Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014

Shelter Dogs as Sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission across Texas

Trevor D. Tenney, Rachel Curtis-Robles, Karen F. Snowden, and Sarah A. HamerComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA

Main Article


Locations of canine shelters within Texas, United States, 2013. Shelters (A–G) are distributed across 7 of the 10 Gould Ecoregions of Texas (9), Map obtained from Texas parks and Wildlife Department (

Figure. Locations of canine shelters within Texas, United States, 2013Shelters (A–G) are distributed across 7 of the 10 Gould Ecoregions of Texas (9), Map obtained from Texas parks and Wildlife Department (

Main Article

  1. Bern  C, Montgomery  SP. An estimate of the burden of Chagas disease in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:e524. DOIPubMed
  2. Hanford  EJ, Zhan  FB, Lu  YM, Giordano  A. Chagas disease in Texas: recognizing the significance and implications of evidence in the literature. Soc Sci Med. 2007;65:6079. DOIPubMed
  3. Cantey  PT, Stramer  SL, Townsend  RL, Kamel  H, Ofafa  K, Todd  CW, The United States Trypanosoma cruzi infection study: evidence for vector-borne transmission of the parasite that causes Chagas disease among United States blood donors. Transfusion. 2012;52:192230. DOIPubMed
  4. Bern  C, Kjos  S, Yabsley  MJ, Montgomery  SP. Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas’ disease in the United States. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:65581. DOIPubMed
  5. Barr  SC. Canine Chagas' disease (American Trypanosomiasis) in North America. Vet Clin N Am-Small. 2009 Nov;39(6):1055–64.
  6. Rassi  A, Rassi  A, Marin-Neto  JA. Chagas disease. Lancet. 2010;375:1388402. DOIPubMed
  7. Kjos  SA, Snowden  KF, Olson  JK. Biogeography and Trypanosoma cruzi infection prevalence of Chagas disease vectors in Texas, USA. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:4150 . DOIPubMed
  8. Gould  FW, Hoffman  GO, Rechenthin  CA. Vegetational areas of Texas; 1960. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M University (Texas). Leaflet no. 492.
  9. Nieto  PD, Boughton  R, Dorn  PL, Steurer  F, Raychaudhuri  S, Esfandiari  J, Comparison of two immunochromatographic assays and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test for diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs in south central Louisiana. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:2417. DOIPubMed
  10. Luquetti  AO, Ponce  C, Ponce  E, Esfandiari  J, Schijman  A, Revollo  S, Chagas’ disease diagnosis: a multicentric evaluation of Chagas Stat-Pak, a rapid immunochromatographic assay with recombinant proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;46:26571. DOIPubMed
  11. Duffy  T, Cura  CI, Ramirez  JC, Abate  T, Cayo  NM, Parrado  R, Analytical performance of a multiplex real-time PCR assay using TaqMan probes for quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA in blood samples. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:•••. DOIPubMed
  12. Virreira  M, Torrico  F, Truyens  C, Alonso-Vega  C, Solano  M, Carlier  Y, Comparison of polymerase chain reaction methods for reliable and easy detection of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:57482 .PubMed
  13. Beard  CB, Pye  G, Steurer  FJ, Rodriguez  R, Campman  R, Peterson  AT, Chagas disease in a domestic transmission cycle, southern Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1035. DOIPubMed
  14. Estrada-Franco  JG, Bhatia  V, Diaz-Albiter  H, Ochoa-Garcia  L, Barbabosa  A, Vazquez-Chagoyan  JC, Human Trypanosoma cruzi infection and seropositivity in dogs, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:62430. DOIPubMed
  15. Ramírez  JD, Turriago  B, Tapia-Calle  G, Guhl  F. Understanding the role of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in the transmission dynamics of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in Colombia. Vet Parasitol. 2013;196:2169. DOIPubMed
  16. Amusategui  I, Tesouro  MA, Kakoma  I, Sainz  A. Serological reactivity to Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Neorickettsia risticii, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii in dogs from northwestern Spain. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:797804. DOIPubMed

Main Article

Page created: July 18, 2014
Page updated: July 18, 2014
Page reviewed: July 18, 2014
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.