Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 21, Number 3—March 2015

Characteristics of Tuberculosis Cases that Started Outbreaks in the United States, 2002–2011

Maryam B. Haddad1Comments to Author , Kiren Mitruka1, John E. Oeltmann, Emma B. Johns, and Thomas R. Navin
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (M.B. Haddad, K. Mitruka, J.E. Oeltmann, E.B. Johns, T.R. Navin); Emory University, Atlanta (M.B. Haddad, E.B. Johns)

Main Article


Characteristics of source case-patients for 26 investigated tuberculosis outbreaks, United States, 2002–2011

No. (%)
US-born 19 (73)
Male sex 23 (88)
White non-Hispanic 7 (27)
Black non-Hispanic 13 (50)
6 (23)
Clinical and laboratory characteristics
Sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli 26 (100)
Cavitary tuberculosis on chest radiograph 21 (81)
HIV co-infection 2 (8*)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage†
EuroAmerican 18 (69)
East Asian
4 (15)
Social risk factors for tuberculosis
Excess alcohol use 16 (62)
Illicit drug use 14 (54)
Homelessness within previous year 11 (42)
Incarceration at diagnosis 4 (15)
Incarceration ever
13 (50)
Reasons for prolonged infectious period‡
Delay in seeking care after symptom onset 8 (31)
Delayed diagnosis once sought care 15 (58)
Noncompliance during treatment
7 (27)
Method of case detection
Self-reported symptoms led to diagnosis 21 (81)
Tuberculosis contact investigation 1 (4)
Other screening 1 (4)
Unknown 3 (12)

*Of 24 patients for whom HIV test results were available.
†Genotype lineage was not determined for 4 outbreaks that occurred in 2002−2003, before spoligotyping was routine.
‡Causes not always documented and not mutually exclusive.

Main Article

1These co–first authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: February 18, 2015
Page updated: February 18, 2015
Page reviewed: February 18, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.