Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 22, Number 6—June 2016

Whole-Genome Analysis of Cryptococcus gattii, Southeastern United States

Shawn R. LockhartComments to Author , Chandler C. Roe, and David M. Engelthaler
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA (S.R. Lockhart); The Translational Genomics Research Institute, Flagstaff, AZ, USA (C.C. Roe, D.M. Engelthaler)

Main Article

Table 2

Comparison of SNP differences between Cryptococcus gattii isolates within the recently emerged VGII clades in the Pacific Northwest and the VGI-SE clade in the southeastern United States*

Genotype No. isolates Total no. SNPs Average no. SNPs between isolates
VGIIa (9) 6 107 18
VGIIb (9) 4 132 33
VGIIc (9) 8 137 17
VGI-SE 9 41,024 4,558

*SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphism.

Main Article

  1. Diaz  MR, Boekhout  T, Theelen  B, Fell  JW. Molecular sequence analyses of the intergenic spacer (IGS) associated with rDNA of the two varieties of the pathogenic yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2000;23:53545 . DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Kwon-Chung  KJ, Boekhout  T, Fell  JW, Diaz  M. Proposal to conserve the name Cryptococcus gattii against C. hondurianus and C. bacillisporus (Basidiomycota, Hymenomycetes, Tremellomycetidae). Taxon. 2002;51:8046. DOIGoogle Scholar
  3. Hagen  F, Khayhan  K, Theelen  B, Kolecka  A, Polacheck  I, Sionov  E, Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. Fungal Genet Biol. 2015;78:1648. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Wilson  DE, Bennett  JE, Bailey  JW. Serologic grouping of Cryptococcus neoformans. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1968;127:8203. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett  JE, Kwon-Chung  KJ, Howard  DH. Epidemiologic differences among serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans. Am J Epidemiol. 1977;105:5826 .PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Engelthaler  DM, Hicks  ND, Gillece  JD, Roe  CC, Schupp  JM, Driebe  EM, Cryptococcus gattii in North American Pacific Northwest: whole-population genome analysis provides insights into species evolution and dispersal. mBiol. 2014;5:e01464–14. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Harris  JR, Lockhart  SR, Sondermeyer  G, Vugia  DJ, Crist  MB, D’Angelo  MT, Cryptococcus gattii infections in multiple states outside the US Pacific Northwest. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:16206 . DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lockhart  SR, Iqbal  N, Harris  JR, Grossman  NT, DeBess  E, Wohrle  R, Cryptococcus gattii in the United States: genotypic diversity of human and veterinary isolates. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74737. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Meyer  W, Aanensen  DM, Boekhout  T, Cogliati  M, Diaz  MR, Esposto  MC, Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Med Mycol. 2009;47:56170. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gillece  JD, Schupp  JM, Balajee  SA, Harris  J, Pearson  T, Yan  Y, Whole genome sequence analysis of Cryptococcus gattii from the Pacific Northwest reveals unexpected diversity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28550. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Sheppe  WM. Torula infection in man. Am J Med Sci. 1924;167:91107.
  12. Hagen  F, Colom  MF, Swinne  D, Tintelnot  K, Iatta  R, Montagna  MT, Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:161824. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Denton  JF, Di Salvo  AF. The prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans in various natural habitats. Sabouraudia. 1968;6:2137. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fromtling  RA, Shadomy  S, Shadomy  HJ, Dismukes  WE. Serotype B/C Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from patients in nonendemic areas. J Clin Microbiol. 1982;16:40810 .PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Byrnes  EJ III, Li  W, Lewit  Y, Perfect  JR, Carter  DA, Cox  GM, First reported case of Cryptococcus gattii in the Southeastern USA: implications for travel-associated acquisition of an emerging pathogen. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5851. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: May 16, 2016
Page updated: May 16, 2016
Page reviewed: May 16, 2016
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.