Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 21, Number 2—February 2015
Dispatch

Close Relationship between West Nile Virus from Turkey and Lineage 1 Strain from Central African Republic

Koray Ergunay, Tamas Bakonyi, Norbert Nowotny, and Aykut OzkulComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (K. Ergunay); University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria (T. Bakonyi, N. Nowotny); Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary (T. Bakonyi); Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman (N. Nowotny); Ankara University, Ankara (A. Ozkul)

Main Article

Figure 1

Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of selected West Nile virus (WNV) strains, including isolate T2 from Turkey (black dot) and the closely related strain ArB310/67 from the Central African Republic (black diamond). Major WNV lineages, clades, and clusters are indicated, except for the local cluster 3 (12). Bootstrap values of major branches are given for 1,000 replicates. Virus strains are described by GenBank accession number

Figure 1. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of selected West Nile virus (WNV) strains, including isolate T2 from Turkey (black dot) and the closely related strain ArB310/67 from the Central African Republic (black diamond). Major WNV lineages, clades, and clusters are indicated, except for the local cluster 3 (12). Bootstrap values of major branches are given for 1,000 replicates. Virus strains are described by GenBank accession number, name, and country of isolation. Japanese encephalitis virus strain GP78 served as outgroup. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site.

Main Article

References
  1. Burke  D, Monath  T. Flaviviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology. Philadelphia: Lippincott William & Wilkins; 2001. p. 1043–126.
  2. Hayes  EB, Gubler  DJ. West Nile virus: epidemiology and clinical features of an emerging epidemic in the United States. Annu Rev Med. 2006;57:18194 . DOIPubMed
  3. Calistri  P, Giovannini  A, Hubalek  Z, Ionescu  A, Monaco  F, Savini  G, Epidemiology of West Nile in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin. Open Virol J. 2010;4:29–37.PubMed
  4. Lanciotti  RS, Roehrig  JT, Deubel  V, Smith  J, Parker  M, Steele  K, Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science. 1999;286:23337 . DOIPubMed
  5. Komar  N, Clark  GG. West Nile virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2006;19:1127 . DOIPubMed
  6. Ergunay  K, Whitehouse  CA, Ozkul  A. Current status of human arboviral infections in Turkey. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:73141 . DOIPubMed
  7. Kalaycioglu  H, Korukluoglu  G, Ozkul  A, Oncul  O, Tosun  S, Karabay  O, Emergence of West Nile virus infections in humans in Turkey, 2010 to 2011. Euro Surveill. 2012;17:20182 .PubMed
  8. Ozkul  A, Ergunay  K, Koysuren  A, Alkan  F, Arsava  EM, Tezcan  S, Concurrent occurrence of human and equine West Nile virus infections in Central Anatolia, Turkey: the first evidence for circulation of lineage 1 viruses. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e54651 . DOIPubMed
  9. Ergunay  K, Gunay  F, Oter  K, Kasap  OE, Orsten  S, Akkutay  AZ, Arboviral surveillance of field-collected mosquitoes reveals circulation of West Nile virus lineage 1 strains in Eastern Thrace, Turkey. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013;13:74452 . DOIPubMed
  10. Ergunay  K, Gunay  F, Kasap  OE, Oter  K, Gargari  S, Karaoglu  T, Serological, molecular and entomological surveillance demonstrates widespread circulation of West Nile virus in Turkey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e3028 . DOIPubMed
  11. Bakonyi  T, Ivanics  E, Erdelyi  K, Ursu  K, Ferenczi  E, Weissenböck  H, Lineage 1 and 2 strains of encephalitic West Nile virus, central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:61823 . DOIPubMed
  12. May  FJ, Davis  CT, Tesh  RB, Barrett  AD. Phylogeography of West Nile virus: from the cradle of evolution in Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. J Virol. 2011;85:296474 . DOIPubMed
  13. Brault  AC, Huang  CY, Langevin  SA, Kinney  RM, Bowen  RA, Ramey  WN, A single positively selected West Nile viral mutation confers increased virogenesis in American crows. Nat Genet. 2007;39:11626. DOI
  14. Moudy  RM, Meola  MA, Morin  LL, Ebel  GD, Kramer  LD. A newly emergent genotype of West Nile virus is transmitted earlier and more efficiently by Culex mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:36570 .PubMed
  15. Shah-Hosseini  N, Chinikar  S, Ataei  B, Fooks  AR, Groschup  MH. Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus genome, Iran. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:141921 . DOIPubMed

Main Article

Page created: January 21, 2015
Page updated: January 21, 2015
Page reviewed: January 21, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external