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Issue Cover for Volume 22, Number 12—December 2016

Volume 22, Number 12—December 2016

[PDF - 9.70 MB - 216 pages]

Synopses

Assessing the Epidemic Potential of RNA and DNA Viruses [PDF - 999 KB - 8 pages]
M. Woolhouse et al.

Many new and emerging RNA and DNA viruses are zoonotic or have zoonotic origins in an animal reservoir that is usually mammalian and sometimes avian. Not all zoonotic viruses are transmissible (directly or by an arthropod vector) between human hosts. Virus genome sequence data provide the best evidence of transmission. Of human transmissible virus, 37 species have so far been restricted to self-limiting outbreaks. These viruses are priorities for surveillance because relatively minor changes in their epidemiologies can potentially lead to major changes in the threat they pose to public health. On the basis of comparisons across all recognized human viruses, we consider the characteristics of these priority viruses and assess the likelihood that they will further emerge in human populations. We also assess the likelihood that a virus that can infect humans but is not capable of transmission (directly or by a vector) between human hosts can acquire that capability.

EID Woolhouse M, Brierley L, McCaffery C, Lycett S. Assessing the Epidemic Potential of RNA and DNA Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2037-2044. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160123
AMA Woolhouse M, Brierley L, McCaffery C, et al. Assessing the Epidemic Potential of RNA and DNA Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2037-2044. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160123.
APA Woolhouse, M., Brierley, L., McCaffery, C., & Lycett, S. (2016). Assessing the Epidemic Potential of RNA and DNA Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2037-2044. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160123.

Medscape CME Activity
Investigation of and Response to 2 Plague Cases, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2015 [PDF - 705 KB - 9 pages]
M. Danforth et al.

In August 2015, plague was diagnosed for 2 persons who had visited Yosemite National Park in California, USA. One case was septicemic and the other bubonic. Subsequent environmental investigation identified probable locations of exposure for each patient and evidence of epizootic plague in other areas of the park. Transmission of Yersinia pestis was detected by testing rodent serum, fleas, and rodent carcasses. The environmental investigation and whole-genome multilocus sequence typing of Y. pestis isolates from the patients and environmental samples indicated that the patients had been exposed in different locations and that at least 2 distinct strains of Y. pestis were circulating among vector–host populations in the area. Public education efforts and insecticide applications in select areas to control rodent fleas probably reduced the risk for plague transmission to park visitors and staff.

EID Danforth M, Novak M, Petersen J, Mead PS, Kingry L, Weinburke M, et al. Investigation of and Response to 2 Plague Cases, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2045-2053. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160560
AMA Danforth M, Novak M, Petersen J, et al. Investigation of and Response to 2 Plague Cases, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2045-2053. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160560.
APA Danforth, M., Novak, M., Petersen, J., Mead, P. S., Kingry, L., Weinburke, M....Kramer, V. L. (2016). Investigation of and Response to 2 Plague Cases, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2045-2053. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160560.
Research

Anomalous High Rainfall and Soil Saturation as Combined Risk Indicator of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, South Africa, 2008–2011 [PDF - 4.19 MB - 9 pages]
R. Williams et al.

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a zoonotic vectorborne viral disease, causes loss of life among humans and livestock and an adverse effect on the economy of affected countries. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect livestock; however, during protracted interepidemic periods, farmers discontinue vaccination, which leads to loss of herd immunity and heavy losses of livestock when subsequent outbreaks occur. Retrospective analysis of the 2008–2011 RVF epidemics in South Africa revealed a pattern of continuous and widespread seasonal rainfall causing substantial soil saturation followed by explicit rainfall events that flooded dambos (seasonally flooded depressions), triggering outbreaks of disease. Incorporation of rainfall and soil saturation data into a prediction model for major outbreaks of RVF resulted in the correctly identified risk in nearly 90% of instances at least 1 month before outbreaks occurred; all indications are that irrigation is of major importance in the remaining 10% of outbreaks.

EID Williams R, Malherbe J, Weepener H, Majiwa P, Swanepoel R. Anomalous High Rainfall and Soil Saturation as Combined Risk Indicator of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, South Africa, 2008–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2054-2062. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.151352
AMA Williams R, Malherbe J, Weepener H, et al. Anomalous High Rainfall and Soil Saturation as Combined Risk Indicator of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, South Africa, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2054-2062. doi:10.3201/eid2212.151352.
APA Williams, R., Malherbe, J., Weepener, H., Majiwa, P., & Swanepoel, R. (2016). Anomalous High Rainfall and Soil Saturation as Combined Risk Indicator of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, South Africa, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2054-2062. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.151352.

Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis [PDF - 2.08 MB - 7 pages]
R. Vilela et al.

Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P. brasiliensis, 73% with those of L. loboi, and 93% with those of P. lutzii. Parsimony analysis placed DNA sequences from dolphins within a cluster with human P. brasiliensis strains. This cluster was the sister taxon to P. lutzii and L. loboi. Our molecular data support previous findings and suggest that a novel uncultivated strain of P. brasiliensis restricted to cutaneous lesions in dolphins is probably the cause of lacaziosis/lobomycosis, herein referred to as paracoccidioidomycosis ceti.

EID Vilela R, Bossart GD, St. Leger JA, Dalton LM, Reif JS, Schaefer AM, et al. Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2063-2069. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160860
AMA Vilela R, Bossart GD, St. Leger JA, et al. Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2063-2069. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160860.
APA Vilela, R., Bossart, G. D., St. Leger, J. A., Dalton, L. M., Reif, J. S., Schaefer, A. M....Mendoza, L. (2016). Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2063-2069. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160860.

Vertebrate Host Susceptibility to Heartland Virus [PDF - 1.50 MB - 8 pages]
A. M. Bosco-Lauth et al.

Heartland virus (HRTV) is a recently described phlebovirus initially isolated in 2009 from 2 humans who had leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Serologic assessment of domestic and wild animal populations near the residence of 1 of these persons showed high exposure rates to raccoons, white-tailed deer, and horses. To our knowledge, no laboratory-based assessments of viremic potential of animals infected with HRTV have been performed. We experimentally inoculated several vertebrates (raccoons, goats, chickens, rabbits, hamsters, C57BL/6 mice, and interferon-α/β/γ receptor–deficient [Ag129]) mice with this virus. All animals showed immune responses against HRTV after primary or secondary exposure. However, neutralizing antibody responses were limited. Only Ag129 mice showed detectable viremia and associated illness and death, which were dose dependent. Ag129 mice also showed development of mean peak viral antibody titers >8 log10 PFU/mL, hemorrhagic hepatic lesions, splenomegaly, and large amounts of HRTV antigen in mononuclear cells and hematopoietic cells in the spleen.

EID Bosco-Lauth AM, Calvert AE, Root J, Gidlewski T, Bird BH, Bowen RA, et al. Vertebrate Host Susceptibility to Heartland Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2070-2077. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160472
AMA Bosco-Lauth AM, Calvert AE, Root J, et al. Vertebrate Host Susceptibility to Heartland Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2070-2077. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160472.
APA Bosco-Lauth, A. M., Calvert, A. E., Root, J., Gidlewski, T., Bird, B. H., Bowen, R. A....Brault, A. C. (2016). Vertebrate Host Susceptibility to Heartland Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2070-2077. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160472.

Whole-Genome Characterization and Strain Comparison of VT2f-Producing Escherichia coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome [PDF - 1.42 MB - 9 pages]
L. Grande et al.

Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in humans cause disease ranging from uncomplicated intestinal illnesses to bloody diarrhea and systemic sequelae, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Previous research indicated that pigeons may be a reservoir for a population of verotoxigenic E. coli producing the VT2f variant. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize a set of VT2f-producing E. coli strains from human patients with diarrhea or HUS and from healthy pigeons. We describe a phage conveying the vtx2f genes and provide evidence that the strains causing milder diarrheal disease may be transmitted to humans from pigeons. The strains causing HUS could derive from VT2f phage acquisition by E. coli strains with a virulence genes asset resembling that of typical HUS-associated verotoxigenic E. coli.

EID Grande L, Michelacci V, Bondì R, Gigliucci F, Franz E, Badouei M, et al. Whole-Genome Characterization and Strain Comparison of VT2f-Producing Escherichia coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2078-2086. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160017
AMA Grande L, Michelacci V, Bondì R, et al. Whole-Genome Characterization and Strain Comparison of VT2f-Producing Escherichia coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2078-2086. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160017.
APA Grande, L., Michelacci, V., Bondì, R., Gigliucci, F., Franz, E., Badouei, M....Morabito, S. (2016). Whole-Genome Characterization and Strain Comparison of VT2f-Producing Escherichia coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2078-2086. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160017.

African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and Reversion to Virulence of Live, Attenuated Vaccine Viruses, South Africa, 2004–2014 [PDF - 4.79 MB - 10 pages]
C. Weyer et al.

African horse sickness (AHS) is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. It is the only equine disease for which the World Organization for Animal Health has introduced specific guidelines for member countries seeking official recognition of disease-free status. Since 1997, South Africa has maintained an AHS controlled area; however, sporadic outbreaks of AHS have occurred in this area. We compared the whole genome sequences of 39 AHS viruses (AHSVs) from field AHS cases to determine the source of 3 such outbreaks. Our analysis confirmed that individual outbreaks were caused by virulent revertants of AHSV type 1 live, attenuated vaccine (LAV) and reassortants with genome segments derived from AHSV types 1, 3, and 4 from a LAV used in South Africa. These findings show that despite effective protection of vaccinated horses, polyvalent LAV may, paradoxically, place susceptible horses at risk for AHS.

EID Weyer C, Grewar JD, Burger P, Rossouw E, Lourens C, Joone C, et al. African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and Reversion to Virulence of Live, Attenuated Vaccine Viruses, South Africa, 2004–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2087-2096. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160718
AMA Weyer C, Grewar JD, Burger P, et al. African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and Reversion to Virulence of Live, Attenuated Vaccine Viruses, South Africa, 2004–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2087-2096. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160718.
APA Weyer, C., Grewar, J. D., Burger, P., Rossouw, E., Lourens, C., Joone, C....Guthrie, A. J. (2016). African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and Reversion to Virulence of Live, Attenuated Vaccine Viruses, South Africa, 2004–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2087-2096. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160718.

Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype IV in Humans and Cattle, Northern Europe [PDF - 738 KB - 7 pages]
U. Lyhs et al.

Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging pathogen of nonpregnant human adults worldwide and a reemerging pathogen of dairy cattle in parts of Europe. To learn more about interspecies transmission of this bacterium, we compared contemporaneously collected isolates from humans and cattle in Finland and Sweden. Multilocus sequence typing identified 5 sequence types (STs) (ST1, 8, 12, 23, and 196) shared across the 2 host species, suggesting possible interspecies transmission. More than 54% of the isolates belonged to those STs. Molecular serotyping and pilus island typing of those isolates did not differentiate between populations isolated from different host species. Isolates from humans and cattle differed in lactose fermentation, which is encoded on the accessory genome and represents an adaptation to the bovine mammary gland. Serotype IV-ST196 isolates were obtained from multiple dairy herds in both countries. Cattle may constitute a previously unknown reservoir of this strain.

EID Lyhs U, Kulkas L, Katholm J, Waller K, Saha K, Tomusk RJ, et al. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype IV in Humans and Cattle, Northern Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2097-2103. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.151447
AMA Lyhs U, Kulkas L, Katholm J, et al. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype IV in Humans and Cattle, Northern Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2097-2103. doi:10.3201/eid2212.151447.
APA Lyhs, U., Kulkas, L., Katholm, J., Waller, K., Saha, K., Tomusk, R. J....Zadoks, R. N. (2016). Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype IV in Humans and Cattle, Northern Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2097-2103. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.151447.

Effect of Live Poultry Market Interventions on Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, Guangdong, China [PDF - 2.72 MB - 9 pages]
J. Wu et al.

Since March 2013, three waves of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been detected in China. To investigate virus transmission within and across epidemic waves, we used surveillance data and whole-genome analysis of viruses sampled in Guangdong during 2013–2015. We observed a geographic shift of human A(H7N9) infections from the second to the third waves. Live poultry market interventions were undertaken in epicenter cities; however, spatial phylogenetic analysis indicated that the third-wave outbreaks in central Guangdong most likely resulted from local virus persistence rather than introduction from elsewhere. Although the number of clinical cases in humans declined by 35% from the second to the third waves, the genetic diversity of third-wave viruses in Guangdong increased. Our results highlight the epidemic risk to a region reporting comparatively few A(H7N9) cases. Moreover, our results suggest that live-poultry market interventions cannot completely halt A(H7N9) virus persistence and dissemination.

EID Wu J, Lu J, Sabino EC, Zeng X, Song Y, Zou L, et al. Effect of Live Poultry Market Interventions on Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, Guangdong, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2104-2112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160450
AMA Wu J, Lu J, Sabino EC, et al. Effect of Live Poultry Market Interventions on Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, Guangdong, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2104-2112. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160450.
APA Wu, J., Lu, J., Sabino, E. C., Zeng, X., Song, Y., Zou, L....Ke, C. (2016). Effect of Live Poultry Market Interventions on Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, Guangdong, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2104-2112. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160450.

Infectious Dose of Listeria monocytogenes in Outbreak Linked to Ice Cream, United States, 2015 [PDF - 546 KB - 7 pages]
R. Pouillot et al.

The relationship between the number of ingested Listeria monocytogenes cells in food and the likelihood of developing listeriosis is not well understood. Data from an outbreak of listeriosis linked to milkshakes made from ice cream produced in 1 factory showed that contaminated products were distributed widely to the public without any reported cases, except for 4 cases of severe illness in persons who were highly susceptible. The ingestion of high doses of L. monocytogenes by these patients infected through milkshakes was unlikely if possible additional contamination associated with the preparation of the milkshake is ruled out. This outbreak illustrated that the vast majority of the population did not become ill after ingesting a low level of L. monocytogenes but raises the question of listeriosis cases in highly susceptible persons after distribution of low-level contaminated products that did not support the growth of this pathogen.

EID Pouillot R, Klontz KC, Chen Y, Burall LS, Macarisin D, Doyle M, et al. Infectious Dose of Listeria monocytogenes in Outbreak Linked to Ice Cream, United States, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2113-2119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160165
AMA Pouillot R, Klontz KC, Chen Y, et al. Infectious Dose of Listeria monocytogenes in Outbreak Linked to Ice Cream, United States, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2113-2119. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160165.
APA Pouillot, R., Klontz, K. C., Chen, Y., Burall, L. S., Macarisin, D., Doyle, M....Van Doren, J. M. (2016). Infectious Dose of Listeria monocytogenes in Outbreak Linked to Ice Cream, United States, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2113-2119. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160165.

Medscape CME Activity
Electrolyte and Metabolic Disturbances in Ebola Patients during a Clinical Trial, Guinea, 2015 [PDF - 947 KB - 8 pages]
J. van Griensven et al.

By using data from a 2015 clinical trial on Ebola convalescent-phase plasma in Guinea, we assessed the prevalence of electrolyte and metabolic abnormalities at admission and their predictive value to stratify patients into risk groups. Patients underwent testing with a point-of-care device. We used logistic regression to construct a prognostic model and summarized the predictive value with the area under the receiver operating curve. Abnormalities were common among patients, particularly hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, raised creatinine, high anion gap, and anemia. Besides age and PCR cycle threshold value, renal dysfunction, low calcium levels, and low hemoglobin levels were independently associated with increased risk for death. A prognostic model using all 5 factors was highly discriminatory (area under the receiver operating curve 0.95; 95% CI 0.90–0.99) and enabled the definition of risk criteria to guide targeted care. Most patients had a very low (<5%) or very high (>80%) risk for death.

EID van Griensven J, Bah E, Haba N, Delamou A, Camara B, Olivier K, et al. Electrolyte and Metabolic Disturbances in Ebola Patients during a Clinical Trial, Guinea, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2120-2127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161136
AMA van Griensven J, Bah E, Haba N, et al. Electrolyte and Metabolic Disturbances in Ebola Patients during a Clinical Trial, Guinea, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2120-2127. doi:10.3201/eid2212.161136.
APA van Griensven, J., Bah, E., Haba, N., Delamou, A., Camara, B., Olivier, K....De Weggheleire, A. (2016). Electrolyte and Metabolic Disturbances in Ebola Patients during a Clinical Trial, Guinea, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2120-2127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161136.
Dispatches

Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworm Seroprevalence among Wildlife Rehabilitators, United States and Canada, 2012–2015 [PDF - 1.04 MB - 4 pages]
S. Sapp et al.

Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms can cause potentially fatal neural larva migrans in many species, including humans. However, the clinical spectrum of baylisascariasis is not completely understood. We tested 347 asymptomatic adult wildlife rehabilitators for B. procyonis antibodies; 24 were positive, suggesting that subclinical baylisascariasis is occurring among this population.

EID Sapp S, Rascoe LN, Wilkins PP, Handali S, Gray EB, Eberhard ML, et al. Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworm Seroprevalence among Wildlife Rehabilitators, United States and Canada, 2012–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2128-2131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160467
AMA Sapp S, Rascoe LN, Wilkins PP, et al. Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworm Seroprevalence among Wildlife Rehabilitators, United States and Canada, 2012–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2128-2131. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160467.
APA Sapp, S., Rascoe, L. N., Wilkins, P. P., Handali, S., Gray, E. B., Eberhard, M. L....Yabsley, M. J. (2016). Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworm Seroprevalence among Wildlife Rehabilitators, United States and Canada, 2012–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2128-2131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160467.

Genetically Different Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses in West Africa, 2015 [PDF - 2.24 MB - 5 pages]
L. Tassoni et al.

To trace the evolution of highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1) virus in West Africa, we sequenced genomes of 43 viruses collected during 2015 from poultry and wild birds in 5 countries. We found 2 co-circulating genetic groups within clade 2.3.2.1c. Mutations that may increase adaptation to mammals raise concern over possible risk for humans.

EID Tassoni L, Fusaro A, Milani A, Lemey P, Awuni J, Sedor V, et al. Genetically Different Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses in West Africa, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2132-2136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160578
AMA Tassoni L, Fusaro A, Milani A, et al. Genetically Different Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses in West Africa, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2132-2136. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160578.
APA Tassoni, L., Fusaro, A., Milani, A., Lemey, P., Awuni, J., Sedor, V....Monne, I. (2016). Genetically Different Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses in West Africa, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2132-2136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160578.

Highly Pathogenic Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Clade 2.3.2.1a in Poultry, Bhutan [PDF - 1.58 MB - 5 pages]
A. Marinova-Petkova et al.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1), clade 2.3.2.1a, with an H9-like polymerase basic protein 1 gene, isolated in Bhutan in 2012, replicated faster in vitro than its H5N1 parental genotype and was transmitted more efficiently in a chicken model. These properties likely help limit/eradicate outbreaks, combined with strict control measures.

EID Marinova-Petkova A, Franks J, Tenzin S, Dahal N, Dukpa K, Dorjee J, et al. Highly Pathogenic Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Clade 2.3.2.1a in Poultry, Bhutan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2137-2141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160611
AMA Marinova-Petkova A, Franks J, Tenzin S, et al. Highly Pathogenic Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Clade 2.3.2.1a in Poultry, Bhutan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2137-2141. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160611.
APA Marinova-Petkova, A., Franks, J., Tenzin, S., Dahal, N., Dukpa, K., Dorjee, J....Webster, R. G. (2016). Highly Pathogenic Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Clade 2.3.2.1a in Poultry, Bhutan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2137-2141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160611.

Horizontal Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Reindeer [PDF - 1.87 MB - 4 pages]
S. Moore et al.

We challenged reindeer by the intracranial route with the agent of chronic wasting disease sourced from white-tailed deer, mule deer, or elk and tested for horizontal transmission to naive reindeer. Reindeer were susceptible to chronic wasting disease regardless of source species. Horizontal transmission occurred through direct contact or indirectly through the environment.

EID Moore S, Kunkle R, Greenlee M, Nicholson E, Richt J, Hamir A, et al. Horizontal Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Reindeer. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2142-2145. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160635
AMA Moore S, Kunkle R, Greenlee M, et al. Horizontal Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Reindeer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2142-2145. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160635.
APA Moore, S., Kunkle, R., Greenlee, M., Nicholson, E., Richt, J., Hamir, A....Greenlee, J. (2016). Horizontal Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Reindeer. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2142-2145. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160635.

Highly Divergent Dengue Virus Type 2 in Traveler Returning from Borneo to Australia [PDF - 957 KB - 3 pages]
W. Liu et al.

Dengue virus type 2 was isolated from a tourist who returned from Borneo to Australia. Phylogenetic analysis identified this virus as highly divergent and occupying a basal phylogenetic position relative to all known human and sylvatic dengue virus type 2 strains and the most divergent lineage not assigned to a new serotype.

EID Liu W, Pickering P, Duchêne S, Holmes EC, Aaskov JG. Highly Divergent Dengue Virus Type 2 in Traveler Returning from Borneo to Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2146-2148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160813
AMA Liu W, Pickering P, Duchêne S, et al. Highly Divergent Dengue Virus Type 2 in Traveler Returning from Borneo to Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2146-2148. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160813.
APA Liu, W., Pickering, P., Duchêne, S., Holmes, E. C., & Aaskov, J. G. (2016). Highly Divergent Dengue Virus Type 2 in Traveler Returning from Borneo to Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2146-2148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160813.

Unusual Ebola Virus Chain of Transmission, Conakry, Guinea, 2014–2015 [PDF - 1.43 MB - 4 pages]
M. Keita et al.

In October 2015, a new case of Ebola virus disease in Guinea was detected. Case investigation, serology, and whole-genome sequencing indicated possible transmission of the virus from an Ebola virus disease survivor to another person and then to the case-patient reported here. This transmission chain over 11 months suggests slow Ebola virus evolution.

EID Keita M, Duraffour S, Loman NJ, Rambaut A, Diallo B, Magassouba N, et al. Unusual Ebola Virus Chain of Transmission, Conakry, Guinea, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2149-2152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160847
AMA Keita M, Duraffour S, Loman NJ, et al. Unusual Ebola Virus Chain of Transmission, Conakry, Guinea, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2149-2152. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160847.
APA Keita, M., Duraffour, S., Loman, N. J., Rambaut, A., Diallo, B., Magassouba, N....Faye, O. (2016). Unusual Ebola Virus Chain of Transmission, Conakry, Guinea, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2149-2152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160847.

Human Infection with Novel Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia Genotype, China, 2015 [PDF - 1.19 MB - 4 pages]
H. Li et al.

Only 4 species of spotted fever group rickettsiae have been detected in humans in China. However, phylogenetic analysis of samples from 5 ill patients in China indicated infection with a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia, designated Rickettsia sp. XY99. Clinical signs resembled those of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome.

EID Li H, Cui X, Cui N, Yang Z, Hu J, Fan Y, et al. Human Infection with Novel Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia Genotype, China, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2153-2156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160962
AMA Li H, Cui X, Cui N, et al. Human Infection with Novel Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia Genotype, China, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2153-2156. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160962.
APA Li, H., Cui, X., Cui, N., Yang, Z., Hu, J., Fan, Y....Fang, L. (2016). Human Infection with Novel Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia Genotype, China, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2153-2156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160962.

Hepatitis E Virus in 3 Types of Laboratory Animals, China, 2012–2015 [PDF - 388 KB - 3 pages]
L. Wang et al.

We found seroprevalences for hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 7.5%, 18.5%, and 83.3% in specific pathogen-free (SPF) laboratory rabbits, monkeys, and pigs, respectively, in China. HEV RNA was detected in 4.8% of SPF rabbits, and 11 rabbits had latent infections. Screening for HEV in SPF animals before relevant experiments are conducted is recommended.

EID Wang L, Zhang Y, Gong W, Song W, Wang L. Hepatitis E Virus in 3 Types of Laboratory Animals, China, 2012–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2157-2159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160131
AMA Wang L, Zhang Y, Gong W, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in 3 Types of Laboratory Animals, China, 2012–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2157-2159. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160131.
APA Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Gong, W., Song, W., & Wang, L. (2016). Hepatitis E Virus in 3 Types of Laboratory Animals, China, 2012–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2157-2159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160131.

Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014–2015 [PDF - 1.38 MB - 5 pages]
J. Njeru et al.

During 2014–2015, patients in northeastern Kenya were assessed for brucellosis and characteristics that might help clinicians identify brucellosis. Among 146 confirmed brucellosis patients, 29 (20%) had negative serologic tests. No clinical feature was a good indicator of infection, which was associated with animal contact and drinking raw milk.

EID Njeru J, Melzer F, Wareth G, El-Adawy H, Henning K, Pletz MW, et al. Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2160-2164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160285
AMA Njeru J, Melzer F, Wareth G, et al. Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2160-2164. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160285.
APA Njeru, J., Melzer, F., Wareth, G., El-Adawy, H., Henning, K., Pletz, M. W....Neubauer, H. (2016). Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2160-2164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160285.

Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014 [PDF - 844 KB - 3 pages]
J. M. Fafetine et al.

In early 2014, abortions and death of ruminants were reported on farms in Maputo and Gaza Provinces, Mozambique. Serologic analysis and quantitative and conventional reverse transcription PCR confirmed the presence of Rift Valley fever virus. The viruses belonged to lineage C, which is prevalent among Rift Valley fever viruses in southern Africa.

EID Fafetine JM, Coetzee P, Mubemba B, Nhambirre O, Neves L, Coetzer J, et al. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2165-2167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160310
AMA Fafetine JM, Coetzee P, Mubemba B, et al. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2165-2167. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160310.
APA Fafetine, J. M., Coetzee, P., Mubemba, B., Nhambirre, O., Neves, L., Coetzer, J....Venter, E. H. (2016). Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2165-2167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160310.

Evaluating Healthcare Claims for Neurocysticercosis by Using All-Payer All-Claims Data, Oregon, 2010–2013 [PDF - 354 KB - 3 pages]
R. H. Flecker et al.

To characterize the frequency of neurocysticercosis, associated diagnostic codes, and place of infection, we searched Oregon’s All Payer All-Claims dataset for 2010–2013. Twice as many cases were found by searching inpatient and outpatient data than by inpatient data alone. Studies relying exclusively on inpatient data underestimate frequency and miss less severe disease.

EID Flecker RH, O’Neal SE, Townes JM. Evaluating Healthcare Claims for Neurocysticercosis by Using All-Payer All-Claims Data, Oregon, 2010–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2168-2170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160370
AMA Flecker RH, O’Neal SE, Townes JM. Evaluating Healthcare Claims for Neurocysticercosis by Using All-Payer All-Claims Data, Oregon, 2010–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2168-2170. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160370.
APA Flecker, R. H., O’Neal, S. E., & Townes, J. M. (2016). Evaluating Healthcare Claims for Neurocysticercosis by Using All-Payer All-Claims Data, Oregon, 2010–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2168-2170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160370.

Time Course of MERS-CoV Infection and Immunity in Dromedary Camels [PDF - 412 KB - 3 pages]
B. Meyer et al.

Knowledge about immunity to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels is essential for infection control and vaccination. A longitudinal study of 11 dam–calf pairs showed that calves lose maternal MERS-CoV antibodies 5–6 months postparturition and are left susceptible to infection, indicating a short window of opportunity for vaccination.

EID Meyer B, Juhasz J, Barua R, Das Gupta A, Hakimuddin F, Corman VM, et al. Time Course of MERS-CoV Infection and Immunity in Dromedary Camels. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2171-2173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160382
AMA Meyer B, Juhasz J, Barua R, et al. Time Course of MERS-CoV Infection and Immunity in Dromedary Camels. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2171-2173. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160382.
APA Meyer, B., Juhasz, J., Barua, R., Das Gupta, A., Hakimuddin, F., Corman, V. M....Nagy, P. (2016). Time Course of MERS-CoV Infection and Immunity in Dromedary Camels. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2171-2173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160382.

Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Dairy Cattle Serum Samples from 2009, Uruguay [PDF - 1.34 MB - 4 pages]
A. Franco-Luiz et al.

We detected orthopoxvirus in 28 of 125 serum samples collected during 2009 from cattle in Uruguay. Two samples were PCR-positive for vaccinia virus and had sequences similar to those for vaccinia virus associated with outbreaks in Brazil. Autochthonous circulation of vaccinia virus in Uruguay and other South American countries cannot be ruled out.

EID Franco-Luiz A, Oliveira D, Pereira A, Gasparini M, Bonjardim C, Ferreira P, et al. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Dairy Cattle Serum Samples from 2009, Uruguay. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2174-2177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160447
AMA Franco-Luiz A, Oliveira D, Pereira A, et al. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Dairy Cattle Serum Samples from 2009, Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2174-2177. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160447.
APA Franco-Luiz, A., Oliveira, D., Pereira, A., Gasparini, M., Bonjardim, C., Ferreira, P....Lima, M. (2016). Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Dairy Cattle Serum Samples from 2009, Uruguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2174-2177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160447.

Tuberculosis-Associated Death among Adult Wild Boars, Spain, 2009–2014 [PDF - 422 KB - 3 pages]
J. A. Barasona et al.

We investigated adult Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) survival and death in 2 tuberculosis-endemic populations with different harvest pressure in Spain. Overall, tuberculosis accounted for 30% of total deaths. Increased survival in protected areas has direct implications for wild boar management and tuberculosis control.

EID Barasona JA, Acevedo P, Diez-Delgado I, Queiros J, Carrasco-García R, Gortazar C, et al. Tuberculosis-Associated Death among Adult Wild Boars, Spain, 2009–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2178-2180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160677
AMA Barasona JA, Acevedo P, Diez-Delgado I, et al. Tuberculosis-Associated Death among Adult Wild Boars, Spain, 2009–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2178-2180. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160677.
APA Barasona, J. A., Acevedo, P., Diez-Delgado, I., Queiros, J., Carrasco-García, R., Gortazar, C....Vicente, J. (2016). Tuberculosis-Associated Death among Adult Wild Boars, Spain, 2009–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2178-2180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160677.

Secondary Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection, Japan, 2010-2012 [PDF - 488 KB - 4 pages]
T. Morita-Ishihara et al.

To evaluate the potential public health risk caused by secondary Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in Japan, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of STEC isolated from healthy adults during 2010–2012. Although prevalence among healthy adults was high, most STEC organisms displayed characteristics rarely found in isolates from symptomatic patients.

EID Morita-Ishihara T, Iyoda S, Iguchi A, Ohnishi M. Secondary Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection, Japan, 2010-2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2181-2184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160783
AMA Morita-Ishihara T, Iyoda S, Iguchi A, et al. Secondary Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection, Japan, 2010-2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2181-2184. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160783.
APA Morita-Ishihara, T., Iyoda, S., Iguchi, A., & Ohnishi, M. (2016). Secondary Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection, Japan, 2010-2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2181-2184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160783.

Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus, California, 2015 [PDF - 871 KB - 4 pages]
G. S. White et al.

St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was detected in summer 2015 in southern California after an 11-year absence, concomitant with an Arizona outbreak. Sequence comparisons showed close identity of California and Arizona isolates with 2005 Argentine isolates, suggesting introduction from South America and underscoring the value of continued arbovirus surveillance.

EID White GS, Symmes K, Sun P, Fang Y, Garcia S, Steiner C, et al. Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus, California, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2185-2188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160805
AMA White GS, Symmes K, Sun P, et al. Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus, California, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2185-2188. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160805.
APA White, G. S., Symmes, K., Sun, P., Fang, Y., Garcia, S., Steiner, C....Coffey, L. L. (2016). Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus, California, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2185-2188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160805.

Digital PCR for Quantifying Norovirus in Oysters Implicated in Outbreaks, France [PDF - 684 KB - 3 pages]
D. Polo et al.

Using samples from oysters clearly implicated in human disease, we quantified norovirus levels by using digital PCR. Concentrations varied from 43 to 1,170 RNA copies/oyster. The analysis of frozen samples from the production area showed the presence of norovirus 2 weeks before consumption.

EID Polo D, Schaeffer J, Fournet N, Le Saux J, Parnaudeau S, McLeod C, et al. Digital PCR for Quantifying Norovirus in Oysters Implicated in Outbreaks, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2189-2191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160841
AMA Polo D, Schaeffer J, Fournet N, et al. Digital PCR for Quantifying Norovirus in Oysters Implicated in Outbreaks, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2189-2191. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160841.
APA Polo, D., Schaeffer, J., Fournet, N., Le Saux, J., Parnaudeau, S., McLeod, C....Le Guyader, F. S. (2016). Digital PCR for Quantifying Norovirus in Oysters Implicated in Outbreaks, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2189-2191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160841.

Detection and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in Pigs, South Korea, 2014–2015 [PDF - 915 KB - 4 pages]
M. Seo et al.

We assessed Coxiella burnetii prevalence and genotypes in pigs in South Korea during 2014–2015. Prevalence was low among 1,030 samples tested by ELISA and immunofluorescent assay and 1,124 samples tested by PCR. Despite this finding, possible transmission of C. burnetii from pigs to humans cannot be excluded.

EID Seo M, Ouh I, Lee S, Kwak D. Detection and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in Pigs, South Korea, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2192-2195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161236
AMA Seo M, Ouh I, Lee S, et al. Detection and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in Pigs, South Korea, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2192-2195. doi:10.3201/eid2212.161236.
APA Seo, M., Ouh, I., Lee, S., & Kwak, D. (2016). Detection and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in Pigs, South Korea, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2192-2195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161236.
Letters

Possible Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars from Corsica [PDF - 495 KB - 3 pages]
N. Pavio et al.
EID Pavio N, Laval M, Maestrini O, Casabianca F, Charrier F, Jori F. Possible Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars from Corsica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2197-2199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160612
AMA Pavio N, Laval M, Maestrini O, et al. Possible Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars from Corsica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2197-2199. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160612.
APA Pavio, N., Laval, M., Maestrini, O., Casabianca, F., Charrier, F., & Jori, F. (2016). Possible Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars from Corsica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2197-2199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160612.

Chlamydia-Related Bacteria in Free-Living and Captive Great Apes, Gabon [PDF - 337 KB - 3 pages]
A. Klöckner et al.
EID Klöckner A, Nagel M, Greub G, Aeby S, Hoffmann K, Liégeois F, et al. Chlamydia-Related Bacteria in Free-Living and Captive Great Apes, Gabon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2199-2201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.150893
AMA Klöckner A, Nagel M, Greub G, et al. Chlamydia-Related Bacteria in Free-Living and Captive Great Apes, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2199-2201. doi:10.3201/eid2212.150893.
APA Klöckner, A., Nagel, M., Greub, G., Aeby, S., Hoffmann, K., Liégeois, F....Henrichfreise, B. (2016). Chlamydia-Related Bacteria in Free-Living and Captive Great Apes, Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2199-2201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.150893.

Schmallenberg Virus in Zoo Ruminants, France and the Netherlands [PDF - 331 KB - 3 pages]
E. Laloy et al.
EID Laloy E, Braud C, Bréard E, Kaandorp J, Bourgeois A, Kohl M, et al. Schmallenberg Virus in Zoo Ruminants, France and the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2201-2203. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.150983
AMA Laloy E, Braud C, Bréard E, et al. Schmallenberg Virus in Zoo Ruminants, France and the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2201-2203. doi:10.3201/eid2212.150983.
APA Laloy, E., Braud, C., Bréard, E., Kaandorp, J., Bourgeois, A., Kohl, M....Chai, N. (2016). Schmallenberg Virus in Zoo Ruminants, France and the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2201-2203. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.150983.

Fatal Case of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease in Bulgaria [PDF - 270 KB - 2 pages]
M. Baymakova et al.
EID Baymakova M, Trifonova I, Panayotova E, Dakova S, Pacenti M, Barzon L, et al. Fatal Case of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease in Bulgaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2203-2204. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.151968
AMA Baymakova M, Trifonova I, Panayotova E, et al. Fatal Case of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease in Bulgaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2203-2204. doi:10.3201/eid2212.151968.
APA Baymakova, M., Trifonova, I., Panayotova, E., Dakova, S., Pacenti, M., Barzon, L....Christova, I. (2016). Fatal Case of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease in Bulgaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2203-2204. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.151968.

Unique Strain of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes pacificus Ticks, California, USA [PDF - 432 KB - 3 pages]
V. J. Cook et al.
EID Cook VJ, Fedorova N, Macdonald WP, Lane RS, Barbour AG. Unique Strain of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes pacificus Ticks, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2205-2207. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.152046
AMA Cook VJ, Fedorova N, Macdonald WP, et al. Unique Strain of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes pacificus Ticks, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2205-2207. doi:10.3201/eid2212.152046.
APA Cook, V. J., Fedorova, N., Macdonald, W. P., Lane, R. S., & Barbour, A. G. (2016). Unique Strain of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes pacificus Ticks, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2205-2207. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.152046.

Xenopsylla brasiliensis Fleas in Plague Focus Areas, Madagascar [PDF - 327 KB - 2 pages]
A. Miarinjara et al.
EID Miarinjara A, Rogier C, Harimalala M, Ramihangihajason TR, Boyer S. Xenopsylla brasiliensis Fleas in Plague Focus Areas, Madagascar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2207-2208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160318
AMA Miarinjara A, Rogier C, Harimalala M, et al. Xenopsylla brasiliensis Fleas in Plague Focus Areas, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2207-2208. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160318.
APA Miarinjara, A., Rogier, C., Harimalala, M., Ramihangihajason, T. R., & Boyer, S. (2016). Xenopsylla brasiliensis Fleas in Plague Focus Areas, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2207-2208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160318.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus among Poultry, Ghana, 2015 [PDF - 628 KB - 3 pages]
I. Asante et al.
EID Asante I, Bertram S, Awuni J, Commey A, Aniwa B, Ampofo W, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus among Poultry, Ghana, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2209-2211. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160639
AMA Asante I, Bertram S, Awuni J, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus among Poultry, Ghana, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2209-2211. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160639.
APA Asante, I., Bertram, S., Awuni, J., Commey, A., Aniwa, B., Ampofo, W....Gabriel, G. (2016). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus among Poultry, Ghana, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2209-2211. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160639.

Hepatitis E Virus in Yellow Cattle, Shandong, Eastern China [PDF - 290 KB - 2 pages]
B. Yan et al.
EID Yan B, Zhang L, Gong L, Lv J, Feng Y, Liu J, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in Yellow Cattle, Shandong, Eastern China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2211-2212. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160641
AMA Yan B, Zhang L, Gong L, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in Yellow Cattle, Shandong, Eastern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2211-2212. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160641.
APA Yan, B., Zhang, L., Gong, L., Lv, J., Feng, Y., Liu, J....Xu, A. (2016). Hepatitis E Virus in Yellow Cattle, Shandong, Eastern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2211-2212. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160641.

Introgressed Animal Schistosomes Schistosoma curassoni and S. bovis Naturally Infecting Humans [PDF - 317 KB - 3 pages]
E. Léger et al.
EID Léger E, Garba A, Hamidou AA, Webster BL, Pennance T, Rollinson D, et al. Introgressed Animal Schistosomes Schistosoma curassoni and S. bovis Naturally Infecting Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2212-2214. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160644
AMA Léger E, Garba A, Hamidou AA, et al. Introgressed Animal Schistosomes Schistosoma curassoni and S. bovis Naturally Infecting Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2212-2214. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160644.
APA Léger, E., Garba, A., Hamidou, A. A., Webster, B. L., Pennance, T., Rollinson, D....Webster, J. P. (2016). Introgressed Animal Schistosomes Schistosoma curassoni and S. bovis Naturally Infecting Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2212-2214. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160644.

Rickettsia raoultii in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks, Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, Ukraine, 2010 [PDF - 326 KB - 2 pages]
G. Karbowiak et al.
EID Karbowiak G, Slivinska K, Chmielewski T, Barszcz K, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S, Werszko J, et al. Rickettsia raoultii in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks, Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, Ukraine, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2214-2215. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160678
AMA Karbowiak G, Slivinska K, Chmielewski T, et al. Rickettsia raoultii in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks, Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, Ukraine, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2214-2215. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160678.
APA Karbowiak, G., Slivinska, K., Chmielewski, T., Barszcz, K., Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, S., Werszko, J....Wróblewski, P. (2016). Rickettsia raoultii in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks, Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, Ukraine, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2214-2215. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160678.

Locally Acquired Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Disease, Arkansas, USA [PDF - 283 KB - 2 pages]
J. Garlick et al.
EID Garlick J, Lee T, Shepherd P, Linam W, Pastula DM, Weinstein S, et al. Locally Acquired Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Disease, Arkansas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2216-2217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160844
AMA Garlick J, Lee T, Shepherd P, et al. Locally Acquired Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Disease, Arkansas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2216-2217. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160844.
APA Garlick, J., Lee, T., Shepherd, P., Linam, W., Pastula, D. M., Weinstein, S....Schexnayder, S. M. (2016). Locally Acquired Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Disease, Arkansas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2216-2217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160844.

Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever, Southern Spain, 2004–2015 [PDF - 609 KB - 3 pages]
L. Castilla-Guerra et al.
EID Castilla-Guerra L, Marín-Martín J, Colmenero-Camacho M. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever, Southern Spain, 2004–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2217-2219. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160870
AMA Castilla-Guerra L, Marín-Martín J, Colmenero-Camacho M. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever, Southern Spain, 2004–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2217-2219. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160870.
APA Castilla-Guerra, L., Marín-Martín, J., & Colmenero-Camacho, M. (2016). Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever, Southern Spain, 2004–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2217-2219. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160870.

New Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Bactrian Camels, Xinjiang, China, 2013 [PDF - 1.19 MB - 3 pages]
P. Woo et al.
EID Woo P, Lau S, Teng J, Cao K, Wernery U, Schountz T, et al. New Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Bactrian Camels, Xinjiang, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2219-2221. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160979
AMA Woo P, Lau S, Teng J, et al. New Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Bactrian Camels, Xinjiang, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2219-2221. doi:10.3201/eid2212.160979.
APA Woo, P., Lau, S., Teng, J., Cao, K., Wernery, U., Schountz, T....Yuen, K. (2016). New Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Bactrian Camels, Xinjiang, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2219-2221. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.160979.

Avian Influenza Virus H5 Strain with North American and Eurasian Lineage Genes in an Antarctic Penguin [PDF - 446 KB - 3 pages]
G. Barriga et al.
EID Barriga G, Boric-Bargetto D, San Martin M, Neira V, van Bakel H, Thompsom M, et al. Avian Influenza Virus H5 Strain with North American and Eurasian Lineage Genes in an Antarctic Penguin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2221-2223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161076
AMA Barriga G, Boric-Bargetto D, San Martin M, et al. Avian Influenza Virus H5 Strain with North American and Eurasian Lineage Genes in an Antarctic Penguin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2221-2223. doi:10.3201/eid2212.161076.
APA Barriga, G., Boric-Bargetto, D., San Martin, M., Neira, V., van Bakel, H., Thompsom, M....Medina, R. A. (2016). Avian Influenza Virus H5 Strain with North American and Eurasian Lineage Genes in an Antarctic Penguin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2221-2223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161076.

Pathogenic Lineage of mcr-Negative Colistin-Resistant Escherichia coli, Japan, 2008–2015 [PDF - 372 KB - 3 pages]
T. Sato et al.
EID Sato T, Fukuda A, Suzuki Y, Shiraishi T, Honda H, Shinagawa M, et al. Pathogenic Lineage of mcr-Negative Colistin-Resistant Escherichia coli, Japan, 2008–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2223-2225. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161117
AMA Sato T, Fukuda A, Suzuki Y, et al. Pathogenic Lineage of mcr-Negative Colistin-Resistant Escherichia coli, Japan, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2223-2225. doi:10.3201/eid2212.161117.
APA Sato, T., Fukuda, A., Suzuki, Y., Shiraishi, T., Honda, H., Shinagawa, M....Yokota, S. (2016). Pathogenic Lineage of mcr-Negative Colistin-Resistant Escherichia coli, Japan, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2223-2225. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161117.

Dual Emergence of Usutu Virus in Common Blackbirds, Eastern France, 2015 [PDF - 1.02 MB - 1 page]
S. Lecollinet et al.
EID Lecollinet S, Blanchard Y, Manson C, Lowenski S, Laloy E, Quenault H, et al. Dual Emergence of Usutu Virus in Common Blackbirds, Eastern France, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2225. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161272
AMA Lecollinet S, Blanchard Y, Manson C, et al. Dual Emergence of Usutu Virus in Common Blackbirds, Eastern France, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2225. doi:10.3201/eid2212.161272.
APA Lecollinet, S., Blanchard, Y., Manson, C., Lowenski, S., Laloy, E., Quenault, H....Decors, A. (2016). Dual Emergence of Usutu Virus in Common Blackbirds, Eastern France, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2225. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161272.

Zika Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System and Female Genital Tract [PDF - 806 KB - 3 pages]
E. Nicastri et al.
EID Nicastri E, Castilletti C, Balestra P, Galgani S, Ippolito G. Zika Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System and Female Genital Tract. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2228-2230. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161280
AMA Nicastri E, Castilletti C, Balestra P, et al. Zika Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System and Female Genital Tract. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2228-2230. doi:10.3201/eid2212.161280.
APA Nicastri, E., Castilletti, C., Balestra, P., Galgani, S., & Ippolito, G. (2016). Zika Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System and Female Genital Tract. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2228-2230. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.161280.
Another Dimension

Flu Days [PDF - 254 KB - 1 page]
P. Makuck
EID Makuck P. Flu Days. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2196. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.ad2212
AMA Makuck P. Flu Days. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2196. doi:10.3201/eid2212.ad2212.
APA Makuck, P. (2016). Flu Days. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2196. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.ad2212.
About the Cover

Illustrating the Natural History of Influenza A Viruses through Art [PDF - 1.43 MB - 2 pages]
R. G. Webster
EID Webster RG. Illustrating the Natural History of Influenza A Viruses through Art. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2231-2232. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.ac2212
AMA Webster RG. Illustrating the Natural History of Influenza A Viruses through Art. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2231-2232. doi:10.3201/eid2212.ac2212.
APA Webster, R. G. (2016). Illustrating the Natural History of Influenza A Viruses through Art. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2231-2232. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.ac2212.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Usutu Virus [PDF - 461 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Usutu Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(12):2228. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.et2212
AMA Etymologia: Usutu Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(12):2228. doi:10.3201/eid2212.et2212.
APA (2016). Etymologia: Usutu Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(12), 2228. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2212.et2212.
Conference Summaries

Enhancement of Ebola Preparedness across Africa
C. E. Morozoff et al.
THEME ISSUE
Page created: November 29, 2016
Page updated: November 29, 2016
Page reviewed: November 29, 2016
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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