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Volume 21, Number 2—February 2015

Volume 21, Number 2—February 2015   PDF Version [PDF - 9.55 MB - 203 pages]

Perspective

  • Evaluation of Border Entry Screening for Infectious Diseases in Humans PDF Version [PDF - 326 KB - 5 pages]
    L. A. Selvey et al.
    View Summary

    Outbreak-associated communications for travelers and clinicians may be a more effective approach to the international control of communicable diseases.

        View Abstract

    In response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic of 2003 and the influenza pandemic of 2009, many countries instituted border measures as a means of stopping or slowing the spread of disease. The measures, usually consisting of a combination of border entry/exit screening, quarantine, isolation, and communications, were resource intensive, and modeling and observational studies indicate that border screening is not effective at detecting infectious persons. Moreover, border screening has high opportunity costs, financially and in terms of the use of scarce public health staff resources during a time of high need. We discuss the border-screening experiences with SARS and influenza and propose an approach to decision-making for future pandemics. We conclude that outbreak-associated communications for travelers at border entry points, together with effective communication with clinicians and more effective disease control measures in the community, may be a more effective approach to the international control of communicable diseases.

        Cite This Article
    EID Selvey LA, Antão C, Hall R. Evaluation of Border Entry Screening for Infectious Diseases in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):197-201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.131610
    AMA Selvey LA, Antão C, Hall R. Evaluation of Border Entry Screening for Infectious Diseases in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):197-201. doi:10.3201/eid2102.131610.
    APA Selvey, L. A., Antão, C., & Hall, R. (2015). Evaluation of Border Entry Screening for Infectious Diseases in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 197-201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.131610.
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Synopses

  • Timing of Influenza A(H5N1) in Poultry and Humans and Seasonal Influenza Activity Worldwide, 2004–2013 PDF Version [PDF - 714 KB - 7 pages]
    L. O. Durand et al.
    View Summary

    Co-circulation of H5N1 in poultry and humans during seasonal influenza epidemic periods signals the need for enhanced surveillance and biosafety measures.

        View Abstract

    Co-circulation of influenza A(H5N1) and seasonal influenza viruses among humans and animals could lead to co-infections, reassortment, and emergence of novel viruses with pandemic potential. We assessed the timing of subtype H5N1 outbreaks among poultry, human H5N1 cases, and human seasonal influenza in 8 countries that reported 97% of all human H5N1 cases and 90% of all poultry H5N1 outbreaks. In these countries, most outbreaks among poultry (7,001/11,331, 62%) and half of human cases (313/625, 50%) occurred during January–March. Human H5N1 cases occurred in 167 (45%) of 372 months during which outbreaks among poultry occurred, compared with 59 (10%) of 574 months that had no outbreaks among poultry. Human H5N1 cases also occurred in 59 (22%) of 267 months during seasonal influenza periods. To reduce risk for co-infection, surveillance and control of H5N1 should be enhanced during January–March, when H5N1 outbreaks typically occur and overlap with seasonal influenza virus circulation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Durand LO, Glew P, Gross D, Kasper MR, Trock SC, Kim IK, et al. Timing of Influenza A(H5N1) in Poultry and Humans and Seasonal Influenza Activity Worldwide, 2004–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):202-208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140877
    AMA Durand LO, Glew P, Gross D, et al. Timing of Influenza A(H5N1) in Poultry and Humans and Seasonal Influenza Activity Worldwide, 2004–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):202-208. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140877.
    APA Durand, L. O., Glew, P., Gross, D., Kasper, M. R., Trock, S. C., Kim, I. K....Azziz-Baumgartner, E. (2015). Timing of Influenza A(H5N1) in Poultry and Humans and Seasonal Influenza Activity Worldwide, 2004–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 202-208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140877.
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Research

  • Quantifying Reporting Timeliness to Improve Outbreak Control PDF Version [PDF - 813 KB - 8 pages]
    A. Marinović et al.
    View Summary

    In the Netherlands, reporting is timely for hepatitis A and B prevention but needs to be faster for measles, mumps, pertussis, and shigellosis prevention.

        View Abstract

    The extent to which reporting delays should be reduced to gain substantial improvement in outbreak control is unclear. We developed a model to quantitatively assess reporting timeliness. Using reporting speed data for 6 infectious diseases in the notification system in the Netherlands, we calculated the proportion of infections produced by index and secondary cases until the index case is reported. We assumed interventions that immediately stop transmission. Reporting delays render useful only those interventions that stop transmission from index and secondary cases. We found that current reporting delays are adequate for hepatitis A and B control. However, reporting delays should be reduced by a few days to improve measles and mumps control, by at least 10 days to improve shigellosis control, and by at least 5 weeks to substantially improve pertussis control. Our method provides quantitative insight into the required reporting delay reductions needed to achieve outbreak control and other transmission prevention goals.

        Cite This Article
    EID Marinović A, Swaan C, van Steenbergen J, Kretzschmar M. Quantifying Reporting Timeliness to Improve Outbreak Control. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):209-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.130504
    AMA Marinović A, Swaan C, van Steenbergen J, et al. Quantifying Reporting Timeliness to Improve Outbreak Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):209-216. doi:10.3201/eid2102.130504.
    APA Marinović, A., Swaan, C., van Steenbergen, J., & Kretzschmar, M. (2015). Quantifying Reporting Timeliness to Improve Outbreak Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 209-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.130504.
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  • Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA PDF Version [PDF - 559 KB - 7 pages]
    J. Christensen et al.
    View Summary

    Persons in this region are at risk for acquiring this disease.

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    In July 2013, a resident of the Bitterroot Valley in western Montana, USA, contracted tickborne relapsing fever caused by an infection with the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. The patient’s travel history and activities before onset of illness indicated a possible exposure on his residential property on the eastern side of the valley. An onsite investigation of the potential exposure site found the vector, Ornithodoros hermsi ticks, and 1 chipmunk infected with spirochetes, which on the basis of multilocus sequence typing were identical to the spirochete isolated from the patient. Field studies in other locations found additional serologic evidence and an infected tick that demonstrated a wider distribution of spirochetes circulating among the small mammal populations. Our study demonstrates that this area of Montana represents a previously unrecognized focus of relapsing fever and poses a risk for persons of acquiring this tickborne disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Christensen J, Fischer RJ, McCoy BN, Raffel SJ, Schwan TG. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):217-223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141276
    AMA Christensen J, Fischer RJ, McCoy BN, et al. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):217-223. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141276.
    APA Christensen, J., Fischer, R. J., McCoy, B. N., Raffel, S. J., & Schwan, T. G. (2015). Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 217-223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141276.
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  • Simulation Study of the Effect of Influenza and Influenza Vaccination on Risk of Acquiring Guillain-Barré Syndrome PDF Version [PDF - 537 KB - 8 pages]
    S. Hawken et al.
    View Summary

    Under typical conditions, such as influenza incidence rates of >5% and vaccine effectiveness >60%, vaccination reduced risk.

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    It is unclear whether seasonal influenza vaccination results in a net increase or decrease in the risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To assess the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination on the absolute risk of acquiring GBS, we used simulation models and published estimates of age- and sex-specific risks for GBS, influenza incidence, and vaccine effectiveness. For a hypothetical 45-year-old woman and 75-year-old man, excess GBS risk for influenza vaccination versus no vaccination was −0.36/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval −1.22 to 0.28) and −0.42/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval, –3.68 to 2.44), respectively. These numbers represent a small absolute reduction in GBS risk with vaccination. Under typical conditions (e.g. influenza incidence rates >5% and vaccine effectiveness >60%), vaccination reduced GBS risk. These findings should strengthen confidence in the safety of influenza vaccine and allow health professionals to better put GBS risk in context when discussing influenza vaccination with patients.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hawken S, Kwong JC, Deeks SL, Crowcroft NS, McGeer A, Ducharme R, et al. Simulation Study of the Effect of Influenza and Influenza Vaccination on Risk of Acquiring Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):224-231. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.131879
    AMA Hawken S, Kwong JC, Deeks SL, et al. Simulation Study of the Effect of Influenza and Influenza Vaccination on Risk of Acquiring Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):224-231. doi:10.3201/eid2102.131879.
    APA Hawken, S., Kwong, J. C., Deeks, S. L., Crowcroft, N. S., McGeer, A., Ducharme, R....Wilson, K. (2015). Simulation Study of the Effect of Influenza and Influenza Vaccination on Risk of Acquiring Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 224-231. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.131879.
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  • Evidence for Elizabethkingia anophelis Transmission from Mother to Infant, Hong Kong PDF Version [PDF - 720 KB - 10 pages]
    S. Lau et al.
    View Summary

    Genome sequencing can provide rapid insights on transmission and pathogenesis of emerging pathogens.

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    Elizabethkingia anophelis, recently discovered from mosquito gut, is an emerging bacterium associated with neonatal meningitis and nosocomial outbreaks. However, its transmission route remains unknown. We use rapid genome sequencing to investigate 3 cases of E. anophelis sepsis involving 2 neonates who had meningitis and 1 neonate’s mother who had chorioamnionitis. Comparative genomics revealed evidence for perinatal vertical transmission from a mother to her neonate; the 2 isolates from these patients, HKU37 and HKU38, shared essentially identical genome sequences. In contrast, the strain from another neonate (HKU36) was genetically divergent, showing only 78.6% genome sequence identity to HKU37 and HKU38, thus excluding a clonal outbreak. Comparison to genomes from mosquito strains revealed potential metabolic adaptations in E. anophelis under different environments. Maternal infection, not mosquitoes, is most likely the source of neonatal E. anophelis infections. Our findings highlight the power of genome sequencing in gaining rapid insights on transmission and pathogenesis of emerging pathogens.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lau S, Wu A, Teng J, Tse H, Curreem S, Tsui S, et al. Evidence for Elizabethkingia anophelis Transmission from Mother to Infant, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):232-241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140623
    AMA Lau S, Wu A, Teng J, et al. Evidence for Elizabethkingia anophelis Transmission from Mother to Infant, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):232-241. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140623.
    APA Lau, S., Wu, A., Teng, J., Tse, H., Curreem, S., Tsui, S....Yuen, K. (2015). Evidence for Elizabethkingia anophelis Transmission from Mother to Infant, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 232-241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140623.
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  • Microbiota That Affect Risk for Shigellosis in Children in Low-Income Countries PDF Version [PDF - 819 KB - 9 pages]
    B. Lindsay et al.
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    Co-infection with Shigella spp. and other microbes modifies diarrhea risk.

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    Pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract exist within a vast population of microbes. We examined associations between pathogens and composition of gut microbiota as they relate to Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli infection. We analyzed 3,035 stool specimens (1,735 nondiarrheal and 1,300 moderate-to-severe diarrheal) from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study for 9 enteropathogens. Diarrheal specimens had a higher number of enteropathogens (diarrheal mean 1.4, nondiarrheal mean 0.95; p<0.0001). Rotavirus showed a negative association with Shigella spp. in cases of diarrhea (odds ratio 0.31, 95% CI 0.17–0.55) and had a large combined effect on moderate-to-severe diarrhea (odds ratio 29, 95% CI 3.8–220). In 4 Lactobacillus taxa identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the association between pathogen and disease was decreased, which is consistent with the possibility that Lactobacillus spp. are protective against Shigella spp.–induced diarrhea. Bacterial diversity of gut microbiota was associated with diarrhea status, not high levels of the Shigella spp. ipaH gene.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lindsay B, Oundo J, Hossain M, Antonio M, Tamboura B, Walker AW, et al. Microbiota That Affect Risk for Shigellosis in Children in Low-Income Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):242-250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140795
    AMA Lindsay B, Oundo J, Hossain M, et al. Microbiota That Affect Risk for Shigellosis in Children in Low-Income Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):242-250. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140795.
    APA Lindsay, B., Oundo, J., Hossain, M., Antonio, M., Tamboura, B., Walker, A. W....Stine, O. (2015). Microbiota That Affect Risk for Shigellosis in Children in Low-Income Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 242-250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140795.
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  • Optimizing Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Antiviral Drugs PDF Version [PDF - 3.55 MB - 8 pages]
    B. Singh et al.
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    Effective distribution of these drugs will reduce illness and death in underinsured populations.

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    We provide a data-driven method for optimizing pharmacy-based distribution of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic in terms of overall access for a target population and apply it to the state of Texas, USA. We found that during the 2009 influenza pandemic, the Texas Department of State Health Services achieved an estimated statewide access of 88% (proportion of population willing to travel to the nearest dispensing point). However, access reached only 34.5% of US postal code (ZIP code) areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. Optimized distribution networks increased expected access to 91% overall and 60% in hard-to-reach regions, and 2 or 3 major pharmacy chains achieved near maximal coverage in well-populated areas. Independent pharmacies were essential for reaching ZIP code areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. This model was developed during a collaboration between academic researchers and public health officials and is available as a decision support tool for Texas Department of State Health Services at a Web-based interface.

        Cite This Article
    EID Singh B, Huang H, Morton DP, Johnson GP, Gutfraind A, Galvani AP, et al. Optimizing Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Antiviral Drugs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):251-258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141024
    AMA Singh B, Huang H, Morton DP, et al. Optimizing Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Antiviral Drugs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):251-258. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141024.
    APA Singh, B., Huang, H., Morton, D. P., Johnson, G. P., Gutfraind, A., Galvani, A. P....Meyers, L. A. (2015). Optimizing Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Antiviral Drugs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 251-258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141024.
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  • Medscape CME Activity
    pH Level as a Marker for Predicting Death among Patients with Vibrio vulnificus Infection, South Korea, 2000–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 535 KB - 6 pages]
    N. Yun et al.
    View Summary

    Initial pH level at hospital admission was the most accurate and simple predictor of death.

        View Abstract

    Vibrio vulnificus infection can progress to necrotizing fasciitis and death. To improve the likelihood of patient survival, an early prognosis of patient outcome is clinically important for emergency/trauma department doctors. To identify an accurate and simple predictor for death among V. vulnificus–infected persons, we reviewed clinical data for 34 patients at a hospital in South Korea during 2000–2011; of the patients, 16 (47%) died and 18 (53%) survived. For nonsurvivors, median time from hospital admission to death was 15 h (range 4–70). For predicting death, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and initial pH were 0.746 and 0.972, respectively (p = 0.005). An optimal cutoff pH of <7.35 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 83%. Compared with the APACHE II score, the initial arterial blood pH level in V. vulnificus-infected patients was a more accurate predictive marker for death.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yun N, Kim D, Lee J, Han M. pH Level as a Marker for Predicting Death among Patients with Vibrio vulnificus Infection, South Korea, 2000–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):259-264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.131249
    AMA Yun N, Kim D, Lee J, et al. pH Level as a Marker for Predicting Death among Patients with Vibrio vulnificus Infection, South Korea, 2000–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):259-264. doi:10.3201/eid2102.131249.
    APA Yun, N., Kim, D., Lee, J., & Han, M. (2015). pH Level as a Marker for Predicting Death among Patients with Vibrio vulnificus Infection, South Korea, 2000–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 259-264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.131249.
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  • Refining Historical Limits Method to Improve Disease Cluster Detection, New York City, New York, USA PDF Version [PDF - 700 KB - 8 pages]
    A. Levin-Rector et al.
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    Our refinements corrected for major biases, preserved simplicity, and improved validity.

        View Abstract

    Since the early 2000s, the Bureau of Communicable Disease of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has analyzed reportable infectious disease data weekly by using the historical limits method to detect unusual clusters that could represent outbreaks. This method typically produced too many signals for each to be investigated with available resources while possibly failing to signal during true disease outbreaks. We made method refinements that improved the consistency of case inclusion criteria and accounted for data lags and trends and aberrations in historical data. During a 12-week period in 2013, we prospectively assessed these refinements using actual surveillance data. The refined method yielded 74 signals, a 45% decrease from what the original method would have produced. Fewer and less biased signals included a true citywide increase in legionellosis and a localized campylobacteriosis cluster subsequently linked to live-poultry markets. Future evaluations using simulated data could complement this descriptive assessment.

        Cite This Article
    EID Levin-Rector A, Wilson EL, Fine AD, Greene SK. Refining Historical Limits Method to Improve Disease Cluster Detection, New York City, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):265-272. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140098
    AMA Levin-Rector A, Wilson EL, Fine AD, et al. Refining Historical Limits Method to Improve Disease Cluster Detection, New York City, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):265-272. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140098.
    APA Levin-Rector, A., Wilson, E. L., Fine, A. D., & Greene, S. K. (2015). Refining Historical Limits Method to Improve Disease Cluster Detection, New York City, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 265-272. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140098.
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  • Naturally Acquired Antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae Type a in Aboriginal Adults, Canada PDF Version [PDF - 640 KB - 7 pages]
    E. B. Nix et al.
    View Summary

    High prevalence of invasive Hia disease among North American Aboriginal populations is more likely related to exposure than to inadequate immunity.

        View Abstract

    In the post-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine era that began in the 1980's, H. influenzae type a (Hia) emerged as a prominent cause of invasive disease in North American Aboriginal populations. To test whether a lack of naturally acquired antibodies may underlie increased rates of invasive Hia disease, we compared serum bactericidal activity against Hia and Hib and IgG and IgM against capsular polysaccharide between Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal healthy and immunocompromised adults. Both healthy and immunocompromised Aboriginal adults exhibited significantly higher bactericidal antibody titers against Hia than did non-Aboriginal adults (p = 0.042 and 0.045 respectively), with no difference in functional antibody activity against Hib. IgM concentrations against Hia were higher than IgG in most study groups; the inverse was true for antibody concentrations against Hib. Our results indicate that Aboriginal adults possess substantial serum bactericidal activity against Hia that is mostly due to IgM antibodies. The presence of sustained IgM against Hia suggests recent Hia exposure.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nix EB, Williams K, Cox AD, St. Michael F, Romero-Steiner S, Schmidt DS, et al. Naturally Acquired Antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae Type a in Aboriginal Adults, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):273-279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140722
    AMA Nix EB, Williams K, Cox AD, et al. Naturally Acquired Antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae Type a in Aboriginal Adults, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):273-279. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140722.
    APA Nix, E. B., Williams, K., Cox, A. D., St. Michael, F., Romero-Steiner, S., Schmidt, D. S....Ulanova, M. (2015). Naturally Acquired Antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae Type a in Aboriginal Adults, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 273-279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140722.
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  • Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses among Inoculated Domestic and Wild Ducks, South Korea, 2014 PDF Version [PDF - 1.07 MB - 7 pages]
    H. Kang et al.
    View Summary

    Inoculated wild ducks showed few symptoms but transmitted H5N8 viruses to other ducks.

        View Abstract

    An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza, caused by a novel reassortant influenza A (H5N8) virus, occurred among poultry and wild birds in South Korea in 2014. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis in and mode of transmission of this virus among domestic and wild ducks. Three of the viruses had similar pathogenicity among infected domestic ducks: the H5N8 viruses were moderately pathogenic (0%–20% mortality rate); in wild mallard ducks, the H5N8 and H5N1 viruses did not cause severe illness or death; viral replication and shedding were greater in H5N8-infected mallards than in H5N1-infected mallards. Identification of H5N8 viruses in birds exposed to infected domestic ducks and mallards indicated that the viruses could spread by contact. We propose active surveillance to support prevention of the spread of this virus among wild birds and poultry, especially domestic ducks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kang H, Lee E, Song B, Jeong J, Choi J, Jeong J, et al. Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses among Inoculated Domestic and Wild Ducks, South Korea, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):298-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141268
    AMA Kang H, Lee E, Song B, et al. Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses among Inoculated Domestic and Wild Ducks, South Korea, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):298-304. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141268.
    APA Kang, H., Lee, E., Song, B., Jeong, J., Choi, J., Jeong, J....Lee, Y. (2015). Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses among Inoculated Domestic and Wild Ducks, South Korea, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 298-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141268.
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  • Medscape CME Activity
    Infectious Causes of Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003–2005 PDF Version [PDF - 565 KB - 10 pages]
    S. J. Olsen et al.
    View Summary

    Although many causes were identified, most remain unknown.

        View Abstract

    Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. Determining etiology from among ≈100 possible agents is difficult. To identify infectious etiologies of encephalitis in Thailand, we conducted surveillance in 7 hospitals during July 2003–August 2005 and selected patients with acute onset of brain dysfunction with fever or hypothermia and with abnormalities seen on neuroimages or electroencephalograms or with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for >30 pathogens. Among 149 case-patients, median age was 12 (range 0–83) years, 84 (56%) were male, and 15 (10%) died. Etiology was confirmed or probable for 54 (36%) and possible or unknown for 95 (64%). Among confirmed or probable etiologies, the leading pathogens were Japanese encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, and Orientia tsutsugamushi. No samples were positive for chikungunya, Nipah, or West Nile viruses; Bartonella henselae; or malaria parasites. Although a broad range of infectious agents was identified, the etiology of most cases remains unknown.

        Cite This Article
    EID Olsen SJ, Campbell AP, Supawat K, Liamsuwan S, Chotpitayasunondh T, Laptikulthum S, et al. Infectious Causes of Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):280-289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140291
    AMA Olsen SJ, Campbell AP, Supawat K, et al. Infectious Causes of Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):280-289. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140291.
    APA Olsen, S. J., Campbell, A. P., Supawat, K., Liamsuwan, S., Chotpitayasunondh, T., Laptikulthum, S....Dowell, S. F. (2015). Infectious Causes of Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 280-289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140291.
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Dispatches

  • Lagenidium giganteum Pathogenicity in Mammals PDF Version [PDF - 569 KB - 8 pages]
    R. Vilela et al.
    View Summary

    Strains pathogenic to mammals share phylogenetic and phenotypic features with strains approved for mosquito control.

        View Abstract

    Infections of mammals by species in the phylum Oomycota taxonomically and molecularly similar to known Lagenidium giganteum strains have increased. During 2013–2014, we conducted a phylogenetic study of 21 mammalian Lagenidium isolates; we found that 11 cannot be differentiated from L. giganteum strains that the US Environmental Protection Agency approved for biological control of mosquitoes; these strains were later unregistered and are no longer available. L. giganteum strains pathogenic to mammals formed a strongly supported clade with the biological control isolates, and both types experimentally infected mosquito larvae. However, the strains from mammals grew well at 25°C and 37°C, whereas the biological control strains developed normally at 25°C but poorly at higher temperatures. The emergence of heat-tolerant strains of L. giganteum pathogenic to lower animals and humans is of environmental and public health concern.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vilela R, Taylor JW, Walker ED, Mendoza L. Lagenidium giganteum Pathogenicity in Mammals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):290-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141091
    AMA Vilela R, Taylor JW, Walker ED, et al. Lagenidium giganteum Pathogenicity in Mammals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):290-297. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141091.
    APA Vilela, R., Taylor, J. W., Walker, E. D., & Mendoza, L. (2015). Lagenidium giganteum Pathogenicity in Mammals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 290-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141091.
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  • Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses PDF Version [PDF - 316 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Marzi et al.
        View Abstract

    We demonstrated that previous vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)–based Lassa virus vaccine does not alter protective efficacy of subsequent vaccination with a VSV-based Ebola virus vaccine. These findings demonstrate the utility of VSV-based vaccines against divergent viral pathogens, even when preexisting immunity to the vaccine vector is present.

        Cite This Article
    EID Marzi A, Feldmann F, Geisbert TW, Feldmann H, Safronetz D. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):305-307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141649
    AMA Marzi A, Feldmann F, Geisbert TW, et al. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):305-307. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141649.
    APA Marzi, A., Feldmann, F., Geisbert, T. W., Feldmann, H., & Safronetz, D. (2015). Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 305-307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141649.
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  • Use of Insecticide-Treated House Screens to Reduce Infestations of Dengue Virus Vectors, Mexico PDF Version [PDF - 444 KB - 4 pages]
    P. Manrique-Saide et al.
        View Abstract

    Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control.

        Cite This Article
    EID Manrique-Saide P, Che-Mendoza A, Barrera-Perez M, Guillermo-May G, Herrera-Bojorquez J, Dzul-Manzanilla F, et al. Use of Insecticide-Treated House Screens to Reduce Infestations of Dengue Virus Vectors, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):308-311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140533
    AMA Manrique-Saide P, Che-Mendoza A, Barrera-Perez M, et al. Use of Insecticide-Treated House Screens to Reduce Infestations of Dengue Virus Vectors, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):308-311. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140533.
    APA Manrique-Saide, P., Che-Mendoza, A., Barrera-Perez, M., Guillermo-May, G., Herrera-Bojorquez, J., Dzul-Manzanilla, F....Arredondo-Jimenez, J. I. (2015). Use of Insecticide-Treated House Screens to Reduce Infestations of Dengue Virus Vectors, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 308-311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140533.
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  • Comparative Analysis of African Swine Fever Virus Genotypes and Serogroups PDF Version [PDF - 362 KB - 4 pages]
    A. S. Malogolovkin et al.
        View Abstract

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes highly lethal hemorrhagic disease among pigs, and ASFV’s extreme antigenic diversity hinders vaccine development. We show that p72 ASFV phylogenetic analysis does not accurately define ASFV hemadsorption inhibition assay serogroups. Thus, conventional ASFV genotyping cannot discriminate between viruses of different virulence or predict efficacy of a specific ASFV vaccine.

        Cite This Article
    EID Malogolovkin AS, Burmakina G, Titov I, Sereda A, Gogin A, Baryshnikova E, et al. Comparative Analysis of African Swine Fever Virus Genotypes and Serogroups. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):312-315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140649
    AMA Malogolovkin AS, Burmakina G, Titov I, et al. Comparative Analysis of African Swine Fever Virus Genotypes and Serogroups. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):312-315. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140649.
    APA Malogolovkin, A. S., Burmakina, G., Titov, I., Sereda, A., Gogin, A., Baryshnikova, E....Kolbasov, D. (2015). Comparative Analysis of African Swine Fever Virus Genotypes and Serogroups. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 312-315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140649.
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  • Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013 PDF Version [PDF - 531 KB - 4 pages]
    E. Balleydier et al.
        View Abstract

    Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011–January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin.

        Cite This Article
    EID Balleydier E, Camuset G, Socolovschi C, Moiton M, Kuli B, Foucher A, et al. Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):316-319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140850
    AMA Balleydier E, Camuset G, Socolovschi C, et al. Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):316-319. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140850.
    APA Balleydier, E., Camuset, G., Socolovschi, C., Moiton, M., Kuli, B., Foucher, A....Pagès, F. (2015). Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 316-319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140850.
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  • Awareness and Support of Release of Genetically Modified “Sterile” Mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA PDF Version [PDF - 443 KB - 5 pages]
    K. C. Ernst et al.
        View Abstract

    After a dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, during 2009–2010, authorities, considered conducting the first US release of male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes genetically modified to prevent reproduction. Despite outreach and media attention, only half of the community was aware of the proposal; half of those were supportive. Novel public health strategies require community engagement.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ernst KC, Haenchen S, Dickinson K, Doyle MS, Walker K, Monaghan AJ, et al. Awareness and Support of Release of Genetically Modified “Sterile” Mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):320-324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141035
    AMA Ernst KC, Haenchen S, Dickinson K, et al. Awareness and Support of Release of Genetically Modified “Sterile” Mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):320-324. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141035.
    APA Ernst, K. C., Haenchen, S., Dickinson, K., Doyle, M. S., Walker, K., Monaghan, A. J....Hayden, M. K. (2015). Awareness and Support of Release of Genetically Modified “Sterile” Mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 320-324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141035.
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  • Novel Candidatus Rickettsia Species Detected in Nostril Tick from Human, Gabon, 2014 PDF Version [PDF - 370 KB - 3 pages]
    R. Lopez-Velez et al.
        View Abstract

    We report the identification of a nymphal nostril tick (Amblyomma sp.) from a national park visitor in Gabon and subsequent molecular detection and characterization of tickborne bacteria. Our findings provide evidence of a potentially new Rickettsia sp. circulating in Africa and indicate that tick bites may pose a risk to persons visiting parks in the region.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lopez-Velez R, Palomar AM, Oteo JA, Norman FF, Pérez-Molina JA, Portillo A, et al. Novel Candidatus Rickettsia Species Detected in Nostril Tick from Human, Gabon, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):325-327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141048
    AMA Lopez-Velez R, Palomar AM, Oteo JA, et al. Novel Candidatus Rickettsia Species Detected in Nostril Tick from Human, Gabon, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):325-327. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141048.
    APA Lopez-Velez, R., Palomar, A. M., Oteo, J. A., Norman, F. F., Pérez-Molina, J. A., & Portillo, A. (2015). Novel Candidatus Rickettsia Species Detected in Nostril Tick from Human, Gabon, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 325-327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141048.
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  • Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014 PDF Version [PDF - 392 KB - 4 pages]
    P. G. Ching et al.
        View Abstract

    During 2014, henipavirus infection caused severe illness among humans and horses in southern Philippines; fatality rates among humans were high. Horse-to-human and human-to-human transmission occurred. The most likely source of horse infection was fruit bats. Ongoing surveillance is needed for rapid diagnosis, risk factor investigation, control measure implementation, and further virus characterization.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ching PG, de los Reyes V, Sucaldito M, Tayag E, Columna-Vingno A, Malbas FF, et al. Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):328-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141433
    AMA Ching PG, de los Reyes V, Sucaldito M, et al. Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):328-331. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141433.
    APA Ching, P. G., de los Reyes, V., Sucaldito, M., Tayag, E., Columna-Vingno, A., Malbas, F. F....Foxwell, A. (2015). Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 328-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141433.
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  • Potentially Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses, Nicaragua PDF Version [PDF - 529 KB - 4 pages]
    V. L. O’Nion et al.
        View Abstract

    Ehrlichia sp. DNA was amplified from 4 Ehrlichia-seroreactive horses from Mérida, Nicaragua. Sequencing of 16S rDNA, sodB, and groEL genes indicated that the bacterium is most likely a novel Ehrlichia species. The tick vector and the potential for canine and human infection remain unknown.

        Cite This Article
    EID O’Nion VL, Montilla HJ, Qurollo BA, Maggi RG, Hegarty BC, Tornquist SJ, et al. Potentially Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses, Nicaragua. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):335-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140290
    AMA O’Nion VL, Montilla HJ, Qurollo BA, et al. Potentially Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses, Nicaragua. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):335-338. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140290.
    APA O’Nion, V. L., Montilla, H. J., Qurollo, B. A., Maggi, R. G., Hegarty, B. C., Tornquist, S. J....Breitschwerdt, E. B. (2015). Potentially Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses, Nicaragua. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 335-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140290.
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  • Neisseria meningitidis ST-11 Clonal Complex, Chile 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 378 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Araya et al.
        View Abstract

    Serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis was the main cause of invasive meningococcal disease in Chile during 2012. The case-fatality rate for this disease was higher than in previous years. Genotyping of meningococci isolated from case-patients identified the hypervirulent lineage W:P1.5,2:ST-11, which contained allele 22 of the fHbp gene.

        Cite This Article
    EID Araya P, Fernández J, Del Canto F, Seoane M, Ibarz-Pavón AB, Barra G, et al. Neisseria meningitidis ST-11 Clonal Complex, Chile 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):339-341. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140746
    AMA Araya P, Fernández J, Del Canto F, et al. Neisseria meningitidis ST-11 Clonal Complex, Chile 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):339-341. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140746.
    APA Araya, P., Fernández, J., Del Canto, F., Seoane, M., Ibarz-Pavón, A. B., Barra, G....Valenzuela, M. T. (2015). Neisseria meningitidis ST-11 Clonal Complex, Chile 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 339-341. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140746.
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  • Molecular Diagnosis of Cause of Anisakiasis in Humans, South Korea PDF Version [PDF - 408 KB - 3 pages]
    H. Lim et al.
        View Abstract

    Anisakiasis in humans in South Korea has been considered to be caused exclusively by the larvae of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Pseudoterranova decipiens. Recently, however, DNA sequencing of larvae from 15 of 16 anisakiasis patients confirmed the cause to be Anisakis pegreffii infection. Molecular analysis should be performed for all extracted larvae.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lim H, Jung B, Cho J, Yooyen T, Shin E, Chai J, et al. Molecular Diagnosis of Cause of Anisakiasis in Humans, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):342-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140798
    AMA Lim H, Jung B, Cho J, et al. Molecular Diagnosis of Cause of Anisakiasis in Humans, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):342-344. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140798.
    APA Lim, H., Jung, B., Cho, J., Yooyen, T., Shin, E., & Chai, J. (2015). Molecular Diagnosis of Cause of Anisakiasis in Humans, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 342-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140798.
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  • Streptococcus suis Infection in Hospitalized Patients, Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 438 KB - 4 pages]
    P. Praphasiri et al.
        View Abstract

    In Nakhon Phanom, Thailand, we identified 38 hospitalized patients with Streptococcus suis infection during 2006–2012. Deafness developed in 12 patients; none died. Thirty-five reported recent exposure to pigs/pork. Annual incidence was 0.1–2.2 cases/100,000 population (0.2–3.2 in persons >20 years of age). Clinicians should consider S. suis infection in areas where pig exposure is common.

        Cite This Article
    EID Praphasiri P, Owusu JT, Thammathitiwat S, Ditsungnoen D, Boonmongkon P, Sangwichian O, et al. Streptococcus suis Infection in Hospitalized Patients, Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):345-348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140961
    AMA Praphasiri P, Owusu JT, Thammathitiwat S, et al. Streptococcus suis Infection in Hospitalized Patients, Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):345-348. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140961.
    APA Praphasiri, P., Owusu, J. T., Thammathitiwat, S., Ditsungnoen, D., Boonmongkon, P., Sangwichian, O....Olsen, S. J. (2015). Streptococcus suis Infection in Hospitalized Patients, Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 345-348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140961.
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  • Exposure-Based Screening for Nipah Virus Encephalitis, Bangladesh PDF Version [PDF - 303 KB - 3 pages]
    H. Sazzad et al.
        View Abstract

    We measured the performance of exposure screening questions to identify Nipah virus encephalitis in hospitalized encephalitis patients during the 2012–13 Nipah virus season in Bangladesh. The sensitivity (93%), specificity (82%), positive predictive value (37%), and negative predictive value (99%) results suggested that screening questions could more quickly identify persons with Nipah virus encephalitis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sazzad H, Luby SP, Ströher U, Daszak P, Sultana S, Afroj S, et al. Exposure-Based Screening for Nipah Virus Encephalitis, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):349-351. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141129
    AMA Sazzad H, Luby SP, Ströher U, et al. Exposure-Based Screening for Nipah Virus Encephalitis, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):349-351. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141129.
    APA Sazzad, H., Luby, S. P., Ströher, U., Daszak, P., Sultana, S., Afroj, S....Gurley, E. S. (2015). Exposure-Based Screening for Nipah Virus Encephalitis, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 349-351. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141129.
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  • Close Relationship between West Nile Virus from Turkey and Lineage 1 Strain from Central African Republic PDF Version [PDF - 518 KB - 4 pages]
    K. Ergunay et al.
        View Abstract

    We sequenced West Nile viruses (WNVs) from Turkey and found close relationships to WNV lineage 1 strain ArB310/67 from the Central African Republic, distinct from other WNVs circulating in the Mediterranean Basin, eastern Europe, and the Middle East. These findings suggest independent introductions of WNV strains from Africa to the Middle East.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ergunay K, Bakonyi T, Nowotny N, Ozkul A. Close Relationship between West Nile Virus from Turkey and Lineage 1 Strain from Central African Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):352-355. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141135
    AMA Ergunay K, Bakonyi T, Nowotny N, et al. Close Relationship between West Nile Virus from Turkey and Lineage 1 Strain from Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):352-355. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141135.
    APA Ergunay, K., Bakonyi, T., Nowotny, N., & Ozkul, A. (2015). Close Relationship between West Nile Virus from Turkey and Lineage 1 Strain from Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 352-355. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141135.
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  • Zoonotic Transmission of Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Strain, Germany, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 369 KB - 3 pages]
    D. M. Meinel et al.
        View Abstract

    Severe necrotizing fasciitis was diagnosed in a 53-year-old man in Germany in 2012. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans was grown from a wound swab sample. One of the patient´s 2 dogs was found to harbor a toxigenic C. ulcerans strain. Results of next generation sequencing of both isolates supported recent zoonotic transmission of this bacterial pathogen.

        Cite This Article
    EID Meinel DM, Konrad R, Berger A, König C, Schmidt-Wieland T, Hogardt M, et al. Zoonotic Transmission of Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Strain, Germany, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):356-358. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141160
    AMA Meinel DM, Konrad R, Berger A, et al. Zoonotic Transmission of Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Strain, Germany, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):356-358. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141160.
    APA Meinel, D. M., Konrad, R., Berger, A., König, C., Schmidt-Wieland, T., Hogardt, M....Sing, A. (2015). Zoonotic Transmission of Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Strain, Germany, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 356-358. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141160.
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  • Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus PDF Version [PDF - 1.05 MB - 3 pages]
    D. Musso et al.
        View Abstract

    In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

        Cite This Article
    EID Musso D, Roche C, Robin E, Nhan T, Teissier A, Cao-Lormeau V, et al. Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):359-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141363
    AMA Musso D, Roche C, Robin E, et al. Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):359-361. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141363.
    APA Musso, D., Roche, C., Robin, E., Nhan, T., Teissier, A., & Cao-Lormeau, V. (2015). Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 359-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141363.
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  • Cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections in Iran, 2014 PDF Version [PDF - 478 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Yavarian et al.
        View Abstract

    During January 2013–August 2014, a total of 1,800 patients in Iran who had respiratory illness were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. A cluster of 5 cases occurred in Kerman Province during May–July 2014, but virus transmission routes for some infections were unclear.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yavarian J, Rezaei F, Shadab A, Soroush M, Gooya M, Azad T, et al. Cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections in Iran, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):362-364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141405
    AMA Yavarian J, Rezaei F, Shadab A, et al. Cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections in Iran, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):362-364. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141405.
    APA Yavarian, J., Rezaei, F., Shadab, A., Soroush, M., Gooya, M., & Azad, T. (2015). Cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections in Iran, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 362-364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141405.
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  • Acquisition of Human Polyomaviruses in the First 18 Months of Life PDF Version [PDF - 328 KB - 3 pages]
    R. J. Rockett et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated the presence of 4 human polyomaviruses (PyVs) (WU, KI, Merkel cell, and Malawi) in respiratory specimens from a community-based birth cohort. These viruses typically were acquired when children were ≈1 year of age. We provide evidence that WU, KI, and Malawi, but not Merkel cell PyVs, might have a role in respiratory infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rockett RJ, Bialasiewicz S, Mhango L, Gaydon J, Holding R, Whiley DM, et al. Acquisition of Human Polyomaviruses in the First 18 Months of Life. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):365-367. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141429
    AMA Rockett RJ, Bialasiewicz S, Mhango L, et al. Acquisition of Human Polyomaviruses in the First 18 Months of Life. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):365-367. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141429.
    APA Rockett, R. J., Bialasiewicz, S., Mhango, L., Gaydon, J., Holding, R., Whiley, D. M....Sloots, T. P. (2015). Acquisition of Human Polyomaviruses in the First 18 Months of Life. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 365-367. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141429.
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  • Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011–2014 PDF Version [PDF - 1.16 MB - 4 pages]
    M. F. Ducatez et al.
        View Abstract

    A new influenza virus, genus D, isolated in US pigs and cattle, has also been circulating in cattle in France. It was first identified there in 2011, and an increase was detected in 2014. The virus genome in France is 94%–99% identical to its US counterpart, which suggests intercontinental spillover.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ducatez MF, Pelletier C, Meyer G. Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):368-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141449
    AMA Ducatez MF, Pelletier C, Meyer G. Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):368-371. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141449.
    APA Ducatez, M. F., Pelletier, C., & Meyer, G. (2015). Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 368-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141449.
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  • Ascariasis in Humans and Pigs on Small-Scale Farms, Maine, USA, 2010–2013 PDF Version [PDF - 336 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Miller et al.
        View Abstract

    Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes that can cause infections in humans and pigs. During 2010–2013, we identified 14 cases of ascariasis in persons who had contact with pigs in Maine, USA. Ascaris spp. are important zoonotic pathogens, and prevention measures are needed, including health education, farming practice improvements, and personal and food hygiene.

        Cite This Article
    EID Miller L, Colby K, Manning SE, Hoenig D, McEvoy E, Montgomery SP, et al. Ascariasis in Humans and Pigs on Small-Scale Farms, Maine, USA, 2010–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):332-334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140048
    AMA Miller L, Colby K, Manning SE, et al. Ascariasis in Humans and Pigs on Small-Scale Farms, Maine, USA, 2010–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):332-334. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140048.
    APA Miller, L., Colby, K., Manning, S. E., Hoenig, D., McEvoy, E., Montgomery, S. P....Sears, S. (2015). Ascariasis in Humans and Pigs on Small-Scale Farms, Maine, USA, 2010–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 332-334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140048.
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Letters

  • Outbreak-Associated Novel Avipoxvirus in Domestic Mallard Ducks, China PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Zheng et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Zheng M, Cao H, Wei X, Qin Y, Ou S, Huang B, et al. Outbreak-Associated Novel Avipoxvirus in Domestic Mallard Ducks, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):372-373. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140215
    AMA Zheng M, Cao H, Wei X, et al. Outbreak-Associated Novel Avipoxvirus in Domestic Mallard Ducks, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):372-373. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140215.
    APA Zheng, M., Cao, H., Wei, X., Qin, Y., Ou, S., Huang, B....Liu, Q. (2015). Outbreak-Associated Novel Avipoxvirus in Domestic Mallard Ducks, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 372-373. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140215.
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  • Orientia tsutsugamushi in Lung of Patient with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, France, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 334 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Angelakis et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Angelakis E, Patrick G, Peloni J, Wey P, Perreal C, Raoult D, et al. Orientia tsutsugamushi in Lung of Patient with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, France, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):373-375. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140860
    AMA Angelakis E, Patrick G, Peloni J, et al. Orientia tsutsugamushi in Lung of Patient with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, France, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):373-375. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140860.
    APA Angelakis, E., Patrick, G., Peloni, J., Wey, P., Perreal, C., & Raoult, D. (2015). Orientia tsutsugamushi in Lung of Patient with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, France, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 373-375. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140860.
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  • Clustered Cases of Oestrus ovis Ophthalmomyiasis after 3-Week Festival, Marseille, France, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 316 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Bonzon et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Bonzon L, Toga I, Piarroux M, Piarroux R. Clustered Cases of Oestrus ovis Ophthalmomyiasis after 3-Week Festival, Marseille, France, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):375-377. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140974
    AMA Bonzon L, Toga I, Piarroux M, et al. Clustered Cases of Oestrus ovis Ophthalmomyiasis after 3-Week Festival, Marseille, France, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):375-377. doi:10.3201/eid2102.140974.
    APA Bonzon, L., Toga, I., Piarroux, M., & Piarroux, R. (2015). Clustered Cases of Oestrus ovis Ophthalmomyiasis after 3-Week Festival, Marseille, France, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 375-377. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.140974.
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  • Meningococcal Disease in US Military Personnel before and After Adoption of Conjugate Vaccine PDF Version [PDF - 314 KB - 3 pages]
    M. P. Broderick et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Broderick MP, Phillips C, Faix D. Meningococcal Disease in US Military Personnel before and After Adoption of Conjugate Vaccine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):377-379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141037
    AMA Broderick MP, Phillips C, Faix D. Meningococcal Disease in US Military Personnel before and After Adoption of Conjugate Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):377-379. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141037.
    APA Broderick, M. P., Phillips, C., & Faix, D. (2015). Meningococcal Disease in US Military Personnel before and After Adoption of Conjugate Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 377-379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141037.
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  • Chikungunya Virus Mutation, Indonesia, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 312 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Maha et al.
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    EID Maha M, Susilarini N, Hariastuti N. Chikungunya Virus Mutation, Indonesia, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):379-381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141121
    AMA Maha M, Susilarini N, Hariastuti N. Chikungunya Virus Mutation, Indonesia, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):379-381. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141121.
    APA Maha, M., Susilarini, N., & Hariastuti, N. (2015). Chikungunya Virus Mutation, Indonesia, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 379-381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141121.
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  • Co-infection with Zika and Dengue Viruses in 2 Patients, New Caledonia, 2014 PDF Version [PDF - 283 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Dupont-Rouzeyrol et al.
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    EID Dupont-Rouzeyrol M, O’Connor O, Calvez E, Daurès M, John M, Grangeon J, et al. Co-infection with Zika and Dengue Viruses in 2 Patients, New Caledonia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):381-382. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141553
    AMA Dupont-Rouzeyrol M, O’Connor O, Calvez E, et al. Co-infection with Zika and Dengue Viruses in 2 Patients, New Caledonia, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):381-382. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141553.
    APA Dupont-Rouzeyrol, M., O’Connor, O., Calvez, E., Daurès, M., John, M., Grangeon, J....Gourinat, A. (2015). Co-infection with Zika and Dengue Viruses in 2 Patients, New Caledonia, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 381-382. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141553.
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  • Fatal Meningoencephalitis in Child and Isolation of Naegleria fowleri from Hot Springs in Costa Rica PDF Version [PDF - 289 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Abrahams-Sandí et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Abrahams-Sandí E, Retana-Moreira L, Castro-Castillo A, Reyes-Batlle M, Lorenzo-Morales J. Fatal Meningoencephalitis in Child and Isolation of Naegleria fowleri from Hot Springs in Costa Rica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):382-384. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141576
    AMA Abrahams-Sandí E, Retana-Moreira L, Castro-Castillo A, et al. Fatal Meningoencephalitis in Child and Isolation of Naegleria fowleri from Hot Springs in Costa Rica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):382-384. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141576.
    APA Abrahams-Sandí, E., Retana-Moreira, L., Castro-Castillo, A., Reyes-Batlle, M., & Lorenzo-Morales, J. (2015). Fatal Meningoencephalitis in Child and Isolation of Naegleria fowleri from Hot Springs in Costa Rica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 382-384. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141576.
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  • Genome Sequence of Enterovirus D68 and Clinical Disease, Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 251 KB - 1 page]
    S. Vongpunsawad et al.
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    EID Vongpunsawad S, Prachayangprecha S, Chansaenroj J, Haagmans BL, Smits SL, Poovorawan Y, et al. Genome Sequence of Enterovirus D68 and Clinical Disease, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):384. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141742
    AMA Vongpunsawad S, Prachayangprecha S, Chansaenroj J, et al. Genome Sequence of Enterovirus D68 and Clinical Disease, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):384. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141742.
    APA Vongpunsawad, S., Prachayangprecha, S., Chansaenroj, J., Haagmans, B. L., Smits, S. L., & Poovorawan, Y. (2015). Genome Sequence of Enterovirus D68 and Clinical Disease, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 384. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.141742.
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About the Cover

  • Cubism and Research Synthesis PDF Version [PDF - 1.95 MB - 2 pages]
    S. Semaan
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    EID Semaan S. Cubism and Research Synthesis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(2):386-387. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.AC2102
    AMA Semaan S. Cubism and Research Synthesis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):386-387. doi:10.3201/eid2102.AC2102.
    APA Semaan, S. (2015). Cubism and Research Synthesis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(2), 386-387. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2102.AC2102.
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Etymologia

Online Reports

  • Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 959 KB - 9 pages]
    A. R. Hoffmaster et al.
        View Abstract

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions.

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