Volume 21, Number 3—March 2015
Characteristics of Tuberculosis Cases that Started Outbreaks in the United States, 2002–2011
|Male sex||23 (88)|
|White non-Hispanic||7 (27)|
|Black non-Hispanic||13 (50)|
|Clinical and laboratory characteristics|
|Sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli||26 (100)|
|Cavitary tuberculosis on chest radiograph||21 (81)|
|HIV co-infection||2 (8*)|
|Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage†|
|Social risk factors for tuberculosis|
|Excess alcohol use||16 (62)|
|Illicit drug use||14 (54)|
|Homelessness within previous year||11 (42)|
|Incarceration at diagnosis||4 (15)|
|Reasons for prolonged infectious period‡|
|Delay in seeking care after symptom onset||8 (31)|
|Delayed diagnosis once sought care||15 (58)|
|Noncompliance during treatment
|Method of case detection|
|Self-reported symptoms led to diagnosis||21 (81)|
|Tuberculosis contact investigation||1 (4)|
|Other screening||1 (4)|
*Of 24 patients for whom HIV test results were available.
†Genotype lineage was not determined for 4 outbreaks that occurred in 2002−2003, before spoligotyping was routine.
‡Causes not always documented and not mutually exclusive.
1These co–first authors contributed equally to this article.