Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 23, Number 1—January 2017

Travel-Related Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Israel, 2006–2014

Eyal Meltzer1Comments to Author , Yael Paran1, Yaniv Lustig, Shmuel Stienlauf, Miriam Weinberger, and Eli Schwartz
Author affiliations: Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel (E. Meltzer‚ Y. Lustig, S. Stienlauf, E. Schwartz); Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel (E. Meltzer‚ S. Stienlauf, M. Weinberger, E. Schwartz); Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Y. Paran); Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel (M. Weinberger)

Main Article

Table 2

Calculated incidence of travel-related TBE for selected countries, Europe*

Study (source country, years of study [reference]) Country of travel Population studied TBE incidence
Cases/tourist entries Cases/person-weeks Cases/100,000 travel-years
Incidence of TBE disease
This study (Israel, 2006–2014) Germany Travelers 1/1,634,192 1/697,700 7.5
Austria Travelers 1/732,160 1/393,556 13.2
Switzerland Travelers 1/ 578,052 1/199,102 45.0
Sweden Travelers 1/128,642 1/16,270 321.0
Russia Travelers 1/855,118 NA NA
Reusken et al. (Netherlands [7])
Incidence of TBE seroconversion
Sanchez et al. (USA [8]) Bosnia-Herzegovina Military personnel NA 1/12,501 416.0, 
McNeil et al. (USA [9]) Germany Military personnel NA 1/4,775 1,088.9, 

*NA, not available; TBE, tick-borne encephalitis.
†Estimated incidence of clinical disease if 98% of infections are subclinical.

Main Article

  1. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Epidemiological situation of tick-borne encephalitis in the European Union and European Free Trade Association countries. 2012 [cited 2016 Sep 29].
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health information for international travel. 2016 [cited 2016 Sep 29].
  3. Israeli Ministry of Health. Guidance for travelers abroad. 2013 [cited 2016 Sep 29].
  4. World Health Organization. International travel and health: situation as on 1 January 2012 [cited 2016 Sep 29].
  5. Steffen  R. Epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in international travellers to Western/Central Europe and conclusions on vaccination recommendations. J Travel Med. 2016;23:taw018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. European Commission. Commission implementing decision of 8 August 2012 amending decision 2002/253/EC laying down case definitions for reporting communicable diseases to the community network under decision no 2119/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (2012/506/EU). Official Journal of the European Union. 2012;(262) [cited 2016 Oct 18]
  7. Reusken  C, Reimerink  J, Verduin  C, Sabbe  L, Cleton  N, Koopmans  M. Case report: tick-borne encephalitis in two Dutch travellers returning from Austria, Netherlands, July and August 2011. Euro Surveill. 2011;16:20003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Sanchez  JL Jr, Craig  SC, Kohlhase  K, Polyak  C, Ludwig  SL, Rumm  PD. Health assessment of U.S. military personnel deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina for operation joint endeavor. Mil Med. 2001;166:4704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. McNeil  JG, Lednar  WM, Stansfield  SK, Prier  RE, Miller  RN. Central European tick-borne encephalitis: assessment of risk for persons in the armed services and vacationers. J Infect Dis. 1985;152:6501.DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. STATcube—Statistical Database of STATISTIC AUSTRIA [cited 2016 Jan 25].
  11. German National Tourist Board. GNTB market research [cited 2016 Jan 25].
  12. Statistik Schweiz. Hotellerie: country of origin [cited 2016 Jan 25].
  13. Haditsch  M, Kunze  U. Tick-borne encephalitis: a disease neglected by travel medicine. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013;11:295300.DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. World Health Organization. Vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis: WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2011;86:24156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Shlim  DR, Solomon  T. Japanese encephalitis vaccine for travelers: exploring the limits of risk. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:1838.DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: December 14, 2016
Page updated: December 14, 2016
Page reviewed: December 14, 2016
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.