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Volume 22, Number 4—April 2016

Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

Jan C. SemenzaComments to Author , Elisabet Lindgren, Laszlo Balkanyi, Laura Espinosa, My S. Almqvist, Pasi Penttinen, and Joacim Rocklöv
Author affiliations: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden (J.C. Semenza, L. Balkanyi, L. Espinosa, P. Penttinen); Stockholm University Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm (E. Lindgren, M.S. Almqvist); Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden (J. Rocklöv)

Main Article

Table 2

Infectious disease threat events detected in Europe, 2008–2013

Threat event category Definition and examples*
Foodborne and waterborne
All types of diseases caused by the transmission of organisms through food or water (e.g., drinking water, recreational water): salmonellosis, hepatitis A, Escherichia coli infection, norovirus infection, shigellosis.
Vectorborne and rodentborne
All vectorborne and rodentborne diseases (epidemics or first autochthonous cases): West Nile fever, malaria, dengue fever, Hantavirus infection.
Other zoonoses
Diseases caused by transmission of organisms through contact with animals or animal discharges: Q fever, cowpox disease, psittacosis.
Vaccine preventable
Main vaccine-preventable diseases that are normally part of the public health system’s vaccination programs: measles, pertussis, mumps (boys), rubella (girls).
Multidrug resistance associated
Emerging multidrug-resistant infections of public health concern: carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Healthcare associated
Infections contracted while hospitalized or transmitted through healthcare practices: meningococcal meningitis.
Injection drug use associated
Infections caused by injection drug use: botulism, HIV, anthrax.
Sexually transmitted
Emerging sexually transmitted diseases and increases in incidence of serious complications: meningococcal infections.
Seasonal influenza and other pandemic influenzas.
Airborne Respiratory diseases acquired through transmission of pathogens through air (e.g., particles, droplets): for example, legionellosis. Includes respiratory infections that can be transmitted through air or other pathways, including infections transmitted through aerosols, fomites, or direct contact: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

*Examples are purposely not exhaustive and should be considered illustrative.

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Page created: March 15, 2016
Page updated: March 15, 2016
Page reviewed: March 15, 2016
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.