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Issue Cover for Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014

Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014

[PDF - 7.58 MB - 167 pages]

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Leptospirosis-Associated Hospitalizations, United States, 1998–2009 [PDF - 394 KB - 7 pages]
R. M. Traxler et al.

A small percentage of persons with leptospirosis, a reemerging zoonosis, experience severe complications that require hospitalization. The number of leptospirosis cases in the United States is unknown. Thus, to estimate the hospitalization rate for this disease, we analyzed US hospital discharge records for 1998–2009 for the total US population by using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. During that time, the average annual rate of leptospirosis-associated hospitalizations was 0.6 hospitalizations/1,000,000 population. Leptospirosis-associated hospitalization rates were higher for persons >20 years of age and for male patients. For leptospirosis-associated hospitalizations, the average age of patients at admission was lower, the average length of stay for patients was longer, and hospital charges were higher than those for nonleptospirosis infectious disease–associated hospitalizations. Educating clinicians on the signs and symptoms of leptospirosis may result in earlier diagnosis and treatment and, thereby, reduced disease severity and hospitalization costs.

EID Traxler RM, Callinan LS, Holman RC, Steiner C, Guerra MA. Leptospirosis-Associated Hospitalizations, United States, 1998–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1273-1279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130450
AMA Traxler RM, Callinan LS, Holman RC, et al. Leptospirosis-Associated Hospitalizations, United States, 1998–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1273-1279. doi:10.3201/eid2008.130450.
APA Traxler, R. M., Callinan, L. S., Holman, R. C., Steiner, C., & Guerra, M. A. (2014). Leptospirosis-Associated Hospitalizations, United States, 1998–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1273-1279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130450.
Research

Global and Local Persistence of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus [PDF - 635 KB - 9 pages]
X. Li et al.

An understanding of the global migration dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus is helpful for surveillance and disease prevention. To characterize the migration network of this virus, we used genetic analysis, which supported a global persistence model in which each of 9 regions acts to some extent as a source. Siberia is the major hub for the dispersal of the virus. Southeast Asia and Africa are major sources of genetically and antigenically novel strains. We found evidence of local persistence of the virus in Southeast Asia and Africa, which is rare for human influenza A viruses. The differences in migration dynamics between avian and human influenza viruses might help with the design of region-specific surveillance efforts and the selection of vaccine candidates.

EID Li X, Zhang Z, Yu A, Ho S, Carr MJ, Zheng W, et al. Global and Local Persistence of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1287-1295. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130910
AMA Li X, Zhang Z, Yu A, et al. Global and Local Persistence of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1287-1295. doi:10.3201/eid2008.130910.
APA Li, X., Zhang, Z., Yu, A., Ho, S., Carr, M. J., Zheng, W....Shi, W. (2014). Global and Local Persistence of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1287-1295. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130910.

Rapid Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis [PDF - 1.06 MB - 9 pages]
H. C. den Bakker et al.

For Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 85% of isolates can be classified into 5 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. However, PFGE has limited discriminatory power for outbreak detection. Although whole-genome sequencing has been found to improve discrimination of outbreak clusters, whether this procedure can be used in real-time in a public health laboratory is not known. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective and prospective analysis. The retrospective study investigated isolates from 1 confirmed outbreak. Additional cases could be attributed to the outbreak strain on the basis of whole-genome data. The prospective study included 58 isolates obtained in 2012, including isolates from 1 epidemiologically defined outbreak. Whole-genome sequencing identified additional isolates that could be attributed to the outbreak, but which differed from the outbreak-associated PFGE type. Additional putative outbreak clusters were detected in the retrospective and prospective analyses. This study demonstrates the practicality of implementing this approach for outbreak surveillance in a state public health laboratory.

EID den Bakker HC, Allard MW, Bopp D, Brown EW, Fontana J, Iqbal Z, et al. Rapid Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1306-1314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131399
AMA den Bakker HC, Allard MW, Bopp D, et al. Rapid Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1306-1314. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131399.
APA den Bakker, H. C., Allard, M. W., Bopp, D., Brown, E. W., Fontana, J., Iqbal, Z....Wolfgang, W. J. (2014). Rapid Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1306-1314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131399.

Human Exposure to Live Poultry and Psychological and Behavioral Responses to Influenza A(H7N9), China [PDF - 540 KB - 10 pages]
L. Wang et al.

To investigate human exposure to live poultry and changes in risk perception and behavior after the April 2013 influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China, we surveyed 2,504 urban residents in 5 cities and 1,227 rural residents in 4 provinces and found that perceived risk for influenza A(H7N9) was low. The highest rate of exposure to live poultry was reported in Guangzhou, where 47% of those surveyed reported visiting a live poultry market >1 times in the previous year. Most (77%) urban respondents reported that they visited live markets less often after influenza A(H7N9) cases were first identified in China in March 2013, but only 30% supported permanent closure of the markets to control the epidemic. In rural areas, 48% of respondents reported that they raised backyard poultry. Exposure to live commercial and private poultry is common in urban and rural China and remains a potential risk factor for human infection with novel influenza viruses.

EID Wang L, Cowling BJ, Wu P, Yu J, Li F, Zeng L, et al. Human Exposure to Live Poultry and Psychological and Behavioral Responses to Influenza A(H7N9), China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1296-1305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131821
AMA Wang L, Cowling BJ, Wu P, et al. Human Exposure to Live Poultry and Psychological and Behavioral Responses to Influenza A(H7N9), China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1296-1305. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131821.
APA Wang, L., Cowling, B. J., Wu, P., Yu, J., Li, F., Zeng, L....Yu, H. (2014). Human Exposure to Live Poultry and Psychological and Behavioral Responses to Influenza A(H7N9), China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1296-1305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131821.

Independent Origin of Plasmodium falciparum Antifolate Super-Resistance, Uganda, Tanzania, and Ethiopia [PDF - 352 KB - 7 pages]
M. Alifrangis et al.

Super-resistant Plasmodium falciparum threatens the effectiveness of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine in intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy. It is characterized by the A581G Pfdhps mutation on a background of the double-mutant Pfdhps and the triple-mutant Pfdhfr. Using samples collected during 2004–2008, we investigated the evolutionary origin of the A581G mutation by characterizing microsatellite diversity flanking Pfdhps triple-mutant (437G+540E+581G) alleles from 3 locations in eastern Africa and comparing it with double-mutant (437G+540E) alleles from the same area. In Ethiopia, both alleles derived from 1 lineage that was distinct from those in Uganda and Tanzania. Uganda and Tanzania triple mutants derived from the previously characterized southeastern Africa double-mutant lineage. The A581G mutation has occurred multiple times on local Pfdhps double-mutant backgrounds; however, a novel microsatellite allele incorporated into the Tanzania lineage since 2004 illustrates the local expansion of emergent triple-mutant lineages.

EID Alifrangis M, Nag S, Schousboe ML, Ishengoma DS, Lusingu J, Pota H, et al. Independent Origin of Plasmodium falciparum Antifolate Super-Resistance, Uganda, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1280-1286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131897
AMA Alifrangis M, Nag S, Schousboe ML, et al. Independent Origin of Plasmodium falciparum Antifolate Super-Resistance, Uganda, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1280-1286. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131897.
APA Alifrangis, M., Nag, S., Schousboe, M. L., Ishengoma, D. S., Lusingu, J., Pota, H....Roper, C. (2014). Independent Origin of Plasmodium falciparum Antifolate Super-Resistance, Uganda, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1280-1286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131897.
Dispatches

Human Infections with Borrelia miyamotoi, Japan [PDF - 343 KB - 4 pages]
K. Sato et al.

We confirmed infection of 2 patients with Borrelia miyamotoi in Japan by retrospective surveillance of Lyme disease patients and detection of B. miyamotoi DNA in serum samples. One patient also showed seroconversion for antibody against recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase of B. miyamotoi. Indigenous relapsing fever should be considered a health concern in Japan.

EID Sato K, Takano A, Konnai S, Nakao M, Ito T, Koyama K, et al. Human Infections with Borrelia miyamotoi, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1391-1394. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131761
AMA Sato K, Takano A, Konnai S, et al. Human Infections with Borrelia miyamotoi, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1391-1394. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131761.
APA Sato, K., Takano, A., Konnai, S., Nakao, M., Ito, T., Koyama, K....Kawabata, H. (2014). Human Infections with Borrelia miyamotoi, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1391-1394. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131761.

Geographic Distribution of MERS Coronavirus among Dromedary Camels, Africa [PDF - 483 KB - 5 pages]
C. Reusken et al.

We found serologic evidence for the circulation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus among dromedary camels in Nigeria, Tunisia, and Ethiopia. Circulation of the virus among dromedaries across broad areas of Africa may indicate that this disease is currently underdiagnosed in humans outside the Arabian Peninsula.

EID Reusken C, Messadi L, Feyisa A, Ularamu H, Godeke G, Danmarwa A, et al. Geographic Distribution of MERS Coronavirus among Dromedary Camels, Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1370-1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140590
AMA Reusken C, Messadi L, Feyisa A, et al. Geographic Distribution of MERS Coronavirus among Dromedary Camels, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1370-1374. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140590.
APA Reusken, C., Messadi, L., Feyisa, A., Ularamu, H., Godeke, G., Danmarwa, A....Koopmans, M. (2014). Geographic Distribution of MERS Coronavirus among Dromedary Camels, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1370-1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140590.

Rapid Detection, Complete Genome Sequencing, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Porcine Deltacoronavirus [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
D. Marthaler et al.

In February 2014, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was identified in the United States. We developed a PDCoV real-time reverse transcription PCR that identified PDCoV in 30% of samples tested. Four additional PDCoV genomes from the United States were sequenced; these had ≈99%–100% nt similarity to the other US PDCoV strains.

EID Marthaler D, Raymond L, Jiang Y, Collins J, Rossow K, Rovira A. Rapid Detection, Complete Genome Sequencing, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Porcine Deltacoronavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1347-1350. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140526
AMA Marthaler D, Raymond L, Jiang Y, et al. Rapid Detection, Complete Genome Sequencing, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Porcine Deltacoronavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1347-1350. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140526.
APA Marthaler, D., Raymond, L., Jiang, Y., Collins, J., Rossow, K., & Rovira, A. (2014). Rapid Detection, Complete Genome Sequencing, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Porcine Deltacoronavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1347-1350. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140526.

Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses in Domestic Ducks, Eastern China [PDF - 340 KB - 4 pages]
H. Wu et al.

Domestic ducks are natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses and serve as reassortant hosts for new virus subtypes. We isolated 2 novel influenza A(H5N8) viruses from domestic ducks in eastern China, sequenced their genomes, and tested their pathogenicity in chickens and mice. Circulation of these viruses may pose health risks for humans.

EID Wu H, Peng X, Xu L, Jin C, Cheng L, Lu X, et al. Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses in Domestic Ducks, Eastern China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1315-1318. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140339
AMA Wu H, Peng X, Xu L, et al. Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses in Domestic Ducks, Eastern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1315-1318. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140339.
APA Wu, H., Peng, X., Xu, L., Jin, C., Cheng, L., Lu, X....Wu, N. (2014). Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses in Domestic Ducks, Eastern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1315-1318. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140339.

Borrelia crocidurae Infection in Acutely Febrile Patients, Senegal [PDF - 425 KB - 4 pages]
O. Mediannikov et al.

As malaria cases in Africa decline, other causes of acute febrile illness are being explored. To determine incidence of Borrelia crocidurae infection during June 2010–October 2011, we collected 1,566 blood specimens from febrile patients in Senegal. Incidence was high (7.3%). New treatment strategies, possibly doxycycline, might be indicated for febrile patients.

EID Mediannikov O, Socolovschi C, Bassene H, Diatta G, Ratmanov P, Fenollar F, et al. Borrelia crocidurae Infection in Acutely Febrile Patients, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1335-1338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130550
AMA Mediannikov O, Socolovschi C, Bassene H, et al. Borrelia crocidurae Infection in Acutely Febrile Patients, Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1335-1338. doi:10.3201/eid2008.130550.
APA Mediannikov, O., Socolovschi, C., Bassene, H., Diatta, G., Ratmanov, P., Fenollar, F....Raoult, D. (2014). Borrelia crocidurae Infection in Acutely Febrile Patients, Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1335-1338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130550.

Severe Murine Typhus with Pulmonary System Involvement [PDF - 314 KB - 3 pages]
T. W. van der Vaart et al.

We encountered a case of severe murine typhus complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. To determine worldwide prevalence of such cases, we reviewed the literature and found that respiratory symptoms occur in ≈30% of murine typhus patients. In disease-endemic areas, murine typhus should be considered for patients with respiratory symptoms and fever.

EID van der Vaart TW, van Thiel P, Juffermans NP, van Vugt M, Geerlings SE, Grobusch MP, et al. Severe Murine Typhus with Pulmonary System Involvement. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1375-1377. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131421
AMA van der Vaart TW, van Thiel P, Juffermans NP, et al. Severe Murine Typhus with Pulmonary System Involvement. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1375-1377. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131421.
APA van der Vaart, T. W., van Thiel, P., Juffermans, N. P., van Vugt, M., Geerlings, S. E., Grobusch, M. P....Goorhuis, A. (2014). Severe Murine Typhus with Pulmonary System Involvement. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1375-1377. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131421.

Pulmonary Infection and Colonization with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Taiwan, 2000–2012 [PDF - 401 KB - 4 pages]
J. Chien et al.

We analyzed samples from 13,652 patients who had respiratory cultures positive for mycobacteria in Taiwan during 2000–2012 and found that 56.9% were positive for nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Whereas annual prevalence of tuberculosis decreased during the study period, prevalence of NTM disease and colonization increased, particularly among older patients and male patients.

EID Chien J, Lai C, Sheng W, Yu C, Hsueh P. Pulmonary Infection and Colonization with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Taiwan, 2000–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1382-1385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131673
AMA Chien J, Lai C, Sheng W, et al. Pulmonary Infection and Colonization with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Taiwan, 2000–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1382-1385. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131673.
APA Chien, J., Lai, C., Sheng, W., Yu, C., & Hsueh, P. (2014). Pulmonary Infection and Colonization with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Taiwan, 2000–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1382-1385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131673.

Levofloxacin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae, Taiwan, 2004–2010 [PDF - 442 KB - 5 pages]
S. Kuo et al.

Levofloxacin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae has increased significantly in Taiwan, from 2.0% in 2004 to 24.3% in 2010 (p<0.001). Clinical and molecular investigations of 182 levofloxacin-resistant isolates revealed that the increase was mainly the result of the spread of several clones in the elderly population in different regions.

EID Kuo S, Chen P, Shiau Y, Wang H, Lai J, Huang W, et al. Levofloxacin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae, Taiwan, 2004–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1386-1390. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140341
AMA Kuo S, Chen P, Shiau Y, et al. Levofloxacin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae, Taiwan, 2004–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1386-1390. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140341.
APA Kuo, S., Chen, P., Shiau, Y., Wang, H., Lai, J., Huang, W....Lauderdale, T. (2014). Levofloxacin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae, Taiwan, 2004–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1386-1390. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140341.

Isolation of MERS Coronavirus from a Dromedary Camel, Qatar, 2014 [PDF - 384 KB - 4 pages]
V. Raj et al.

We obtained the full genome of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a camel in Qatar. This virus is highly similar to the human England/Qatar 1 virus isolated in 2012. The MERS-CoV from the camel efficiently replicated in human cells, providing further evidence for the zoonotic potential of MERS-CoV from camels.

EID Raj V, Farag E, Reusken C, Lamers MM, Pas SD, Voermans J, et al. Isolation of MERS Coronavirus from a Dromedary Camel, Qatar, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1339-1342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140663
AMA Raj V, Farag E, Reusken C, et al. Isolation of MERS Coronavirus from a Dromedary Camel, Qatar, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1339-1342. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140663.
APA Raj, V., Farag, E., Reusken, C., Lamers, M. M., Pas, S. D., Voermans, J....Haagmans, B. L. (2014). Isolation of MERS Coronavirus from a Dromedary Camel, Qatar, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1339-1342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140663.

Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, Kenya, 1992–2013 [PDF - 335 KB - 4 pages]
V. M. Corman et al.

Dromedary camels are a putative source for human infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We showed that camels sampled in different regions in Kenya during 1992–2013 have antibodies against this virus. High densities of camel populations correlated with increased seropositivity and might be a factor in predicting long-term virus maintenance.

EID Corman VM, Jores J, Meyer B, Younan M, Liljander AM, Said MY, et al. Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, Kenya, 1992–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1319-1322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140596
AMA Corman VM, Jores J, Meyer B, et al. Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, Kenya, 1992–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1319-1322. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140596.
APA Corman, V. M., Jores, J., Meyer, B., Younan, M., Liljander, A. M., Said, M. Y....Müller, M. A. (2014). Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, Kenya, 1992–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1319-1322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140596.

Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010 [PDF - 391 KB - 4 pages]
M. Tun et al.

In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

EID Tun M, Thant K, Inoue S, Nabeshima T, Aoki K, Kyaw A, et al. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1378-1381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131431
AMA Tun M, Thant K, Inoue S, et al. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1378-1381. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131431.
APA Tun, M., Thant, K., Inoue, S., Nabeshima, T., Aoki, K., Kyaw, A....Morita, K. (2014). Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1378-1381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131431.

Co-circulation of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses, Al Hudaydah, Yemen, 2012 [PDF - 362 KB - 4 pages]
G. Rezza et al.

We investigated 400 cases of dengue-like illness in persons hospitalized during an outbreak in Al Hudaydah, Yemen, in 2012. Overall, 116 dengue and 49 chikungunya cases were diagnosed. Dengue virus type 2 was the predominant serotype. The co-circulation of these viruses indicates that mosquitoborne infections represent a public health threat in Yemen.

EID Rezza G, El-Sawaf G, Faggioni G, Vescio F, Al Ameri R, De Santis R, et al. Co-circulation of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses, Al Hudaydah, Yemen, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1351-1354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131615
AMA Rezza G, El-Sawaf G, Faggioni G, et al. Co-circulation of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses, Al Hudaydah, Yemen, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1351-1354. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131615.
APA Rezza, G., El-Sawaf, G., Faggioni, G., Vescio, F., Al Ameri, R., De Santis, R....Lista, F. (2014). Co-circulation of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses, Al Hudaydah, Yemen, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1351-1354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131615.

Antibodies against Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Healthy Persons, China, 2013 [PDF - 324 KB - 3 pages]
L. Zhang et al.

In June 2013, a subclinical infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was detected in Zhejiang Province, China, prompting seroprevalence studies in 6 districts within the province. Of 986 healthy persons tested, 71 had IgG antibodies against SFTSV. This finding suggests that most natural infections with SFTSV are mild or subclinical.

EID Zhang L, Sun J, Yan J, Lv H, Chai C, Sun Y, et al. Antibodies against Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Healthy Persons, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1355-1357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131796
AMA Zhang L, Sun J, Yan J, et al. Antibodies against Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Healthy Persons, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1355-1357. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131796.
APA Zhang, L., Sun, J., Yan, J., Lv, H., Chai, C., Sun, Y....Zhang, Y. (2014). Antibodies against Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Healthy Persons, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1355-1357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131796.

New Introductions of Enterovirus 71 Subgenogroup C4 Strains, France, 2012 [PDF - 502 KB - 4 pages]
I. Schuffenecker et al.

In France during 2012, human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) subgenogroup C4 strains were detected in 4 children hospitalized for neonatal fever or meningitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed novel and independent EV-A71 introductions, presumably from China, and suggested circulation of C4 strains throughout France. This observation emphasizes the need for monitoring EV-A71 infections in Europe.

EID Schuffenecker I, Henquell C, Mirand A, Coste-Burel M, Marque-Juillet S, Desbois D, et al. New Introductions of Enterovirus 71 Subgenogroup C4 Strains, France, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1343-1346. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131858
AMA Schuffenecker I, Henquell C, Mirand A, et al. New Introductions of Enterovirus 71 Subgenogroup C4 Strains, France, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1343-1346. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131858.
APA Schuffenecker, I., Henquell, C., Mirand, A., Coste-Burel, M., Marque-Juillet, S., Desbois, D....Lina, B. (2014). New Introductions of Enterovirus 71 Subgenogroup C4 Strains, France, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1343-1346. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131858.

Infection with Possible Precursor of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in a Child, China, 2013 [PDF - 493 KB - 5 pages]
L. Ren et al.

During the early stage of the avian influenza A(H7N9) epidemic in China in March 2013, a strain of the virus was identified in a 4-year-old boy with mild influenza symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain, which has similarity to avian subtype H9N2 viruses, may represent a precursor of more-evolved H7N9 subtypes co-circulating among humans.

EID Ren L, Yu X, Zhao B, Wu F, Jin Q, Zhang X, et al. Infection with Possible Precursor of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in a Child, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1362-1365. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140325
AMA Ren L, Yu X, Zhao B, et al. Infection with Possible Precursor of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in a Child, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1362-1365. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140325.
APA Ren, L., Yu, X., Zhao, B., Wu, F., Jin, Q., Zhang, X....Wang, J. (2014). Infection with Possible Precursor of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in a Child, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1362-1365. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140325.

Role of Migratory Birds in Spreading Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Turkey [PDF - 564 KB - 4 pages]
H. Leblebicioglu et al.

We investigated migratory birds’ role in spreading Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) through attached ticks. We detected CCHFV RNA in ticks on migratory birds in Turkey. Two isolates showed similarity with CCHFV genotype 4, suggesting a role for ticks in CCHFV epidemics in Turkey and spread of CCHFV by birds.

EID Leblebicioglu H, Eroglu C, Erciyas-Yavuz K, Hokelek M, Acici M, Yilmaz H. Role of Migratory Birds in Spreading Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1331-1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131547
AMA Leblebicioglu H, Eroglu C, Erciyas-Yavuz K, et al. Role of Migratory Birds in Spreading Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1331-1334. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131547.
APA Leblebicioglu, H., Eroglu, C., Erciyas-Yavuz, K., Hokelek, M., Acici, M., & Yilmaz, H. (2014). Role of Migratory Birds in Spreading Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1331-1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131547.

Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013 [PDF - 456 KB - 4 pages]
M. Punzel et al.

Three days after donation of peripheral blood stem cells to a recipient with acute myeloblastic leukemia, dengue virus was detected in the donor, who had recently traveled to Sri Lanka. Transmission to the recipient, who died 9 days after transplant, was confirmed.

EID Punzel M, Korukluoğlu G, Caglayik D, Menemenlioglu D, Bozdag S, Tekgündüz E, et al. Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1366-1369. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140508
AMA Punzel M, Korukluoğlu G, Caglayik D, et al. Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1366-1369. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140508.
APA Punzel, M., Korukluoğlu, G., Caglayik, D., Menemenlioglu, D., Bozdag, S., Tekgündüz, E....Schmidt-Chanasit, J. (2014). Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1366-1369. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140508.

Natural Intrauterine Infection with Schmallenberg Virus in Malformed Newborn Calves [PDF - 428 KB - 4 pages]
C. Bayrou et al.

We surveyed morphologic alterations in calves in Belgium that were naturally infected in utero by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and born with deformities during January–March 2012. SBV-specific RNA was distributed unevenly in different tissues. Natural intrauterine SBV infection of calves might cause serious damage to the central nervous system and muscles.

EID Bayrou C, Garigliany M, Sarlet M, Sartelet A, Cassart D, Desmecht D. Natural Intrauterine Infection with Schmallenberg Virus in Malformed Newborn Calves. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1327-1330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.121890
AMA Bayrou C, Garigliany M, Sarlet M, et al. Natural Intrauterine Infection with Schmallenberg Virus in Malformed Newborn Calves. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1327-1330. doi:10.3201/eid2008.121890.
APA Bayrou, C., Garigliany, M., Sarlet, M., Sartelet, A., Cassart, D., & Desmecht, D. (2014). Natural Intrauterine Infection with Schmallenberg Virus in Malformed Newborn Calves. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1327-1330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.121890.

Shelter Dogs as Sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission across Texas [PDF - 392 KB - 4 pages]
T. D. Tenney et al.

Chagas disease, an infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly diagnosed among humans in the southern United States. We assessed exposure of shelter dogs in Texas to T. cruzi; seroprevalence across diverse ecoregions was 8.8%. Canine serosurveillance is a useful tool for public health risk assessment.

EID Tenney TD, Curtis-Robles R, Snowden KF, Hamer SA. Shelter Dogs as Sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission across Texas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1323-1326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131843
AMA Tenney TD, Curtis-Robles R, Snowden KF, et al. Shelter Dogs as Sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission across Texas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1323-1326. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131843.
APA Tenney, T. D., Curtis-Robles, R., Snowden, K. F., & Hamer, S. A. (2014). Shelter Dogs as Sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission across Texas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1323-1326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131843.

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Ticks Collected from Humans, South Korea, 2013 [PDF - 455 KB - 4 pages]
S. Yun et al.

We investigated the infection rate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) among ticks collected from humans during May–October 2013 in South Korea. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks have been considered the SFTSV vector. However, we detected the virus in H. longicornis, Amblyomma testudinarium, and Ixodes nipponensis ticks, indicating additional potential SFTSV vectors.

EID Yun S, Lee W, Ryou J, Yang S, Park S, Roh J, et al. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Ticks Collected from Humans, South Korea, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1358-1361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131857
AMA Yun S, Lee W, Ryou J, et al. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Ticks Collected from Humans, South Korea, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1358-1361. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131857.
APA Yun, S., Lee, W., Ryou, J., Yang, S., Park, S., Roh, J....Han, M. (2014). Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Ticks Collected from Humans, South Korea, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1358-1361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131857.
Commentaries

Movement of Chikungunya Virus into the Western Hemisphere [PDF - 686 KB - 2 pages]
R. S. Nasci
EID Nasci RS. Movement of Chikungunya Virus into the Western Hemisphere. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1394-1395. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140333
AMA Nasci RS. Movement of Chikungunya Virus into the Western Hemisphere. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1394-1395. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140333.
APA Nasci, R. S. (2014). Movement of Chikungunya Virus into the Western Hemisphere. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1394-1395. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140333.
Letters

Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Genome, Iran [PDF - 351 KB - 3 pages]
N. Shah-Hosseini et al.
EID Shah-Hosseini N, Chinikar S, Ataei B, Fooks AR, Groschup MH. Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Genome, Iran. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1419-1421. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131321
AMA Shah-Hosseini N, Chinikar S, Ataei B, et al. Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Genome, Iran. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1419-1421. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131321.
APA Shah-Hosseini, N., Chinikar, S., Ataei, B., Fooks, A. R., & Groschup, M. H. (2014). Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Genome, Iran. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1419-1421. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131321.

Transcontinental Movement of Asian Genotype Chikungunya Virus [PDF - 396 KB - 3 pages]
R. S. Lanciotti and A. Valadere
EID Lanciotti RS, Valadere A. Transcontinental Movement of Asian Genotype Chikungunya Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1400-1402. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140268
AMA Lanciotti RS, Valadere A. Transcontinental Movement of Asian Genotype Chikungunya Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1400-1402. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140268.
APA Lanciotti, R. S., & Valadere, A. (2014). Transcontinental Movement of Asian Genotype Chikungunya Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1400-1402. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140268.

Diagnosis of Bartonella henselae Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis in Man, France [PDF - 290 KB - 2 pages]
F. Gouriet et al.
EID Gouriet F, Fournier P, Zaratzian C, Sumian M, Cammilleri S, Riberi A, et al. Diagnosis of Bartonella henselae Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis in Man, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1396-1397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130789
AMA Gouriet F, Fournier P, Zaratzian C, et al. Diagnosis of Bartonella henselae Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis in Man, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1396-1397. doi:10.3201/eid2008.130789.
APA Gouriet, F., Fournier, P., Zaratzian, C., Sumian, M., Cammilleri, S., Riberi, A....Raoult, D. (2014). Diagnosis of Bartonella henselae Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis in Man, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1396-1397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130789.

Isolation of Rickettsia typhi from Human, Mexico [PDF - 256 KB - 2 pages]
J. E. Zavala-Castro et al.
EID Zavala-Castro JE, Dzul-Rosado KR, Peniche-Lara G, Tello-Martín R, Zavala-Velázquez JE. Isolation of Rickettsia typhi from Human, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1411-1412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130095
AMA Zavala-Castro JE, Dzul-Rosado KR, Peniche-Lara G, et al. Isolation of Rickettsia typhi from Human, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1411-1412. doi:10.3201/eid2008.130095.
APA Zavala-Castro, J. E., Dzul-Rosado, K. R., Peniche-Lara, G., Tello-Martín, R., & Zavala-Velázquez, J. E. (2014). Isolation of Rickettsia typhi from Human, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1411-1412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130095.

Serologic Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dogs, Africa [PDF - 291 KB - 3 pages]
B. Davoust et al.
EID Davoust B, Leparc-Goffart I, Demoncheaux J, Tine R, Diarra M, Trombini G, et al. Serologic Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dogs, Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1415-1417. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130691
AMA Davoust B, Leparc-Goffart I, Demoncheaux J, et al. Serologic Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dogs, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1415-1417. doi:10.3201/eid2008.130691.
APA Davoust, B., Leparc-Goffart, I., Demoncheaux, J., Tine, R., Diarra, M., Trombini, G....Marié, J. (2014). Serologic Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dogs, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1415-1417. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130691.

Zika Virus Infection after Travel to Tahiti, December 2013 [PDF - 328 KB - 3 pages]
T. Wæhre et al.
EID Wæhre T, Maagard A, Tappe D, Cadar D, Schmidt-Chanasit J. Zika Virus Infection after Travel to Tahiti, December 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1412-1414. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140302
AMA Wæhre T, Maagard A, Tappe D, et al. Zika Virus Infection after Travel to Tahiti, December 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1412-1414. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140302.
APA Wæhre, T., Maagard, A., Tappe, D., Cadar, D., & Schmidt-Chanasit, J. (2014). Zika Virus Infection after Travel to Tahiti, December 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1412-1414. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140302.

Chikungunya in the Caribbean—Threat for Europe [PDF - 445 KB - 3 pages]
J. Mansuy et al.
EID Mansuy J, Grouteau E, Mengelle C, Claudet I, Izopet J. Chikungunya in the Caribbean—Threat for Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1423-1425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140650
AMA Mansuy J, Grouteau E, Mengelle C, et al. Chikungunya in the Caribbean—Threat for Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1423-1425. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140650.
APA Mansuy, J., Grouteau, E., Mengelle, C., Claudet, I., & Izopet, J. (2014). Chikungunya in the Caribbean—Threat for Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1423-1425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140650.

Human Infection with West Nile Virus, Xinjiang, China, 2011 [PDF - 386 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Lu et al.
EID Lu Z, Fu S, Cao L, Tang C, Zhang S, Li Z, et al. Human Infection with West Nile Virus, Xinjiang, China, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1421-1423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131433
AMA Lu Z, Fu S, Cao L, et al. Human Infection with West Nile Virus, Xinjiang, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1421-1423. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131433.
APA Lu, Z., Fu, S., Cao, L., Tang, C., Zhang, S., Li, Z....Liang, G. (2014). Human Infection with West Nile Virus, Xinjiang, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1421-1423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131433.

Severe Encephalitis Caused by Toscana Virus, Greece [PDF - 327 KB - 3 pages]
A. Papa et al.
EID Papa A, Paraforou T, Papakonstantinou I, Pagdatoglou K, Kontana A, Koukoubani T. Severe Encephalitis Caused by Toscana Virus, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1417-1419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140248
AMA Papa A, Paraforou T, Papakonstantinou I, et al. Severe Encephalitis Caused by Toscana Virus, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1417-1419. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140248.
APA Papa, A., Paraforou, T., Papakonstantinou, I., Pagdatoglou, K., Kontana, A., & Koukoubani, T. (2014). Severe Encephalitis Caused by Toscana Virus, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1417-1419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140248.

Yersinia pestis in Pulex irritans Fleas during Plague Outbreak, Madagascar [PDF - 294 KB - 2 pages]
J. Ratovonjato et al.
EID Ratovonjato J, Rajerison M, Rahelinirina S, Boyer S. Yersinia pestis in Pulex irritans Fleas during Plague Outbreak, Madagascar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1414-1415. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130629
AMA Ratovonjato J, Rajerison M, Rahelinirina S, et al. Yersinia pestis in Pulex irritans Fleas during Plague Outbreak, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1414-1415. doi:10.3201/eid2008.130629.
APA Ratovonjato, J., Rajerison, M., Rahelinirina, S., & Boyer, S. (2014). Yersinia pestis in Pulex irritans Fleas during Plague Outbreak, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1414-1415. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130629.

Sika Deer Carrying Babesia Parasites Closely Related to B. divergens, Japan [PDF - 454 KB - 3 pages]
A. Zamoto-Niikura et al.
EID Zamoto-Niikura A, Tsuji M, Imaoka K, Kimura M, Morikawa S, Holman PJ, et al. Sika Deer Carrying Babesia Parasites Closely Related to B. divergens, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1398-1400. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130061
AMA Zamoto-Niikura A, Tsuji M, Imaoka K, et al. Sika Deer Carrying Babesia Parasites Closely Related to B. divergens, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1398-1400. doi:10.3201/eid2008.130061.
APA Zamoto-Niikura, A., Tsuji, M., Imaoka, K., Kimura, M., Morikawa, S., Holman, P. J....Ishihara, C. (2014). Sika Deer Carrying Babesia Parasites Closely Related to B. divergens, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1398-1400. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130061.

Babesiosis Surveillance, New Jersey, USA, 2006–2011 [PDF - 306 KB - 3 pages]
A. Apostolou et al.
EID Apostolou A, Sorhage F, Tan C. Babesiosis Surveillance, New Jersey, USA, 2006–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1407-1409. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131591
AMA Apostolou A, Sorhage F, Tan C. Babesiosis Surveillance, New Jersey, USA, 2006–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1407-1409. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131591.
APA Apostolou, A., Sorhage, F., & Tan, C. (2014). Babesiosis Surveillance, New Jersey, USA, 2006–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1407-1409. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131591.

Antibodies against West Nile and Shuni Viruses in Veterinarians, South Africa [PDF - 285 KB - 3 pages]
C. van Eeden et al.
EID van Eeden C, Swanepoel R, Venter M. Antibodies against West Nile and Shuni Viruses in Veterinarians, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1409-1411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131724
AMA van Eeden C, Swanepoel R, Venter M. Antibodies against West Nile and Shuni Viruses in Veterinarians, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1409-1411. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131724.
APA van Eeden, C., Swanepoel, R., & Venter, M. (2014). Antibodies against West Nile and Shuni Viruses in Veterinarians, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1409-1411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131724.

Chikungunya Outbreak in Bueng Kan Province, Thailand, 2013 [PDF - 394 KB - 3 pages]
N. Wanlapakorn et al.
EID Wanlapakorn N, Thongmee T, Linsuwanon P, Chattakul P, Vongpunsawad S, Payungporn S, et al. Chikungunya Outbreak in Bueng Kan Province, Thailand, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1404-1406. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140481
AMA Wanlapakorn N, Thongmee T, Linsuwanon P, et al. Chikungunya Outbreak in Bueng Kan Province, Thailand, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1404-1406. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140481.
APA Wanlapakorn, N., Thongmee, T., Linsuwanon, P., Chattakul, P., Vongpunsawad, S., Payungporn, S....Poovorawan, Y. (2014). Chikungunya Outbreak in Bueng Kan Province, Thailand, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1404-1406. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140481.

Decline in Japanese Encephalitis, Kushinagar District, Uttar Pradesh, India [PDF - 268 KB - 2 pages]
P. Ranjan et al.
EID Ranjan P, Gore M, Selvaraju S, Kushwaha K, Srivastava D, Murhekar M. Decline in Japanese Encephalitis, Kushinagar District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1406-1407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131403
AMA Ranjan P, Gore M, Selvaraju S, et al. Decline in Japanese Encephalitis, Kushinagar District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1406-1407. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131403.
APA Ranjan, P., Gore, M., Selvaraju, S., Kushwaha, K., Srivastava, D., & Murhekar, M. (2014). Decline in Japanese Encephalitis, Kushinagar District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1406-1407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131403.

Rickettsia felis Infections and Comorbid Conditions, Laos, 2003–2011 [PDF - 296 KB - 3 pages]
S. Dittrich et al.
EID Dittrich S, Phommasone K, Anantatat T, Panyanivong P, Slesak G, Blacksell SD, et al. Rickettsia felis Infections and Comorbid Conditions, Laos, 2003–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1402-1404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131308
AMA Dittrich S, Phommasone K, Anantatat T, et al. Rickettsia felis Infections and Comorbid Conditions, Laos, 2003–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1402-1404. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131308.
APA Dittrich, S., Phommasone, K., Anantatat, T., Panyanivong, P., Slesak, G., Blacksell, S. D....Paris, D. H. (2014). Rickettsia felis Infections and Comorbid Conditions, Laos, 2003–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1402-1404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131308.
Books and Media

Medical Entomology for Students, 5th Edition [PDF - 248 KB - 1 page]
M. Levin
EID Levin M. Medical Entomology for Students, 5th Edition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131738
AMA Levin M. Medical Entomology for Students, 5th Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1430. doi:10.3201/eid2008.131738.
APA Levin, M. (2014). Medical Entomology for Students, 5th Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.131738.
In Memoriam

In Memoriam: Robert Emmons Kissling (1923–2013) [PDF - 263 KB - 2 pages]
C. H. Calisher et al.
EID Calisher CH, Murphy FA, Monath TP. In Memoriam: Robert Emmons Kissling (1923–2013). Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1426-1427. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140672
AMA Calisher CH, Murphy FA, Monath TP. In Memoriam: Robert Emmons Kissling (1923–2013). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1426-1427. doi:10.3201/eid2008.140672.
APA Calisher, C. H., Murphy, F. A., & Monath, T. P. (2014). In Memoriam: Robert Emmons Kissling (1923–2013). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1426-1427. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.140672.
About the Cover

Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets [PDF - 281 KB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1429-1430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.ac2008
AMA Breedlove B. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1429-1430. doi:10.3201/eid2008.ac2008.
APA Breedlove, B. (2014). Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1429-1430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.ac2008.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Borrelia miyamotoi [PDF - 237 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Borrelia miyamotoi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1390. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.et2008
AMA Etymologia: Borrelia miyamotoi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1390. doi:10.3201/eid2008.et2008.
APA (2014). Etymologia: Borrelia miyamotoi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1390. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.et2008.
Online Reports

Preparedness for Threat of Chikungunya in the Pacific
A. Roth et al.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused significant outbreaks of illness during 2005–2007 in the Indian Ocean region. Chikungunya outbreaks have also occurred in the Pacific region, including in Papua New Guinea in 2012; New Caledonia in April 2013; and Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, in August 2013. CHIKV is a threat in the Pacific, and the risk for further spread is high, given several similarities between the Pacific and Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreaks. Island health care systems have difficulties coping with high caseloads, which highlights the need for early multidisciplinary preparedness. The Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network has developed several strategies focusing on surveillance, case management, vector control, laboratory confirmation, and communication. The management of this CHIKV threat will likely have broad implications for global public health.

Corrections

Correction: Vol. 20, No. 6 [PDF - 316 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 20, No. 6. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(8):1425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.c12008
AMA Correction: Vol. 20, No. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(8):1425. doi:10.3201/eid2008.c12008.
APA (2014). Correction: Vol. 20, No. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(8), 1425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.c12008.
Page created: May 05, 2015
Page updated: May 05, 2015
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