Salmonellosis and Meat Purchased at Live-Bird and Animal-Slaughter Markets, United States, 2007–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):167-169. doi:10.3201/eid2001.131179.
APA Imanishi, M., Anderson, T. C., Routh, J., Brown, C., Conidi, G., Glenn, L....Bosch, S. (2014). Salmonellosis and Meat Purchased at Live-Bird and Animal-Slaughter Markets, United States, 2007–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 167-169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131179.

Foodborne Trematodiasis and Opisthorchis felineus Acquired in Italy [PDF - 353 KB - 2 pages]
H. F. Wunderink et al.
EID Wunderink HF, Rozemeijer W, Wever PC, Verweij JJ, van Lieshout L. Foodborne Trematodiasis and Opisthorchis felineus Acquired in Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):154-155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130476
AMA Wunderink HF, Rozemeijer W, Wever PC, et al. Foodborne Trematodiasis and Opisthorchis felineus Acquired in Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):154-155. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130476.
APA Wunderink, H. F., Rozemeijer, W., Wever, P. C., Verweij, J. J., & van Lieshout, L. (2014). Foodborne Trematodiasis and Opisthorchis felineus Acquired in Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 154-155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130476.

Bat Lyssaviruses, Northern Vietnam [PDF - 296 KB - 3 pages]
A. Nguyen et al.
EID Nguyen A, Nguyen T, Noguchi A, Nguyen D, Ngo GC, Thong V, et al. Bat Lyssaviruses, Northern Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):161-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130813
AMA Nguyen A, Nguyen T, Noguchi A, et al. Bat Lyssaviruses, Northern Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):161-163. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130813.
APA Nguyen, A., Nguyen, T., Noguchi, A., Nguyen, D., Ngo, G. C., Thong, V....Inoue, S. (2014). Bat Lyssaviruses, Northern Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 161-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130813.

Endemicity of Opisthorchis viverrini Liver Flukes, Vietnam, 2011–2012 [PDF - 359 KB - 3 pages]
J. Waikagul et al.
EID Waikagul J, Thanh B, Vo D, Nguyen D, Murrell K. Endemicity of Opisthorchis viverrini Liver Flukes, Vietnam, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):152-154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130168
AMA Waikagul J, Thanh B, Vo D, et al. Endemicity of Opisthorchis viverrini Liver Flukes, Vietnam, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):152-154. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130168.
APA Waikagul, J., Thanh, B., Vo, D., Nguyen, D., & Murrell, K. (2014). Endemicity of Opisthorchis viverrini Liver Flukes, Vietnam, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 152-154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130168.

Tour Leaders’ Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Rabies Vaccination, Taiwan [PDF - 283 KB - 3 pages]
C. Huang et al.
EID Huang C, Huang H, Cheng S, Lu C, Lee L, Chiu T, et al. Tour Leaders’ Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Rabies Vaccination, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):157-159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130673
AMA Huang C, Huang H, Cheng S, et al. Tour Leaders’ Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Rabies Vaccination, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):157-159. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130673.
APA Huang, C., Huang, H., Cheng, S., Lu, C., Lee, L., Chiu, T....Huang, K. (2014). Tour Leaders’ Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Rabies Vaccination, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 157-159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130673.

Corynebacterium ulcerans in Ferrets [PDF - 287 KB - 3 pages]
R. P. Marini et al.
EID Marini RP, Cassiday PK, Venezia J, Shen Z, Buckley EM, Peters Y, et al. Corynebacterium ulcerans in Ferrets. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):159-161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130675
AMA Marini RP, Cassiday PK, Venezia J, et al. Corynebacterium ulcerans in Ferrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):159-161. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130675.
APA Marini, R. P., Cassiday, P. K., Venezia, J., Shen, Z., Buckley, E. M., Peters, Y....Fox, J. G. (2014). Corynebacterium ulcerans in Ferrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 159-161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130675.

Ground Beef Recall Associated with Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, United States [PDF - 310 KB - 3 pages]
A. Robbins et al.
EID Robbins A, Anand M, Nicholas DC, Egan JS, Musser KA, Giguere S, et al. Ground Beef Recall Associated with Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):165-167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130915
AMA Robbins A, Anand M, Nicholas DC, et al. Ground Beef Recall Associated with Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):165-167. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130915.
APA Robbins, A., Anand, M., Nicholas, D. C., Egan, J. S., Musser, K. A., Giguere, S....Kissler, B. W. (2014). Ground Beef Recall Associated with Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 165-167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130915.

MLB1 Astrovirus in Children with Gastroenteritis, Italy [PDF - 315 KB - 2 pages]
M. Medici et al.
EID Medici M, Tummolo F, Calderaro A, Elia G, Banyai K, De Conto F, et al. MLB1 Astrovirus in Children with Gastroenteritis, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):169-170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131259
AMA Medici M, Tummolo F, Calderaro A, et al. MLB1 Astrovirus in Children with Gastroenteritis, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):169-170. doi:10.3201/eid2001.131259.
APA Medici, M., Tummolo, F., Calderaro, A., Elia, G., Banyai, K., De Conto, F....Martella, V. (2014). MLB1 Astrovirus in Children with Gastroenteritis, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 169-170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131259.

Indigenous Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 Infection, Uruguay [PDF - 407 KB - 3 pages]
S. Mirazo et al.
EID Mirazo S, Mainardi V, Ramos N, Gerona S, Rocca A, Arbiza J. Indigenous Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 Infection, Uruguay. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):171-173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131471
AMA Mirazo S, Mainardi V, Ramos N, et al. Indigenous Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 Infection, Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):171-173. doi:10.3201/eid2001.131471.
APA Mirazo, S., Mainardi, V., Ramos, N., Gerona, S., Rocca, A., & Arbiza, J. (2014). Indigenous Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 Infection, Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 171-173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131471.

Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, Denmark, 2012 [PDF - 311 KB - 2 pages]
S. Midgley et al.
EID Midgley S, Vestergaard H, Dalgaard C, Enggaard L, Fischer T. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, Denmark, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):156-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130600
AMA Midgley S, Vestergaard H, Dalgaard C, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, Denmark, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):156-157. doi:10.3201/eid2001.130600.
APA Midgley, S., Vestergaard, H., Dalgaard, C., Enggaard, L., & Fischer, T. (2014). Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, Denmark, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 156-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130600.
Books and Media

Prions: Current Progress in Advanced Research [PDF - 194 KB - 1 page]
R. A. Maddox
EID Maddox RA. Prions: Current Progress in Advanced Research. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131361
AMA Maddox RA. Prions: Current Progress in Advanced Research. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):174. doi:10.3201/eid2001.131361.
APA Maddox, R. A. (2014). Prions: Current Progress in Advanced Research. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 174. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.131361.
About the Cover

Still Life with Parrots
Etymologia

Etymologia: Opisthorchis [PDF - 221 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Opisthorchis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.et2001
AMA Etymologia: Opisthorchis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(1):153. doi:10.3201/eid2001.et2001.
APA (2014). Etymologia: Opisthorchis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.et2001.
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Page updated: January 31, 2014
Page reviewed: January 31, 2014
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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