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Volume 22, Number 12—December 2016

Zika Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System and Female Genital Tract

Emanuele Nicastri, Concetta CastillettiComments to Author , Pietro Balestra, Simonetta Galgani, and Giuseppe Ippolito
Author affiliations: National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy (E. Nicastri, C. Castilletti, P. Balestra, G. Ippolito); Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo-Forlanini, Rome (S. Galgani)

Main Article


Virologic test results during Zika virus infection in a 32-year-old woman after she returned from the Dominican Republic to Italy, April–June 2016*

Test/specimen type
1st sample, day 6†
2nd sample, day 7†
3rd sample, day 10†
4th sample, day 13†
5th sample, day 17†
6th sample, day 28†
Zika virus
rRT-PCR‡ serum Positive (32.9) Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative
rRT-PCR‡ urine Positive (34.2) Positive (31.8) Positive (32.4) Positive (29.8) Positive (32.1) Positive (32.2)
rRT-PCR‡ saliva ND Positive (29.9) Positive (33.5) Positive (34.1) Negative Negative
rRT-PCR‡ CSF ND Positive (37.0) ND ND Negative ND
rRT-PCR‡ cervical swab sample ND Positive (31.1) Negative Positive (34.3) Negative Negative
IFA§ IgM titer <1:20 1:40 1:160 1:80 1:320 1:1,280
IFA§ IgG titer <1:20 <1:20 1:40 1:320 1:320 1:320
MNT¶ Ab titer
Dengue virus IFA§ IgM titer <1:20 <1:20 <1:20 <1:20 <1:20 <1:20
Dengue virus IFA§ IgG titer
Chikungunya virus IFA§ IgM titer <1:20 <1:20 <1:20 <1:20 <1:20 <1:20
Chikungunya virus IFA§ IgG titer <1:20 <1:20 <1:20 <1:20 <1:20 <1:20

*Ab, antibody; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; IFA, immunofluorescence assay; MNT, microneutralization test; ND, not done; rRT-PCR, real-time reverse transcription PCR.
†Days from symptom onset.
‡Zika virus–specific rRT-PCR (RealStar Zika Virus RT-PCR Kit 1.0; Altona Diagnostics GmbH; Hamburg, Germany). Numbers in parentheses indicate cycle threshold values (Technical Appendix).
§IgG and IgM IFA (Arbovirus Mosaic 2; Euroimmun AG; Luebeck, Germany). Reference values (titer) serum: <1:20 = negative; >1:20 = positive (Technical Appendix).
¶MNT titers <1:20 were considered negative (Technical Appendix).

Main Article

Page created: November 18, 2016
Page updated: November 18, 2016
Page reviewed: November 18, 2016
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