Volume 22, Number 4—April 2016
Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe
|Threat event category||Definition and examples*|
|Foodborne and waterborne
||All types of diseases caused by the transmission of organisms through food or water (e.g., drinking water, recreational water): salmonellosis, hepatitis A, Escherichia coli infection, norovirus infection, shigellosis.
|Vectorborne and rodentborne
||All vectorborne and rodentborne diseases (epidemics or first autochthonous cases): West Nile fever, malaria, dengue fever, Hantavirus infection.
||Diseases caused by transmission of organisms through contact with animals or animal discharges: Q fever, cowpox disease, psittacosis.
||Main vaccine-preventable diseases that are normally part of the public health system’s vaccination programs: measles, pertussis, mumps (boys), rubella (girls).
|Multidrug resistance associated
||Emerging multidrug-resistant infections of public health concern: carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella pneumoniae.
||Infections contracted while hospitalized or transmitted through healthcare practices: meningococcal meningitis.
|Injection drug use associated
||Infections caused by injection drug use: botulism, HIV, anthrax.
||Emerging sexually transmitted diseases and increases in incidence of serious complications: meningococcal infections.
||Seasonal influenza and other pandemic influenzas.
|Airborne||Respiratory diseases acquired through transmission of pathogens through air (e.g., particles, droplets): for example, legionellosis. Includes respiratory infections that can be transmitted through air or other pathways, including infections transmitted through aerosols, fomites, or direct contact: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.|
*Examples are purposely not exhaustive and should be considered illustrative.