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Issue Cover for Volume 21, Number 3—March 2015

Volume 21, Number 3—March 2015

[PDF - 16.53 MB - 171 pages]

Research

Evaluation of the Benefits and Risks of Introducing Ebola Community Care Centers, Sierra Leone [PDF - 509 KB - 7 pages]
A. J. Kucharski et al.

In some parts of western Africa, Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) have reached capacity. Unless capacity is rapidly scaled up, the chance to avoid a generalized Ebola epidemic will soon diminish. The World Health Organization and partners are considering additional Ebola patient care options, including community care centers (CCCs), small, lightly staffed units that could be used to isolate patients outside the home and get them into care sooner than otherwise possible. Using a transmission model, we evaluated the benefits and risks of introducing CCCs into Sierra Leone’s Western Area, where most ETCs are at capacity. We found that use of CCCs could lead to a decline in cases, even if virus transmission occurs between CCC patients and the community. However, to prevent CCC amplification of the epidemic, the risk of Ebola virus–negative persons being exposed to virus within CCCs would have to be offset by a reduction in community transmission resulting from CCC use.

EID Kucharski AJ, Camacho A, Checchi F, Waldman R, Grais RF, Cabrol J, et al. Evaluation of the Benefits and Risks of Introducing Ebola Community Care Centers, Sierra Leone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):393-399. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141892
AMA Kucharski AJ, Camacho A, Checchi F, et al. Evaluation of the Benefits and Risks of Introducing Ebola Community Care Centers, Sierra Leone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):393-399. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141892.
APA Kucharski, A. J., Camacho, A., Checchi, F., Waldman, R., Grais, R. F., Cabrol, J....Edmunds, W. (2015). Evaluation of the Benefits and Risks of Introducing Ebola Community Care Centers, Sierra Leone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 393-399. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141892.

Nanomicroarray and Multiplex Next-Generation Sequencing for Simultaneous Identification and Characterization of Influenza Viruses [PDF - 701 KB - 9 pages]
J. Zhao et al.

Conventional methods for detection and discrimination of influenza viruses are time consuming and labor intensive. We developed a diagnostic platform for simultaneous identification and characterization of influenza viruses that uses a combination of nanomicroarray for screening and multiplex next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays for laboratory confirmation. The nanomicroarray was developed to target hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix genes to identify influenza A and B viruses. PCR amplicons synthesized by using an adapted universal primer for all 8 gene segments of 9 influenza A subtypes were detected in the nanomicroarray and confirmed by the NGS assays. This platform can simultaneously detect and differentiate multiple influenza A subtypes in a single sample. Use of these methods as part of a new diagnostic algorithm for detection and confirmation of influenza infections may provide ongoing public health benefits by assisting with future epidemiologic studies and improving preparedness for potential influenza pandemics.

EID Zhao J, Ragupathy V, Liu J, Wang X, Vemula S, El Mubarak H, et al. Nanomicroarray and Multiplex Next-Generation Sequencing for Simultaneous Identification and Characterization of Influenza Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):400-408. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141169
AMA Zhao J, Ragupathy V, Liu J, et al. Nanomicroarray and Multiplex Next-Generation Sequencing for Simultaneous Identification and Characterization of Influenza Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):400-408. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141169.
APA Zhao, J., Ragupathy, V., Liu, J., Wang, X., Vemula, S., El Mubarak, H....Hewlett, I. (2015). Nanomicroarray and Multiplex Next-Generation Sequencing for Simultaneous Identification and Characterization of Influenza Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 400-408. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141169.

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Europe, 2010–2011 [PDF - 496 KB - 8 pages]
G. Günther et al.

Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is challenging elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated risk factors for TB and levels of second-line drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in patients in Europe with multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. A total of 380 patients with MDR TB and 376 patients with non–MDR TB were enrolled at 23 centers in 16 countries in Europe during 2010–2011. A total of 52.4% of MDR TB patients had never been treated for TB, which suggests primary transmission of MDR M. tuberculosis. At initiation of treatment for MDR TB, 59.7% of M. tuberculosis strains tested were resistant to pyrazinamide, 51.1% were resistant to ≥1 second-line drug, 26.6% were resistant to second-line injectable drugs, 17.6% were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and 6.8% were extensively drug resistant. Previous treatment for TB was the strongest risk factor for MDR TB. High levels of primary transmission and advanced resistance to second-line drugs characterize MDR TB cases in Europe.

EID Günther G, van Leth F, Alexandru S, Altet N, Avsar K, Bang D, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Europe, 2010–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):409-416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141343
AMA Günther G, van Leth F, Alexandru S, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Europe, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):409-416. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141343.
APA Günther, G., van Leth, F., Alexandru, S., Altet, N., Avsar, K., Bang, D....Lange, C. (2015). Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Europe, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 409-416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141343.

Risk Factors for Death from Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Europe, 2010 [PDF - 1.35 MB - 9 pages]
A. Navarro-Torné et al.

We studied the possible association between patient age and sex, clinical presentation, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype, antimicrobial resistance, and death in invasive pneumococcal disease cases reported by 17 European countries during 2010. The study sample comprised 2,921 patients, of whom 56.8% were men and 38.2% were >65 years of age. Meningitis occurred in 18.5% of cases. Death was reported in 264 (9.0%) cases. Older age, meningitis, and nonsusceptibility to penicillin were significantly associated with death. Non–pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) serotypes among children <5 years of age and 7-valent PCV serotypes among persons 5–64 years of age were associated with increased risk for death; among adults >65 years of age, risk did not differ by serotype. These findings highlight differences in case-fatality rates between serotypes and age; thus, continued epidemiologic surveillance across all ages is crucial to monitor the long-term effects of PCVs.

EID Navarro-Torné A, Dias J, Hruba F, Lopalco P, Pastore-Celentano L, Gauci AJ. Risk Factors for Death from Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Europe, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):417-425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140634
AMA Navarro-Torné A, Dias J, Hruba F, et al. Risk Factors for Death from Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Europe, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):417-425. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140634.
APA Navarro-Torné, A., Dias, J., Hruba, F., Lopalco, P., Pastore-Celentano, L., & Gauci, A. J. (2015). Risk Factors for Death from Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Europe, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 417-425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140634.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. Infection in Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Germany, 2011–2012 [PDF - 563 KB - 9 pages]
R. Dumke et al.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011–2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae–positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae–positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP.

EID Dumke R, Schnee C, Pletz MW, Rupp J, Jacobs E, Sachse K, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. Infection in Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Germany, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):426-434. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140927
AMA Dumke R, Schnee C, Pletz MW, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. Infection in Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Germany, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):426-434. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140927.
APA Dumke, R., Schnee, C., Pletz, M. W., Rupp, J., Jacobs, E., Sachse, K....Group, C. (2015). Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. Infection in Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Germany, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 426-434. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140927.

Medscape CME Activity
Epidemiology of Human Mycobacterium bovis Disease, California, USA, 2003–2011 [PDF - 528 KB - 9 pages]
M. Gallivan et al.

We conducted a retrospective review of California tuberculosis (TB) registry and genotyping data to evaluate trends, analyze epidemiologic differences between adult and child case-patients with Mycobacterium bovis disease, and identify risk factors for M. bovis disease. The percentage of TB cases attributable to M. bovis increased from 3.4% (80/2,384) in 2003 to 5.4% (98/1,808) in 2011 (p = 0.002). All (6/6) child case-patients with M. bovis disease during 2010–2011 had >1 parent/guardian who was born in Mexico, compared with 38% (22/58) of child case-patients with M. tuberculosis disease (p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis of TB case-patients showed Hispanic ethnicity, extrapulmonary disease, diabetes, and immunosuppressive conditions, excluding HIV co-infection, were independently associated with M. bovis disease. Prevention efforts should focus on Hispanic binational families and adults with immunosuppressive conditions. Collection of additional risk factors in the national TB surveillance system and expansion of whole-genome sequencing should be considered.

EID Gallivan M, Shah N, Flood J. Epidemiology of Human Mycobacterium bovis Disease, California, USA, 2003–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):435-443. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141539
AMA Gallivan M, Shah N, Flood J. Epidemiology of Human Mycobacterium bovis Disease, California, USA, 2003–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):435-443. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141539.
APA Gallivan, M., Shah, N., & Flood, J. (2015). Epidemiology of Human Mycobacterium bovis Disease, California, USA, 2003–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 435-443. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141539.
Dispatches

Regional Spread of Ebola Virus, West Africa, 2014 [PDF - 583 KB - 4 pages]
G. Rainisch et al.

To explain the spread of the 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, and thus help with response planning, we analyzed publicly available data. We found that the risk for infection in an area can be predicted by case counts, population data, and distances between affected and nonaffected areas.

EID Rainisch G, Shankar MB, Wellman M, Merlin TL, Meltzer MI. Regional Spread of Ebola Virus, West Africa, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):444-447. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141845
AMA Rainisch G, Shankar MB, Wellman M, et al. Regional Spread of Ebola Virus, West Africa, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):444-447. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141845.
APA Rainisch, G., Shankar, M. B., Wellman, M., Merlin, T. L., & Meltzer, M. I. (2015). Regional Spread of Ebola Virus, West Africa, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 444-447. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141845.

Spillover of Mycobacterium bovis from Wildlife to Livestock, South 
Africa [PDF - 466 KB - 4 pages]
J. Musoke et al.

During August 2012–February 2013, bovine tuberculosis was detected in communal livestock bordering the Greater Kruger National Park Complex (GKNPC) in South Africa. Using spacer oligonucleotide and variable number tandem repeat typing, we identified the Mycobacterium bovis strain endemic in GKNPC wildlife. Our findings indicate bovine tuberculosis spillover from GKNPC wildlife to neighboring livestock.

EID Musoke J, Hlokwe T, Marcotty T, du Plessis B, Michel AL. Spillover of Mycobacterium bovis from Wildlife to Livestock, South 
Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):448-451. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.131690
AMA Musoke J, Hlokwe T, Marcotty T, et al. Spillover of Mycobacterium bovis from Wildlife to Livestock, South 
Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):448-451. doi:10.3201/eid2103.131690.
APA Musoke, J., Hlokwe, T., Marcotty, T., du Plessis, B., & Michel, A. L. (2015). Spillover of Mycobacterium bovis from Wildlife to Livestock, South 
Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 448-451. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.131690.

Prisons as Reservoir for Community Transmission of Tuberculosis, Brazil [PDF - 397 KB - 4 pages]
F. Sacchi et al.

We conducted a population-based study of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Dourados, Brazil, to assess the relationship between incarceration and TB in the general population. Incarceration was associated with TB in an urban population; 54% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were related to strains from persons in prisons. TB control in prisons is critical for reducing disease prevalence.

EID Sacchi F, Praça RM, Tatara MB, Simonsen V, Ferrazoli L, Croda MG, et al. Prisons as Reservoir for Community Transmission of Tuberculosis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):452-455. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140896
AMA Sacchi F, Praça RM, Tatara MB, et al. Prisons as Reservoir for Community Transmission of Tuberculosis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):452-455. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140896.
APA Sacchi, F., Praça, R. M., Tatara, M. B., Simonsen, V., Ferrazoli, L., Croda, M. G....Croda, J. (2015). Prisons as Reservoir for Community Transmission of Tuberculosis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 452-455. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140896.

Polycystic Echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon Region, Peru [PDF - 676 KB - 4 pages]
P. Mayor et al.

In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli–contaminated areas.

EID Mayor P, Baquedano LE, Sanchez E, Aramburu J, Gomez-Puerta LA, Mamani VJ, et al. Polycystic Echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon Region, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):456-459. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141197
AMA Mayor P, Baquedano LE, Sanchez E, et al. Polycystic Echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon Region, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):456-459. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141197.
APA Mayor, P., Baquedano, L. E., Sanchez, E., Aramburu, J., Gomez-Puerta, L. A., Mamani, V. J....Gavidia, C. M. (2015). Polycystic Echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon Region, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 456-459. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141197.

Red Deer as Maintenance Host for Bovine Tuberculosis, Alpine Region [PDF - 391 KB - 4 pages]
M. Fink et al.

To estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the Alpine region, we studied the epidemiology of Mycobacterium caprae in wildlife during the 2009–2012 hunting seasons. Free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) were a maintenance host in a hot-spot area, mainly located in Austria.

EID Fink M, Schleicher C, Gonano M, Prodinger WM, Pacciarini M, Glawischnig W, et al. Red Deer as Maintenance Host for Bovine Tuberculosis, Alpine Region. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):464-467. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141119
AMA Fink M, Schleicher C, Gonano M, et al. Red Deer as Maintenance Host for Bovine Tuberculosis, Alpine Region. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):464-467. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141119.
APA Fink, M., Schleicher, C., Gonano, M., Prodinger, W. M., Pacciarini, M., Glawischnig, W....Büttner, M. (2015). Red Deer as Maintenance Host for Bovine Tuberculosis, Alpine Region. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 464-467. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141119.

Noninvasive Test for Tuberculosis Detection among Primates [PDF - 293 KB - 3 pages]
T. M. Wolf et al.

Traditional testing methods have limited epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis among free-living primates. PCR amplification of insertion element IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from fecal samples was evaluated as a noninvasive screening test for tuberculosis in primates. Active tuberculosis was detected among inoculated macaques and naturally exposed chimpanzees, demonstrating the utility of this test.

EID Wolf TM, Mugisha L, Shoyama F, O’Malley MJ, Flynn JL, Asiimwe B, et al. Noninvasive Test for Tuberculosis Detection among Primates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):468-470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140052
AMA Wolf TM, Mugisha L, Shoyama F, et al. Noninvasive Test for Tuberculosis Detection among Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):468-470. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140052.
APA Wolf, T. M., Mugisha, L., Shoyama, F., O’Malley, M. J., Flynn, J. L., Asiimwe, B....Sreevatsan, S. (2015). Noninvasive Test for Tuberculosis Detection among Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 468-470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140052.

Vertical Transmission of Bacterial Eye Infections, Angola, 2011–2012 [PDF - 323 KB - 3 pages]
M. Justel et al.

To determine transmission rates for neonatal conjunctivitis causative microorganisms in Angola, we analyzed 312 endocervical and 255 conjunctival samples from mothers and newborns, respectively, during 2011–2012. Transmission rates were 50% for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 10.5% for Mycoplasma genitalium. Possible pathogenic effects of M. genitalium in children’s eyes are unknown.

EID Justel M, Alexandre I, Martínez P, Sanz I, Rodriguez-Fernandez A, Fernandez I, et al. Vertical Transmission of Bacterial Eye Infections, Angola, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):471-473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140312
AMA Justel M, Alexandre I, Martínez P, et al. Vertical Transmission of Bacterial Eye Infections, Angola, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):471-473. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140312.
APA Justel, M., Alexandre, I., Martínez, P., Sanz, I., Rodriguez-Fernandez, A., Fernandez, I....Ortiz de Lejarazu, R. (2015). Vertical Transmission of Bacterial Eye Infections, Angola, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 471-473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140312.

Increased Risk for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Migratory Workers, Armenia [PDF - 579 KB - 3 pages]
N. Truzyan et al.

To understand use of tuberculosis (TB) services for migrant workers, we conducted a cross-sectional census of 95 migrant workers with TB from Armenia by using medical record reviews and face-to-face interviews. Prolonged time between diagnosis and treatment, treatment interruption, and treatment defaults caused by migrant work might increase the risk for multidrug-resistant TB.

EID Truzyan N, Crape B, Grigoryan R, Martirosyan H, Petrosyan V. Increased Risk for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Migratory Workers, Armenia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):474-476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140474
AMA Truzyan N, Crape B, Grigoryan R, et al. Increased Risk for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Migratory Workers, Armenia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):474-476. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140474.
APA Truzyan, N., Crape, B., Grigoryan, R., Martirosyan, H., & Petrosyan, V. (2015). Increased Risk for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Migratory Workers, Armenia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 474-476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140474.

Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Humans and Cats in Same Household, Texas, USA, 2012 [PDF - 519 KB - 4 pages]
K. Ramdas et al.

Mycobacterium bovis infection of cats is exceedingly rare in regions where bovine tuberculosis is not endemic. We describe the diagnosis and clinical management of pulmonary M. bovis infection in 2 indoor-housed cats and their association with at least 1 M. bovis–infected human in Texas, USA, in September 2012.

EID Ramdas K, Lyashchenko KP, Greenwald R, Robbe-Austerman S, McManis C, Waters W. Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Humans and Cats in Same Household, Texas, USA, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):480-483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140715
AMA Ramdas K, Lyashchenko KP, Greenwald R, et al. Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Humans and Cats in Same Household, Texas, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):480-483. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140715.
APA Ramdas, K., Lyashchenko, K. P., Greenwald, R., Robbe-Austerman, S., McManis, C., & Waters, W. (2015). Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Humans and Cats in Same Household, Texas, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 480-483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140715.

Reemergence of Murine Typhus in Galveston, Texas, USA, 2013 [PDF - 324 KB - 3 pages]
L. S. Blanton et al.

Twelve patients with murine typhus were identified in Galveston, Texas, USA, in 2013. An isolate from 1 patient was confirmed to be Rickettsia typhi. Reemergence of murine typhus in Galveston emphasizes the importance of vector control and awareness of this disease by physicians and public health officials.

EID Blanton LS, Vohra RF, Bouyer DH, Walker D. Reemergence of Murine Typhus in Galveston, Texas, USA, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):484-486. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140716
AMA Blanton LS, Vohra RF, Bouyer DH, et al. Reemergence of Murine Typhus in Galveston, Texas, USA, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):484-486. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140716.
APA Blanton, L. S., Vohra, R. F., Bouyer, D. H., & Walker, D. (2015). Reemergence of Murine Typhus in Galveston, Texas, USA, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 484-486. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140716.

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Japan and Public Health Communication [PDF - 427 KB - 3 pages]
T. Saito et al.

A fatal case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome was reported in Japan in 2013. The ensuing process of public communication offers lessons on how to balance public health needs with patient privacy and highlights the importance of multilateral collaborations between scientific and political communities.

EID Saito T, Fukushima K, Umeki K, Nakajima K. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Japan and Public Health Communication. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):487-489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140831
AMA Saito T, Fukushima K, Umeki K, et al. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Japan and Public Health Communication. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):487-489. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140831.
APA Saito, T., Fukushima, K., Umeki, K., & Nakajima, K. (2015). Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Japan and Public Health Communication. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 487-489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140831.

Novel Mutations in K13 Propeller Gene of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum [PDF - 504 KB - 3 pages]
R. Isozumi et al.

We looked for mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum K13 propeller gene of an artemisinin-resistant parasite on islands in Lake Victoria, Kenya, where transmission in 2012–2013 was high. The 4 new types of nonsynonymous, and 5 of synonymous, mutations we detected among 539 samples analyzed provide clues to understanding artemisinin-resistant parasites.

EID Isozumi R, Uemura H, Kimata I, Ichinose Y, Logedi J, Omar AH, et al. Novel Mutations in K13 Propeller Gene of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):490-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140898
AMA Isozumi R, Uemura H, Kimata I, et al. Novel Mutations in K13 Propeller Gene of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):490-492. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140898.
APA Isozumi, R., Uemura, H., Kimata, I., Ichinose, Y., Logedi, J., Omar, A. H....Kaneko, A. (2015). Novel Mutations in K13 Propeller Gene of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 490-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140898.

Comparison of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses from Germany and the United States, 2014 [PDF - 517 KB - 4 pages]
D. Hanke et al.

Since 2013, highly virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus has caused considerable economic losses in the United States. To determine the relation of US strains to those recently causing disease in Germany, we compared genomes and found that the strain from Germany is closely related to variants in the United States.

EID Hanke D, Jenckel M, Petrov A, Ritzmann M, Stadler J, Akimkin V, et al. Comparison of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses from Germany and the United States, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):493-496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141165
AMA Hanke D, Jenckel M, Petrov A, et al. Comparison of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses from Germany and the United States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):493-496. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141165.
APA Hanke, D., Jenckel, M., Petrov, A., Ritzmann, M., Stadler, J., Akimkin, V....Höper, D. (2015). Comparison of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses from Germany and the United States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 493-496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141165.

Buruli Ulcer in Traveler from Suriname, South America, to the Netherlands [PDF - 307 KB - 3 pages]
W. R. Faber et al.

We report Buruli ulcer in a man in the Netherlands. Phenotyping of samples indicate the Buruli pathogen was acquired in Suriname and activated by trauma on return to the Netherlands. Awareness of this disease by clinicians in non–Buruli ulcer–endemic areas is critical for identification.

EID Faber WR, de Jong B, de Vries H, Zeegelaar JE, Portaels F. Buruli Ulcer in Traveler from Suriname, South America, to the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):497-499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141237
AMA Faber WR, de Jong B, de Vries H, et al. Buruli Ulcer in Traveler from Suriname, South America, to the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):497-499. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141237.
APA Faber, W. R., de Jong, B., de Vries, H., Zeegelaar, J. E., & Portaels, F. (2015). Buruli Ulcer in Traveler from Suriname, South America, to the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 497-499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141237.

Moxifloxacin Prophylaxis against MDR TB, New York, New York, USA [PDF - 1.22 MB - 4 pages]
L. Trieu et al.

Contacts of persons infected with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) have few prophylaxis options. Of 50 contacts of HIV- and MDR TB–positive persons who were treated with moxifloxacin, 30 completed treatment and 3 discontinued treatment because of gastrointestinal symptoms. Moxifloxacin was generally well-tolerated; further research of its efficacy against MDR TB is needed.

EID Trieu L, Proops DC, Ahuja SD. Moxifloxacin Prophylaxis against MDR TB, New York, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):500-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141313
AMA Trieu L, Proops DC, Ahuja SD. Moxifloxacin Prophylaxis against MDR TB, New York, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):500-503. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141313.
APA Trieu, L., Proops, D. C., & Ahuja, S. D. (2015). Moxifloxacin Prophylaxis against MDR TB, New York, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 500-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141313.

Rapid Detection of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Blood Cultures [PDF - 389 KB - 4 pages]
L. Dortet et al.

We rapidly identified extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers prospectively among 245 gram-negative bacilli–positive cultured blood specimens using the Rapid ESBL Nordmann/Dortet/Poirel test and direct bacterial identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This combination identified ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae within 30 min and had high predictive values.

EID Dortet L, Poirel L, Nordmann P. Rapid Detection of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Blood Cultures. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):504-507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141277
AMA Dortet L, Poirel L, Nordmann P. Rapid Detection of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Blood Cultures. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):504-507. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141277.
APA Dortet, L., Poirel, L., & Nordmann, P. (2015). Rapid Detection of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Blood Cultures. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 504-507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141277.

Characteristics of Tuberculosis Cases that Started Outbreaks in the United States, 2002–2011 [PDF - 317 KB - 3 pages]
M. B. Haddad et al.

A review of 26 tuberculosis outbreaks in the United States (2002–2011) showed that initial source case-patients had long infectious periods (median 10 months) and were characterized by substance abuse, incarceration, and homelessness. Improved timeliness of diagnosis and thorough contact investigations for such cases may reduce the risk for outbreaks.

EID Haddad MB, Mitruka K, Oeltmann JE, Johns EB, Navin TR. Characteristics of Tuberculosis Cases that Started Outbreaks in the United States, 2002–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):508-510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141475
AMA Haddad MB, Mitruka K, Oeltmann JE, et al. Characteristics of Tuberculosis Cases that Started Outbreaks in the United States, 2002–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):508-510. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141475.
APA Haddad, M. B., Mitruka, K., Oeltmann, J. E., Johns, E. B., & Navin, T. R. (2015). Characteristics of Tuberculosis Cases that Started Outbreaks in the United States, 2002–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 508-510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141475.

Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in Laos [PDF - 553 KB - 6 pages]
F. Wong et al.

In March 2014, avian influenza in poultry in Laos was caused by an emergent influenza A(H5N6) virus. Genetic analysis indicated that the virus had originated from reassortment of influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1b, variant clade 2.3.4, and influenza A(H6N6) viruses that circulate broadly in duck populations in southern and eastern China.

EID Wong F, Phommachanh P, Kalpravidh W, Chanthavisouk C, Gilbert J, Bingham J, et al. Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in Laos. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):511-516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141488
AMA Wong F, Phommachanh P, Kalpravidh W, et al. Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):511-516. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141488.
APA Wong, F., Phommachanh, P., Kalpravidh, W., Chanthavisouk, C., Gilbert, J., Bingham, J....Morzaria, S. (2015). Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 511-516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141488.

Autochthonous Dengue Fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014 [PDF - 448 KB - 4 pages]
S. Kutsuna et al.

After 70 years with no confirmed autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Japan, 19 cases were reported during August–September 2014. Dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in 18 patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from 3 patients revealed 100% identity with the strain from the first patient (2014) in Japan.

EID Kutsuna S, Kato Y, Moi M, Kotaki A, Ota M, Shinohara K, et al. Autochthonous Dengue Fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):517-520. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141662
AMA Kutsuna S, Kato Y, Moi M, et al. Autochthonous Dengue Fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):517-520. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141662.
APA Kutsuna, S., Kato, Y., Moi, M., Kotaki, A., Ota, M., Shinohara, K....Ohmagari, N. (2015). Autochthonous Dengue Fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 517-520. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141662.

Treatment of Ebola Virus Infection with Antibodies from Reconvalescent Donors [PDF - 313 KB - 3 pages]
T. R. Kreil

Clinical evidence suggests that antibodies from reconvalescent donors (persons who have recovered from infection) may be effective in the treatment of Ebola virus infection. Administration of this treatment to Ebola virus–infected patients while preventing the transmission of other pathogenic viruses may be best accomplished by use of virus-inactivated reconvalescent plasma.

EID Kreil TR. Treatment of Ebola Virus Infection with Antibodies from Reconvalescent Donors. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):521-523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141838
AMA Kreil TR. Treatment of Ebola Virus Infection with Antibodies from Reconvalescent Donors. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):521-523. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141838.
APA Kreil, T. R. (2015). Treatment of Ebola Virus Infection with Antibodies from Reconvalescent Donors. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 521-523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141838.

Tuberculosis Microepidemics among Dispersed Migrants, Birmingham, UK, 2004–2013 [PDF - 1.16 MB - 4 pages]
M. L. Munang et al.

To determine if local transmission was responsible for rising tuberculosis incidence in a recently dispersed migrant community in Birmingham, UK, during 2004–2013, we conducted enhanced epidemiologic investigation of molecular clusters. This technique identified exact locations of social mixing and chains of apparent recent transmission, which can be helpful for directing resources.

EID Munang ML, Browne C, Khanom S, Evans JT, Smith E, Hawkey PM, et al. Tuberculosis Microepidemics among Dispersed Migrants, Birmingham, UK, 2004–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):524-527. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140209
AMA Munang ML, Browne C, Khanom S, et al. Tuberculosis Microepidemics among Dispersed Migrants, Birmingham, UK, 2004–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):524-527. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140209.
APA Munang, M. L., Browne, C., Khanom, S., Evans, J. T., Smith, E., Hawkey, P. M....Dedicoat, M. (2015). Tuberculosis Microepidemics among Dispersed Migrants, Birmingham, UK, 2004–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 524-527. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140209.

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Guaroa Virus Diversity, Evolution, and Spread in South America [PDF - 526 KB - 4 pages]
A. Groseth et al.

We conducted phylogeographic modeling to determine the introduction and spread of Guaroa virus in South America. The results suggest a recent introduction of this virus into regions of Peru and Bolivia over the past 60–70 years and emphasize the need for increased surveillance in surrounding areas.

EID Groseth A, Wollenberg KR, Mampilli V, Shupert T, Weisend C, Guevara C, et al. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Guaroa Virus Diversity, Evolution, and Spread in South America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):460-463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141351
AMA Groseth A, Wollenberg KR, Mampilli V, et al. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Guaroa Virus Diversity, Evolution, and Spread in South America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):460-463. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141351.
APA Groseth, A., Wollenberg, K. R., Mampilli, V., Shupert, T., Weisend, C., Guevara, C....Ebihara, H. (2015). Spatiotemporal Analysis of Guaroa Virus Diversity, Evolution, and Spread in South America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 460-463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141351.
Letters

Endemic and Imported Measles Virus–Associated Outbreaks among Adults, Beijing, China, 2013 [PDF - 622 KB - 3 pages]
M. Chen et al.

In 2013, a resurgence of measles occurred in Beijing, China. The outbreaks occurred among adults and were associated with endemic genotype H1 and imported genotype D8 viruses. Migrant workers were disproportionately represented in the outbreaks; thus, vaccinating such workers against measles may be an effective strategy toward the elimination of this disease.

EID Chen M, Wang L, Huang F, Wang H, Liu D, Li J, et al. Endemic and Imported Measles Virus–Associated Outbreaks among Adults, Beijing, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):477-479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140646
AMA Chen M, Wang L, Huang F, et al. Endemic and Imported Measles Virus–Associated Outbreaks among Adults, Beijing, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):477-479. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140646.
APA Chen, M., Wang, L., Huang, F., Wang, H., Liu, D., Li, J....Xu, W. (2015). Endemic and Imported Measles Virus–Associated Outbreaks among Adults, Beijing, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 477-479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140646.

Echinococcus vogeli in Immigrant from Suriname to the Netherlands [PDF - 2.24 MB - 3 pages]
K. Stijnis et al.
EID Stijnis K, Dijkmans AC, Bart A, Brosens L, Muntau B, Schoen C, et al. Echinococcus vogeli in Immigrant from Suriname to the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):528-530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141205
AMA Stijnis K, Dijkmans AC, Bart A, et al. Echinococcus vogeli in Immigrant from Suriname to the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):528-530. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141205.
APA Stijnis, K., Dijkmans, A. C., Bart, A., Brosens, L., Muntau, B., Schoen, C....Tappe, D. (2015). Echinococcus vogeli in Immigrant from Suriname to the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 528-530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141205.

Post-Chikungunya Rheumatoid Arthritis, Saint Martin [PDF - 302 KB - 3 pages]
M. Foissac et al.
EID Foissac M, Javelle E, Ray S, Guérin B, Simon F. Post-Chikungunya Rheumatoid Arthritis, Saint Martin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):530-532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141397
AMA Foissac M, Javelle E, Ray S, et al. Post-Chikungunya Rheumatoid Arthritis, Saint Martin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):530-532. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141397.
APA Foissac, M., Javelle, E., Ray, S., Guérin, B., & Simon, F. (2015). Post-Chikungunya Rheumatoid Arthritis, Saint Martin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 530-532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141397.

Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Humans, Costa Rica [PDF - 323 KB - 3 pages]
N. Rojas et al.
EID Rojas N, Castillo D, Marin P. Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Humans, Costa Rica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):532-534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.131759
AMA Rojas N, Castillo D, Marin P. Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Humans, Costa Rica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):532-534. doi:10.3201/eid2103.131759.
APA Rojas, N., Castillo, D., & Marin, P. (2015). Molecular Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Humans, Costa Rica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 532-534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.131759.

Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Imported Sooty Mangabey, Thailand [PDF - 274 KB - 2 pages]
S. Kesdangsakonwut et al.
EID Kesdangsakonwut S, Sommanustweechai A, Chaiprasert A. Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Imported Sooty Mangabey, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):534-535. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.131785
AMA Kesdangsakonwut S, Sommanustweechai A, Chaiprasert A. Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Imported Sooty Mangabey, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):534-535. doi:10.3201/eid2103.131785.
APA Kesdangsakonwut, S., Sommanustweechai, A., & Chaiprasert, A. (2015). Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Imported Sooty Mangabey, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 534-535. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.131785.

Treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis [PDF - 281 KB - 3 pages]
R. Huth et al.
EID Huth R, Douglass E, Mondy K, Vasireddy S, Wallace RJ. Treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):535-537. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140577
AMA Huth R, Douglass E, Mondy K, et al. Treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):535-537. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140577.
APA Huth, R., Douglass, E., Mondy, K., Vasireddy, S., & Wallace, R. J. (2015). Treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 535-537. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140577.

Rickettsia rickettsii in Amblyomma patinoi Ticks, Colombia [PDF - 327 KB - 3 pages]
Á. A. Faccini-Martínez et al.
EID Faccini-Martínez ÁA, Costa FB, Hayama-Ueno TE, Ramírez-Hernández A, Cortés-Vecino JA, Labruna MB, et al. Rickettsia rickettsii in Amblyomma patinoi Ticks, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):537-539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140721
AMA Faccini-Martínez ÁA, Costa FB, Hayama-Ueno TE, et al. Rickettsia rickettsii in Amblyomma patinoi Ticks, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):537-539. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140721.
APA Faccini-Martínez, Á. A., Costa, F. B., Hayama-Ueno, T. E., Ramírez-Hernández, A., Cortés-Vecino, J. A., Labruna, M. B....Hidalgo, M. (2015). Rickettsia rickettsii in Amblyomma patinoi Ticks, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 537-539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140721.

Mycobacterium bovis BCG–Associated Osteomyelitis/Osteitis, Taiwan [PDF - 306 KB - 2 pages]
N. Chiu et al.
EID Chiu N, Lin M, Lin W, Wang S, Chi H, Huang L, et al. Mycobacterium bovis BCG–Associated Osteomyelitis/Osteitis, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):539-540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140789
AMA Chiu N, Lin M, Lin W, et al. Mycobacterium bovis BCG–Associated Osteomyelitis/Osteitis, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):539-540. doi:10.3201/eid2103.140789.
APA Chiu, N., Lin, M., Lin, W., Wang, S., Chi, H., Huang, L....Lin, T. (2015). Mycobacterium bovis BCG–Associated Osteomyelitis/Osteitis, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 539-540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.140789.

High Prevalence of Hepatitis Delta Virus among Persons Who Inject Drugs, Vietnam [PDF - 352 KB - 4 pages]
N. Hall et al.
EID Hall N, Thuy L, Diem T, Waters A, Dunford L, Connell J, et al. High Prevalence of Hepatitis Delta Virus among Persons Who Inject Drugs, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):540-543. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141147
AMA Hall N, Thuy L, Diem T, et al. High Prevalence of Hepatitis Delta Virus among Persons Who Inject Drugs, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):540-543. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141147.
APA Hall, N., Thuy, L., Diem, T., Waters, A., Dunford, L., Connell, J....Thi, L. (2015). High Prevalence of Hepatitis Delta Virus among Persons Who Inject Drugs, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 540-543. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141147.

Cholera in Yangon, Myanmar, 2012–2013 [PDF - 263 KB - 2 pages]
W. Aung et al.
EID Aung W, Okada K, Na-Ubol M, Natakuathung W, Sandar T, Oo N, et al. Cholera in Yangon, Myanmar, 2012–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):543-544. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141309
AMA Aung W, Okada K, Na-Ubol M, et al. Cholera in Yangon, Myanmar, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):543-544. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141309.
APA Aung, W., Okada, K., Na-Ubol, M., Natakuathung, W., Sandar, T., Oo, N....Hamada, S. (2015). Cholera in Yangon, Myanmar, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 543-544. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141309.

Role of Race/Ethnicity in Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease [PDF - 264 KB - 2 pages]
B. S. Thomas and K. Okamoto
EID Thomas BS, Okamoto K. Role of Race/Ethnicity in Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):544-545. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141369
AMA Thomas BS, Okamoto K. Role of Race/Ethnicity in Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):544-545. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141369.
APA Thomas, B. S., & Okamoto, K. (2015). Role of Race/Ethnicity in Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 544-545. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141369.

Rickettsial Infections in Monkeys, Malaysia [PDF - 344 KB - 3 pages]
S. Tay et al.
EID Tay S, Koh F, Kho K, Sitam F. Rickettsial Infections in Monkeys, Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):545-547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141457
AMA Tay S, Koh F, Kho K, et al. Rickettsial Infections in Monkeys, Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):545-547. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141457.
APA Tay, S., Koh, F., Kho, K., & Sitam, F. (2015). Rickettsial Infections in Monkeys, Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 545-547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141457.

Effect of Ciliates in Transfer of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone-Resistance Genes in Bacteria [PDF - 333 KB - 3 pages]
J. Balcázar
EID Balcázar J. Effect of Ciliates in Transfer of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone-Resistance Genes in Bacteria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):547-549. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141549
AMA Balcázar J. Effect of Ciliates in Transfer of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone-Resistance Genes in Bacteria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):547-549. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141549.
APA Balcázar, J. (2015). Effect of Ciliates in Transfer of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone-Resistance Genes in Bacteria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 547-549. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141549.

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Replication in Duck Intestinal Cell Line [PDF - 300 KB - 2 pages]
M. Khatri
EID Khatri M. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Replication in Duck Intestinal Cell Line. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):549-550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141658
AMA Khatri M. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Replication in Duck Intestinal Cell Line. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):549-550. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141658.
APA Khatri, M. (2015). Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Replication in Duck Intestinal Cell Line. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 549-550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141658.

Lack of Effect of Lamivudine on Ebola Virus Replication [PDF - 484 KB - 2 pages]
L. Hensley et al.
EID Hensley L, Dyall J, Olinger GG, Jahrling PB. Lack of Effect of Lamivudine on Ebola Virus Replication. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):550-552. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141862
AMA Hensley L, Dyall J, Olinger GG, et al. Lack of Effect of Lamivudine on Ebola Virus Replication. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):550-552. doi:10.3201/eid2103.141862.
APA Hensley, L., Dyall, J., Olinger, G. G., & Jahrling, P. B. (2015). Lack of Effect of Lamivudine on Ebola Virus Replication. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 550-552. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141862.
About the Cover

A Master Medalist, a President, Tuberculosis, and a Congress: Contributions More Lasting than Bronze [PDF - 398 KB - 2 pages]
T. Chorba
EID Chorba T. A Master Medalist, a President, Tuberculosis, and a Congress: Contributions More Lasting than Bronze. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):553-554. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.ac2013
AMA Chorba T. A Master Medalist, a President, Tuberculosis, and a Congress: Contributions More Lasting than Bronze. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):553-554. doi:10.3201/eid2103.ac2013.
APA Chorba, T. (2015). A Master Medalist, a President, Tuberculosis, and a Congress: Contributions More Lasting than Bronze. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 553-554. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.ac2013.
Etymologia

Etymologia: M. bovis
EID Etymologia: M. bovis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(3):443. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.et2103
AMA Etymologia: M. bovis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):443. doi:10.3201/eid2103.et2103.
APA (2015). Etymologia: M. bovis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 443. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.et2103.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 21, No. 2
Page created: November 02, 2017
Page updated: November 02, 2017
Page reviewed: November 02, 2017
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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