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Volume 20, Number 5—May 2014

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

Thomas J. O’SheaComments to Author , Paul M. Cryan, Andrew A. Cunningham, Anthony R. Fooks, David T.S. Hayman, Angela D. Luis, Alison J. Peel, Raina K. Plowright, and James L.N. Wood
Author affiliations: US Geological Survey, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (T.J. O’Shea, P.M. Cryan); Zoological Society of London, London, UK (A.A. Cunningham); Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency—Weybridge, Weybridge, UK (A.R. Fooks); National Consortium for Zoonosis Research, South Wirral, UK (A.R. Fooks); Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (D.T.S. Hayman, A.D. Luis); University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA (D.T.S. Hayman); Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA (A.D. Luis); University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK (A.J. Peel, J.L.N. Wood); Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (A.J. Peel); Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA (R.K. Plowright)

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Table 2

Favorable innate and adaptive immune responses associated with the high body temperature of fever in mammals*

Enhanced neutrophil and monocyte motility and emigration
Enhanced phagocytosis and pinocytosis
Increased oxygen radical production by phagocytes
Increased interferon production
Increased antiviral, antitumor, or antiproliferative, and natural killer cell stimulating activities of interferon
Potentiated interferon-induced anti-anaphylaxis (anergy)
Enhanced natural killer complement activation
Enhanced expression of Fc receptors
Increased T-helper cell activation, expression, recruitment, and cytotoxic activity
Blocked T-suppressor cell activity
Increased antibody production
Enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α
Increased T-cell proliferative response to nonspecific mitogens, interleukin-1 and −2, and allogeneic lymphocytes
Increased killing of intracellular bacteria
Increased bactericidal effect of antimicrobial agents
Induced cytoprotective heat-shock proteins in host cells
Induced pathogen heat-shock proteins, which activate host defenses
Induced cytoprotective heat-shock proteins in host cells

*See reviews in (14,15).

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