Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 23, Number 1—January 2017

Volume 23, Number 1—January 2017   PDF Version [PDF - 6.95 MB - 184 pages]

Perspective

  • A Framework for Modeling Emerging Diseases to Inform Management PDF Version [PDF - 424 KB - 6 pages]
    R. E. Russell et al.
        View Abstract

    The rapid emergence and reemergence of zoonotic diseases requires the ability to rapidly evaluate and implement optimal management decisions. Actions to control or mitigate the effects of emerging pathogens are commonly delayed because of uncertainty in the estimates and the predicted outcomes of the control tactics. The development of models that describe the best-known information regarding the disease system at the early stages of disease emergence is an essential step for optimal decision-making. Models can predict the potential effects of the pathogen, provide guidance for assessing the likelihood of success of different proposed management actions, quantify the uncertainty surrounding the choice of the optimal decision, and highlight critical areas for immediate research. We demonstrate how to develop models that can be used as a part of a decision-making framework to determine the likelihood of success of different management actions given current knowledge.

        Cite This Article
    EID Russell RE, Katz RA, Richgels K, Walsh DP, Grant E. A Framework for Modeling Emerging Diseases to Inform Management. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):1-6. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161452
    AMA Russell RE, Katz RA, Richgels K, et al. A Framework for Modeling Emerging Diseases to Inform Management. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):1-6. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161452.
    APA Russell, R. E., Katz, R. A., Richgels, K., Walsh, D. P., & Grant, E. (2017). A Framework for Modeling Emerging Diseases to Inform Management. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 1-6. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161452.
        Email Email this Article

Research

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 1.77 MB - 7 pages]
    S. Strollo et al.
    View Summary

    Highest hospitalization rates were for men ≥65 years of age, and rates decreased during 2005−2012.

        View Abstract

    Invasive candidiasis is a major nosocomial fungal disease in the United States associated with high rates of illness and death. We analyzed inpatient hospitalization records from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to estimate incidence of invasive candidiasis–associated hospitalizations in the United States. We extracted data for 33 states for 2002–2012 by using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, for invasive candidiasis; we excluded neonatal cases. The overall age-adjusted average annual rate was 5.3 hospitalizations/100,000 population. Highest risk was for adults >65 years of age, particularly men. Median length of hospitalization was 21 days; 22% of patients died during hospitalization. Median unadjusted associated cost for inpatient care was $46,684. Age-adjusted annual rates decreased during 2005–2012 for men (annual change –3.9%) and women (annual change –4.5%) and across nearly all age groups. We report a high mortality rate and decreasing incidence of hospitalizations for this disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Strollo S, Lionakis MS, Adjemian J, Steiner CA, Prevots D. Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):7-13. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161198
    AMA Strollo S, Lionakis MS, Adjemian J, et al. Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):7-13. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161198.
    APA Strollo, S., Lionakis, M. S., Adjemian, J., Steiner, C. A., & Prevots, D. (2017). Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 7-13. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161198.
        Email Email this Article
  • Epidemiology of Human Anthrax in China, 1955−2014 PDF Version [PDF - 3.32 MB - 8 pages]
    Y. Li et al.
        View Abstract

    Using national surveillance data for 120,111 human anthrax cases recorded during 1955−2014, we analyzed the temporal, seasonal, geographic, and demographic distribution of this disease in China. After 1978, incidence decreased until 2013, when it reached a low of 0.014 cases/100,000 population. The case-fatality rate, cumulatively 3.6% during the study period, has also decreased since 1990. Cases occurred throughout the year, peaking in August. Geographic distribution decreased overall from west to east, but the cumulative number of affected counties increased during 2005−2014. The disease has shifted from industrial to agricultural workers; 86.7% of cases occurred in farmers and herdsmen. Most (97.7%) reported cases were the cutaneous form. Although progress has been made in reducing incidence, this study highlights areas that need improvement. Adequate laboratory diagnosis is lacking; only 7.6% of cases received laboratory confirmation. Geographic expansion of the disease indicates that livestock control programs will be essential in eradicating anthrax.

        Cite This Article
    EID Li Y, Yin W, Hugh-Jones M, Wang L, Mu D, Ren X, et al. Epidemiology of Human Anthrax in China, 1955−2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):14-21. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.150947
    AMA Li Y, Yin W, Hugh-Jones M, et al. Epidemiology of Human Anthrax in China, 1955−2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):14-21. doi:10.3201/eid2301.150947.
    APA Li, Y., Yin, W., Hugh-Jones, M., Wang, L., Mu, D., Ren, X....Yu, H. (2017). Epidemiology of Human Anthrax in China, 1955−2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 14-21. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.150947.
        Email Email this Article
  • Mathematical Modeling of Programmatic Requirements for Yaws Eradication PDF Version [PDF - 930 KB - 7 pages]
    M. Marks et al.
        View Abstract

    Yaws is targeted for eradication by 2020. The mainstay of the eradication strategy is mass treatment followed by case finding. Modeling has been used to inform programmatic requirements for other neglected tropical diseases and could provide insights into yaws eradication. We developed a model of yaws transmission varying the coverage and number of rounds of treatment. The estimated number of cases arising from an index case (basic reproduction number [R0]) ranged from 1.08 to 3.32. To have 80% probability of achieving eradication, 8 rounds of treatment with 80% coverage were required at low estimates of R0 (1.45). This requirement increased to 95% at high estimates of R0 (2.47). Extending the treatment interval to 12 months increased requirements at all estimates of R0. At high estimates of R0 with 12 monthly rounds of treatment, no combination of variables achieved eradication. Models should be used to guide the scale-up of yaws eradication.

        Cite This Article
    EID Marks M, Mitjà O, Fitzpatrick C, Asiedu K, Solomon AW, Mabey D, et al. Mathematical Modeling of Programmatic Requirements for Yaws Eradication. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):22-28. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160487
    AMA Marks M, Mitjà O, Fitzpatrick C, et al. Mathematical Modeling of Programmatic Requirements for Yaws Eradication. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):22-28. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160487.
    APA Marks, M., Mitjà, O., Fitzpatrick, C., Asiedu, K., Solomon, A. W., Mabey, D....Funk, S. (2017). Mathematical Modeling of Programmatic Requirements for Yaws Eradication. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 22-28. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160487.
        Email Email this Article
  • Estimated Incidence of Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections, United States, 2004–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 1.85 MB - 9 pages]
    F. Medalla et al.
        View Abstract

    Salmonella infections are a major cause of illness in the United States. The antimicrobial agents used to treat severe infections include ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin. Antimicrobial drug resistance has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. To estimate the incidence of resistant culture-confirmed nontyphoidal Salmonella infections, we used Bayesian hierarchical models of 2004–2012 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System and Laboratory-based Enteric Disease Surveillance. We based 3 mutually exclusive resistance categories on susceptibility testing: ceftriaxone and ampicillin resistant, ciprofloxacin nonsusceptible but ceftriaxone susceptible, and ampicillin resistant but ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin susceptible. We estimated the overall incidence of resistant infections as 1.07/100,000 person-years for ampicillin-only resistance, 0.51/100,000 person-years for ceftriaxone and ampicillin resistance, and 0.35/100,000 person-years for ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility, or ≈6,200 resistant culture-confirmed infections annually. These national estimates help define the magnitude of the resistance problem so that control measures can be appropriately targeted.

        Cite This Article
    EID Medalla F, Gu W, Mahon BE, Judd M, Folster JP, Griffin PM, et al. Estimated Incidence of Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections, United States, 2004–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):29-37. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160771
    AMA Medalla F, Gu W, Mahon BE, et al. Estimated Incidence of Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections, United States, 2004–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):29-37. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160771.
    APA Medalla, F., Gu, W., Mahon, B. E., Judd, M., Folster, J. P., Griffin, P. M....Hoekstra, R. M. (2017). Estimated Incidence of Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections, United States, 2004–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 29-37. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160771.
        Email Email this Article
  • Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage during an Outbreak and Humanitarian Crisis, Iraq, 2015 PDF Version [PDF - 757 KB - 8 pages]
    E. Lam et al.
        View Abstract

    During November–December 2015, as part of the 2015 cholera outbreak response in Iraq, the Iraqi Ministry of Health targeted ≈255,000 displaced persons >1 year of age with 2 doses of oral cholera vaccine (OCV). All persons who received vaccines were living in selected refugee camps, internally displaced persons camps, and collective centers. We conducted a multistage cluster survey to obtain OCV coverage estimates in 10 governorates that were targeted during the campaign. In total, 1,226 household and 5,007 individual interviews were conducted. Overall, 2-dose OCV coverage in the targeted camps was 87% (95% CI 85%–89%). Two-dose OCV coverage in the 3 northern governorates (91%; 95% CI 87%–94%) was higher than that in the 7 southern and central governorates (80%; 95% CI 77%–82%). The experience in Iraq demonstrates that OCV campaigns can be successfully implemented as part of a comprehensive response to cholera outbreaks among high-risk populations in conflict settings.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lam E, Al-Tamimi W, Russell S, Butt M, Blanton C, Musani A, et al. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage during an Outbreak and Humanitarian Crisis, Iraq, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):38-45. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160881
    AMA Lam E, Al-Tamimi W, Russell S, et al. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage during an Outbreak and Humanitarian Crisis, Iraq, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):38-45. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160881.
    APA Lam, E., Al-Tamimi, W., Russell, S., Butt, M., Blanton, C., Musani, A....Date, K. (2017). Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage during an Outbreak and Humanitarian Crisis, Iraq, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 38-45. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160881.
        Email Email this Article
  • Modeling Tool for Decision Support during Early Days of an Anthrax Event PDF Version [PDF - 1.22 MB - 10 pages]
    G. Rainisch et al.
        View Abstract

    Health officials lack field-implementable tools for forecasting the effects that a large-scale release of Bacillus anthracis spores would have on public health and hospitals. We created a modeling tool (combining inhalational anthrax caseload projections based on initial case reports, effects of variable postexposure prophylaxis campaigns, and healthcare facility surge capacity requirements) to project hospitalizations and casualties from a newly detected inhalation anthrax event, and we examined the consequences of intervention choices. With only 3 days of case counts, the model can predict final attack sizes for simulated Sverdlovsk-like events (1979 USSR) with sufficient accuracy for decision making and confirms the value of early postexposure prophylaxis initiation. According to a baseline scenario, hospital treatment volume peaks 15 days after exposure, deaths peak earlier (day 5), and recovery peaks later (day 23). This tool gives public health, hospital, and emergency planners scenario-specific information for developing quantitative response plans for this threat.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rainisch G, Meltzer MI, Shadomy S, Bower WA, Hupert N. Modeling Tool for Decision Support during Early Days of an Anthrax Event. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):46-55. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.151787
    AMA Rainisch G, Meltzer MI, Shadomy S, et al. Modeling Tool for Decision Support during Early Days of an Anthrax Event. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):46-55. doi:10.3201/eid2301.151787.
    APA Rainisch, G., Meltzer, M. I., Shadomy, S., Bower, W. A., & Hupert, N. (2017). Modeling Tool for Decision Support during Early Days of an Anthrax Event. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 46-55. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.151787.
        Email Email this Article
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Analysis of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous with Antimicrobial Treatment in Injection Drug Users, Scotland, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 956 KB - 10 pages]
    X. Cui et al.
    View Summary

    Differences between recipients and nonrecipients and the small number of higher risk patients confounded assessment.

        View Abstract

    We studied anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIG-IV) use from a 2009–2010 outbreak of Bacillus anthracis soft tissue infection in injection drug users in Scotland, UK, and we compared findings from 15 AIG-IV recipients with findings from 28 nonrecipients. Death rates did not differ significantly between recipients and nonrecipients (33% vs. 21%). However, whereas only 8 (27%) of 30 patients at low risk for death (admission sequential organ failure assessment score of 0–5) received AIG-IV, 7 (54%) of the 13 patients at high risk for death (sequential organ failure assessment score of 6–11) received treatment. AIG-IV recipients had surgery more often and, among survivors, had longer hospital stays than did nonrecipients. AIG-IV recipients were sicker than nonrecipients. This difference and the small number of higher risk patients confound assessment of AIG-IV effectiveness in this outbreak.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cui X, Nolen LD, Sun J, Booth M, Donaldson L, Quinn CP, et al. Analysis of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous with Antimicrobial Treatment in Injection Drug Users, Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):56-65. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160608
    AMA Cui X, Nolen LD, Sun J, et al. Analysis of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous with Antimicrobial Treatment in Injection Drug Users, Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):56-65. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160608.
    APA Cui, X., Nolen, L. D., Sun, J., Booth, M., Donaldson, L., Quinn, C. P....Eichacker, P. Q. (2017). Analysis of Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous with Antimicrobial Treatment in Injection Drug Users, Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 56-65. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160608.
        Email Email this Article
  • Sequelae and Other Conditions in Ebola Virus Disease Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2015 PDF Version [PDF - 1.36 MB - 8 pages]
    H. Mohammed et al.
        View Abstract

    We rapidly assessed the health of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Kenema, Sierra Leone, by reviewing medical charts of all patients attending the Survivor Clinic of Kenema Government Hospital. Data were abstracted on signs and symptoms at every attendance. As of November 2015, a total of 621 attendances by 115 survivors with laboratory-confirmed EVD were made to the Survivor Clinic. Most (60.9%) survivors were women. Survivors’ median age was 28 years (range 0.25–70 years). Survivors attended the clinic a median of 5 times (range 1–21 times) each, and the median time from EVD discharge to attendance was 261 days (range 4–504 days). The most commonly reported signs and symptoms among the 621 attendances were headache (63.1%), fever (61.7%), and myalgia (43.3%). Because health needs of EVD survivors are complex, rapid chart reviews at survivor clinics should be repeated regularly to assess the extent of illness and prioritize service delivery.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mohammed H, Vandy AO, Stretch R, Otieno D, Prajapati M, Calderon M, et al. Sequelae and Other Conditions in Ebola Virus Disease Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):66-73. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160631
    AMA Mohammed H, Vandy AO, Stretch R, et al. Sequelae and Other Conditions in Ebola Virus Disease Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):66-73. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160631.
    APA Mohammed, H., Vandy, A. O., Stretch, R., Otieno, D., Prajapati, M., Calderon, M....Vandi, M. (2017). Sequelae and Other Conditions in Ebola Virus Disease Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 66-73. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160631.
        Email Email this Article
  • Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016 PDF Version [PDF - 1.08 MB - 9 pages]
    R. Li et al.
        View Abstract

    We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of increasing access to contraception in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak. The intervention is projected to cost an additional $33.5 million in family planning services and is likely to be cost-saving for the healthcare system overall. It could reduce Zika virus–related costs by $65.2 million ($2.8 million from less Zika virus testing and monitoring and $62.3 million from avoided costs of Zika virus–associated microcephaly [ZAM]). The estimates are influenced by the contraception methods used, the frequency of ZAM, and the lifetime incremental cost of ZAM. Accounting for unwanted pregnancies that are prevented, irrespective of Zika virus infection, an additional $40.4 million in medical costs would be avoided through the intervention. Increasing contraceptive access for women who want to delay or avoid pregnancy in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak can substantially reduce the number of cases of ZAM and healthcare costs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Li R, Simmons KB, Bertolli J, Rivera-Garcia B, Cox S, Romero L, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):74-82. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161322
    AMA Li R, Simmons KB, Bertolli J, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):74-82. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161322.
    APA Li, R., Simmons, K. B., Bertolli, J., Rivera-Garcia, B., Cox, S., Romero, L....Grosse, S. D. (2017). Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 74-82. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161322.
        Email Email this Article

Dispatches

  • Host-Associated Absence of Human Puumala Virus Infections in Northern and Eastern Germany PDF Version [PDF - 3.74 MB - 4 pages]
    S. Drewes et al.
        View Abstract

    Human hantavirus disease cases, caused by Puumala virus (PUUV), are mainly recorded in western and southern areas of Germany. This bank vole reservoir survey confirmed PUUV presence in these regions but its absence in northern and eastern regions. PUUV occurrence is associated with the presence of the Western bank vole phylogroup.

        Cite This Article
    EID Drewes S, Ali H, Saxenhofer M, Rosenfeld UM, Binder F, Cuypers F, et al. Host-Associated Absence of Human Puumala Virus Infections in Northern and Eastern Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):83-86. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160224
    AMA Drewes S, Ali H, Saxenhofer M, et al. Host-Associated Absence of Human Puumala Virus Infections in Northern and Eastern Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):83-86. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160224.
    APA Drewes, S., Ali, H., Saxenhofer, M., Rosenfeld, U. M., Binder, F., Cuypers, F....Ulrich, R. G. (2017). Host-Associated Absence of Human Puumala Virus Infections in Northern and Eastern Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 83-86. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160224.
        Email Email this Article
  • Norovirus Infection in Harbor Porpoises PDF Version [PDF - 2.47 MB - 5 pages]
    M. de Graaf et al.
        View Abstract

    A norovirus was detected in harbor porpoises, a previously unknown host for norovirus. This norovirus had low similarity to any known norovirus. Viral RNA was detected primarily in intestinal tissue, and specific serum antibodies were detected in 8 (24%) of 34 harbor porpoises from the North Sea.

        Cite This Article
    EID de Graaf M, Bodewes R, van Elk CE, van de Bildt M, Getu S, Aron GI, et al. Norovirus Infection in Harbor Porpoises. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):87-91. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161081
    AMA de Graaf M, Bodewes R, van Elk CE, et al. Norovirus Infection in Harbor Porpoises. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):87-91. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161081.
    APA de Graaf, M., Bodewes, R., van Elk, C. E., van de Bildt, M., Getu, S., Aron, G. I....Koopmans, M. (2017). Norovirus Infection in Harbor Porpoises. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 87-91. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161081.
        Email Email this Article
  • Reconstruction of Zika Virus Introduction in Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 1.17 MB - 4 pages]
    K. Zinszer et al.
        View Abstract

    We estimated the speed of Zika virus introduction in Brazil by using confirmed cases at the municipal level. Our models indicate a southward pattern of introduction starting from the northeastern coast and a pattern of movement toward the western border with an average speed of spread of 42 km/day or 15,367 km/year.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zinszer K, Morrison K, Brownstein JS, Marinho F, Santos AF, Nsoesie EO, et al. Reconstruction of Zika Virus Introduction in Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):91-94. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161274
    AMA Zinszer K, Morrison K, Brownstein JS, et al. Reconstruction of Zika Virus Introduction in Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):91-94. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161274.
    APA Zinszer, K., Morrison, K., Brownstein, J. S., Marinho, F., Santos, A. F., & Nsoesie, E. O. (2017). Reconstruction of Zika Virus Introduction in Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 91-94. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161274.
        Email Email this Article
  • Acute Respiratory Disease in US Army Trainees 3 Years after Reintroduction of Adenovirus Vaccine PDF Version [PDF - 1.58 MB - 4 pages]
    N. S. Clemmons et al.
        View Abstract

    The 1999 cessation of vaccination against adenovirus types 4 and 7 among US Army trainees resulted in reemergence of acute respiratory disease (ARD) outbreaks. The 2011 implementation of a replacement vaccine led to dramatic and sustained decreases in ARD cases, supporting continuation of vaccination in this population at high risk for ARD.

        Cite This Article
    EID Clemmons NS, McCormic ZD, Gaydos JC, Hawksworth AW, Jordan NN. Acute Respiratory Disease in US Army Trainees 3 Years after Reintroduction of Adenovirus Vaccine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):95-98. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161297
    AMA Clemmons NS, McCormic ZD, Gaydos JC, et al. Acute Respiratory Disease in US Army Trainees 3 Years after Reintroduction of Adenovirus Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):95-98. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161297.
    APA Clemmons, N. S., McCormic, Z. D., Gaydos, J. C., Hawksworth, A. W., & Jordan, N. N. (2017). Acute Respiratory Disease in US Army Trainees 3 Years after Reintroduction of Adenovirus Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 95-98. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161297.
        Email Email this Article
  • Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus in Vaginal Secretions and Whole Blood PDF Version [PDF - 430 KB - 3 pages]
    K. O. Murray et al.
        View Abstract

    Infection with Zika virus is an emerging public health crisis. We observed prolonged detection of virus RNA in vaginal mucosal swab specimens and whole blood for a US traveler with acute Zika virus infection who had visited Honduras. These findings advance understanding of Zika virus infection and provide data for additional testing strategies.

        Cite This Article
    EID Murray KO, Gorchakov R, Carlson AR, Berry R, Lai L, Natrajan M, et al. Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus in Vaginal Secretions and Whole Blood. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):99-101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161394
    AMA Murray KO, Gorchakov R, Carlson AR, et al. Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus in Vaginal Secretions and Whole Blood. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):99-101. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161394.
    APA Murray, K. O., Gorchakov, R., Carlson, A. R., Berry, R., Lai, L., Natrajan, M....Mulligan, M. J. (2017). Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus in Vaginal Secretions and Whole Blood. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 99-101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161394.
        Email Email this Article
  • Frequent Transmission of Gonorrhea in Men Who Have Sex with Men PDF Version [PDF - 538 KB - 3 pages]
    C. K. Fairley et al.
        View Abstract

    The rate of gonorrhea is much higher in men who have sex with men than in heterosexuals. Because of unique behavioral characteristics, asymptomatic sites of infection, mainly the pharynx, are principal drivers of gonorrhea prevalence in men who have sex with men. On the basis of this observation, we call for interventions.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fairley CK, Hocking JS, Zhang L, Chow E. Frequent Transmission of Gonorrhea in Men Who Have Sex with Men. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):102-104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161205
    AMA Fairley CK, Hocking JS, Zhang L, et al. Frequent Transmission of Gonorrhea in Men Who Have Sex with Men. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):102-104. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161205.
    APA Fairley, C. K., Hocking, J. S., Zhang, L., & Chow, E. (2017). Frequent Transmission of Gonorrhea in Men Who Have Sex with Men. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 102-104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161205.
        Email Email this Article
  • Sequence Analysis of Toxin Gene–Bearing Corynebacterium diphtheriae Strains, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 321 KB - 3 pages]
    C. J. Doyle et al.
        View Abstract

    By conducting a molecular characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains in Australia, we identified novel sequences, nonfunctional toxin genes, and 5 recent cases of toxigenic cutaneous diphtheria. These findings highlight the importance of extrapharyngeal infections for toxin gene–bearing (functional or not) and non–toxin gene–bearing C. diphtheriae strains. Continued surveillance is recommended.

        Cite This Article
    EID Doyle CJ, Mazins A, Graham R, Fang N, Smith HV, Jennison AV, et al. Sequence Analysis of Toxin Gene–Bearing Corynebacterium diphtheriae Strains, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):105-107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160584
    AMA Doyle CJ, Mazins A, Graham R, et al. Sequence Analysis of Toxin Gene–Bearing Corynebacterium diphtheriae Strains, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):105-107. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160584.
    APA Doyle, C. J., Mazins, A., Graham, R., Fang, N., Smith, H. V., & Jennison, A. V. (2017). Sequence Analysis of Toxin Gene–Bearing Corynebacterium diphtheriae Strains, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 105-107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160584.
        Email Email this Article
  • Media Messages and Perception of Risk for Ebola Virus Infection, United States PDF Version [PDF - 783 KB - 4 pages]
    T. Sell et al.
        View Abstract

    News media have been blamed for sensationalizing Ebola in the United States, causing unnecessary alarm. To investigate this issue, we analyzed US-focused news stories about Ebola virus disease during July 1–November 30, 2014. We found frequent use of risk-elevating messages, which may have contributed to increased public concern.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sell T, Boddie C, McGinty EE, Pollack K, Smith K, Burke TA, et al. Media Messages and Perception of Risk for Ebola Virus Infection, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):108-111. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160589
    AMA Sell T, Boddie C, McGinty EE, et al. Media Messages and Perception of Risk for Ebola Virus Infection, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):108-111. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160589.
    APA Sell, T., Boddie, C., McGinty, E. E., Pollack, K., Smith, K., Burke, T. A....Rutkow, L. (2017). Media Messages and Perception of Risk for Ebola Virus Infection, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 108-111. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160589.
        Email Email this Article
  • Haemophilus influenzae Type b Invasive Disease in Amish Children, Missouri, USA, 2014 PDF Version [PDF - 809 KB - 3 pages]
    A. L. Myers et al.
        View Abstract

    During 5 months in 2014, three Amish children in Missouri, USA, were diagnosed with invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b infection. Two were rural neighbors infected with a genetically similar rare strain, sequence type 45. One child had recently traveled, raising the possibility of maintenance of this strain among unvaccinated carriers in Amish communities.

        Cite This Article
    EID Myers AL, Jackson M, Zhang L, Swanson DS, Gilsdorf JR. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Invasive Disease in Amish Children, Missouri, USA, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):112-114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160593
    AMA Myers AL, Jackson M, Zhang L, et al. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Invasive Disease in Amish Children, Missouri, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):112-114. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160593.
    APA Myers, A. L., Jackson, M., Zhang, L., Swanson, D. S., & Gilsdorf, J. R. (2017). Haemophilus influenzae Type b Invasive Disease in Amish Children, Missouri, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 112-114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160593.
        Email Email this Article
  • Meningitis Associated with Simultaneous Infection by Multiple Dengue Virus Serotypes in Children, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 732 KB - 4 pages]
    P. Marinho et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the causes of viral meningitis, we analyzed 22 cerebrospinal fluid samples collected during the 2014–2015 dengue epidemics in Brazil. We identified 3 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, and -3), as well as co-infection with 2 or 3 serotypes. We also detected the Asian II genotype of DENV-2.

        Cite This Article
    EID Marinho P, Bretas de Oliveira D, Candiani T, Crispim A, Alvarenga P, Castro F, et al. Meningitis Associated with Simultaneous Infection by Multiple Dengue Virus Serotypes in Children, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):115-118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160817
    AMA Marinho P, Bretas de Oliveira D, Candiani T, et al. Meningitis Associated with Simultaneous Infection by Multiple Dengue Virus Serotypes in Children, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):115-118. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160817.
    APA Marinho, P., Bretas de Oliveira, D., Candiani, T., Crispim, A., Alvarenga, P., Castro, F....Kroon, E. (2017). Meningitis Associated with Simultaneous Infection by Multiple Dengue Virus Serotypes in Children, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 115-118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160817.
        Email Email this Article
  • Travel-Related Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Israel, 2006–2014 PDF Version [PDF - 340 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Meltzer et al.
        View Abstract

    During 2006–2014, four tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) cases occurred among Israeli travelers. We calculated TBE incidence at 321.0, 45.0, 13.2, and 7.5 cases/100,000 travelers/year of travel to Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, and Germany, respectively. TBE incidence among travelers to these destinations appears to justify TBE vaccination in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations.

        Cite This Article
    EID Meltzer E, Paran Y, Lustig Y, Stienlauf S, Weinberger M, Schwartz E, et al. Travel-Related Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Israel, 2006–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):119-121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160888
    AMA Meltzer E, Paran Y, Lustig Y, et al. Travel-Related Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Israel, 2006–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):119-121. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160888.
    APA Meltzer, E., Paran, Y., Lustig, Y., Stienlauf, S., Weinberger, M., & Schwartz, E. (2017). Travel-Related Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Israel, 2006–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 119-121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160888.
        Email Email this Article
  • Increased Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, North East England, UK PDF Version [PDF - 2.60 MB - 5 pages]
    C. Houseman et al.
        View Abstract

    Since April 2014, invasive pneumococcal disease incidence has increased substantially across North East England, United Kingdom, reversing the decline that followed the 2006 introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Significant increases occurred in 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine serotypes and nonvaccine serotypes. Trends in other regions and long-term effects of multivalent vaccines require further investigation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Houseman C, Hughes GJ, Chapman KE, Wilson D, Gorton R. Increased Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, North East England, UK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):122-126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160897
    AMA Houseman C, Hughes GJ, Chapman KE, et al. Increased Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, North East England, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):122-126. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160897.
    APA Houseman, C., Hughes, G. J., Chapman, K. E., Wilson, D., & Gorton, R. (2017). Increased Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, North East England, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 122-126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160897.
        Email Email this Article
  • Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Caused by Group G Streptococcus, United Kingdom PDF Version [PDF - 989 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Baxter and M. Morgan
        View Abstract

    We describe successful management of 3 patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) attributable to group G Streptococcus infection. This small series supports recognition of group G Streptococcus in the etiology of STSS. We propose intravenous immunoglobulin be used in treatment as it is for STSS caused by group A Streptococcus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Baxter M, Morgan M. Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Caused by Group G Streptococcus, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):127-129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161009
    AMA Baxter M, Morgan M. Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Caused by Group G Streptococcus, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):127-129. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161009.
    APA Baxter, M., & Morgan, M. (2017). Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Caused by Group G Streptococcus, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 127-129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161009.
        Email Email this Article
  • Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boars and Spillover Infection in Red and Roe Deer, Germany, 2013–2015 PDF Version [PDF - 566 KB - 4 pages]
    H. E. Anheyer-Behmenburg et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine animal hepatitis E virus (HEV) reservoirs, we analyzed serologic and molecular markers of HEV infection among wild animals in Germany. We detected HEV genotype 3 strains in inner organs and muscle tissues of a high percentage of wild boars and a lower percentage of deer, indicating a risk for foodborne infection of humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Anheyer-Behmenburg HE, Szabo K, Schotte U, Binder A, Klein G, Johne R, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boars and Spillover Infection in Red and Roe Deer, Germany, 2013–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):130-133. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161169
    AMA Anheyer-Behmenburg HE, Szabo K, Schotte U, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boars and Spillover Infection in Red and Roe Deer, Germany, 2013–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):130-133. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161169.
    APA Anheyer-Behmenburg, H. E., Szabo, K., Schotte, U., Binder, A., Klein, G., & Johne, R. (2017). Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boars and Spillover Infection in Red and Roe Deer, Germany, 2013–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 130-133. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161169.
        Email Email this Article
  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Healthcare Needs during Zika Virus Transmission, Puerto Rico, 2016 PDF Version [PDF - 304 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Dirlikov et al.
        View Abstract

    To assist with public health preparedness activities, we estimated the number of expected cases of Zika virus in Puerto Rico and associated healthcare needs. Estimated annual incidence is 3.2–5.1 times the baseline, and long-term care needs are predicted to be 3–5 times greater than in years with no Zika virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dirlikov E, Kniss K, Major C, Thomas D, Virgen CA, Mayshack M, et al. Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Healthcare Needs during Zika Virus Transmission, Puerto Rico, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):134-136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161290
    AMA Dirlikov E, Kniss K, Major C, et al. Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Healthcare Needs during Zika Virus Transmission, Puerto Rico, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):134-136. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161290.
    APA Dirlikov, E., Kniss, K., Major, C., Thomas, D., Virgen, C. A., Mayshack, M....Rivera-Garcia, B. (2017). Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Healthcare Needs during Zika Virus Transmission, Puerto Rico, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 134-136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161290.
        Email Email this Article
  • Persistent Zika Virus Detection in Semen in a Traveler Returning to the United Kingdom from Brazil, 2016 PDF Version [PDF - 586 KB - 3 pages]
    K. M. Gaskell et al.
        View Abstract

    Zika virus is normally transmitted by mosquitos, but cases of sexual transmission have been reported. We describe a patient with symptomatic Zika virus infection in whom the virus was detected in semen for 92 days. Our findings support recommendations for 6 months of barrier contraceptive use after symptomatic Zika virus infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gaskell KM, Houlihan C, Nastouli E, Checkley AM. Persistent Zika Virus Detection in Semen in a Traveler Returning to the United Kingdom from Brazil, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):137-139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161300
    AMA Gaskell KM, Houlihan C, Nastouli E, et al. Persistent Zika Virus Detection in Semen in a Traveler Returning to the United Kingdom from Brazil, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):137-139. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161300.
    APA Gaskell, K. M., Houlihan, C., Nastouli, E., & Checkley, A. M. (2017). Persistent Zika Virus Detection in Semen in a Traveler Returning to the United Kingdom from Brazil, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 137-139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161300.
        Email Email this Article
  • Upsurge of Enterovirus D68, the Netherlands, 2016 PDF Version [PDF - 475 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Knoester et al.
        View Abstract

    In June and July 2016, we identified 8 adults and 17 children with respiratory enterovirus D68 infections. Thirteen children required intensive care unit admission because of respiratory insufficiency, and 1 had concomitant acute flaccid myelitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of 20 sequences obtained belong to the recently described clade B3.

        Cite This Article
    EID Knoester M, Schölvinck EH, Poelman R, Smit S, Vermont CL, Niesters H, et al. Upsurge of Enterovirus D68, the Netherlands, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):140-143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161313
    AMA Knoester M, Schölvinck EH, Poelman R, et al. Upsurge of Enterovirus D68, the Netherlands, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):140-143. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161313.
    APA Knoester, M., Schölvinck, E. H., Poelman, R., Smit, S., Vermont, C. L., Niesters, H....Van Leer-Buter, C. C. (2017). Upsurge of Enterovirus D68, the Netherlands, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 140-143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161313.
        Email Email this Article

Letters

  • Dolphin Morbillivirus Associated with a Mass Stranding of Sperm Whales, Italy PDF Version [PDF - 893 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Mazzariol et al.
        View Abstract

    In September 2014, seven sperm whales were stranded along Italy’s Adriatic coastline. Postmortem investigations on 3 female adult whales and 1 male fetus carried by the largest female revealed molecular and immunohistochemical evidence of dolphin morbillivirus infection. A possible role of the virus in the stranding event was considered.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mazzariol S, Centelleghe C, Di Provvido A, Di Renzo L, Cardeti G, Cersini A, et al. Dolphin Morbillivirus Associated with a Mass Stranding of Sperm Whales, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):144-146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160239
    AMA Mazzariol S, Centelleghe C, Di Provvido A, et al. Dolphin Morbillivirus Associated with a Mass Stranding of Sperm Whales, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):144-146. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160239.
    APA Mazzariol, S., Centelleghe, C., Di Provvido, A., Di Renzo, L., Cardeti, G., Cersini, A....Di Guardo, G. (2017). Dolphin Morbillivirus Associated with a Mass Stranding of Sperm Whales, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 144-146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160239.
        Email Email this Article
  • Hepatitis E Virus Infection after Platelet Transfusion in an Immunocompetent Trauma Patient PDF Version [PDF - 304 KB - 2 pages]
    E. Loyrion et al.
        View Abstract

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection causes acute liver disease, but severe infections are rare in immunocompetent patients. We describe a case of HEV infection in a previously healthy male trauma patient in France who received massive transfusions. Genotyping confirmed HEV in a transfused platelet pool and the donor.

        Cite This Article
    EID Loyrion E, Trouve-Buisson T, Pouzol P, Larrat S, Decaens T, Payen J, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infection after Platelet Transfusion in an Immunocompetent Trauma Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):146-147. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160923
    AMA Loyrion E, Trouve-Buisson T, Pouzol P, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infection after Platelet Transfusion in an Immunocompetent Trauma Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):146-147. doi:10.3201/eid2301.160923.
    APA Loyrion, E., Trouve-Buisson, T., Pouzol, P., Larrat, S., Decaens, T., & Payen, J. (2017). Hepatitis E Virus Infection after Platelet Transfusion in an Immunocompetent Trauma Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 146-147. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.160923.
        Email Email this Article
  • Scrub Typhus Leading to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Assam, India PDF Version [PDF - 405 KB - 3 pages]
    S. A. Khan et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the contribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, as a cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Assam, India, we conducted a retrospective study of hospital patients with symptoms of AES during 2013–2015. Our findings suggest that O. tsutsugamushi infection leads to AES and the resulting illness and death.

        Cite This Article
    EID Khan SA, Bora T, Laskar B, Khan AM, Dutta P. Scrub Typhus Leading to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Assam, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):148-150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161038
    AMA Khan SA, Bora T, Laskar B, et al. Scrub Typhus Leading to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Assam, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):148-150. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161038.
    APA Khan, S. A., Bora, T., Laskar, B., Khan, A. M., & Dutta, P. (2017). Scrub Typhus Leading to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Assam, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 148-150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161038.
        Email Email this Article
  • Group B Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome and covR/S Mutations Revisited PDF Version [PDF - 307 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Sendi et al.
        View Abstract

    Gene mutations in the virulence regulator CovR/S of group A Streptococcus play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. We screened 25 group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates obtained from patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and found only 1 GBS clone harboring this kind of mutation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sendi P, el Hay M, Brandt CM, Spellerberg B. Group B Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome and covR/S Mutations Revisited. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):150-152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161063
    AMA Sendi P, el Hay M, Brandt CM, et al. Group B Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome and covR/S Mutations Revisited. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):150-152. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161063.
    APA Sendi, P., el Hay, M., Brandt, C. M., & Spellerberg, B. (2017). Group B Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome and covR/S Mutations Revisited. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 150-152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161063.
        Email Email this Article
  • Whole-Genome Characterization of a Novel Human Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Variant, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 283 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Resende et al.
        View Abstract

    We report the characterization of a novel reassortant influenza A(H1N2) virus not previously reported in humans. Recovered from a a pig farm worker in southeast Brazil who had influenza-like illness, this virus is a triple reassortant containing gene segments from subtypes H1N2 (hemagglutinin), H3N2 (neuraminidase), and pandemic H1N1 (remaining genes).

        Cite This Article
    EID Resende P, Born P, Matos A, Motta F, Caetano B, Debur M, et al. Whole-Genome Characterization of a Novel Human Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Variant, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):152-154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161122
    AMA Resende P, Born P, Matos A, et al. Whole-Genome Characterization of a Novel Human Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Variant, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):152-154. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161122.
    APA Resende, P., Born, P., Matos, A., Motta, F., Caetano, B., Debur, M....Siqueira, M. M. (2017). Whole-Genome Characterization of a Novel Human Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Variant, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 152-154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161122.
        Email Email this Article
  • Avian Pox in Native Captive Psittacines, Brazil, 2015 PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 3 pages]
    F. Esteves et al.
        View Abstract

    To investigate an outbreak of avian pox in psittacines in a conservation facility, we examined 94 birds of 10 psittacine species, including sick and healthy birds. We found psittacine pox virus in 23 of 27 sick birds and 4 of 67 healthy birds. Further characterization is needed for these isolates.

        Cite This Article
    EID Esteves F, Marín SY, Resende M, Silva A, Coelho H, Barbosa MB, et al. Avian Pox in Native Captive Psittacines, Brazil, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):154-156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161133
    AMA Esteves F, Marín SY, Resende M, et al. Avian Pox in Native Captive Psittacines, Brazil, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):154-156. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161133.
    APA Esteves, F., Marín, S. Y., Resende, M., Silva, A., Coelho, H., Barbosa, M. B....Martins, N. (2017). Avian Pox in Native Captive Psittacines, Brazil, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 154-156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161133.
        Email Email this Article
  • Chikungunya Fever in Traveler from Angola to Japan, 2016 PDF Version [PDF - 385 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Takaya et al.
        View Abstract

    Simultaneous circulation of multiple arboviruses presents diagnostic challenges. In May 2016, chikungunya fever was diagnosed in a traveler from Angola to Japan. Travel history, incubation period, and phylogenetic analysis indicated probable infection acquisition in Angola, where a yellow fever outbreak is ongoing. Thus, local transmission of chikungunya virus probably also occurs in Angola.

        Cite This Article
    EID Takaya S, Kutsuna S, Nakayama E, Taniguchi S, Tajima S, Katanami Y, et al. Chikungunya Fever in Traveler from Angola to Japan, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):156-158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161395
    AMA Takaya S, Kutsuna S, Nakayama E, et al. Chikungunya Fever in Traveler from Angola to Japan, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):156-158. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161395.
    APA Takaya, S., Kutsuna, S., Nakayama, E., Taniguchi, S., Tajima, S., Katanami, Y....Ohmagari, N. (2017). Chikungunya Fever in Traveler from Angola to Japan, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 156-158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161395.
        Email Email this Article
  • Puumala Virus in Bank Voles, Lithuania PDF Version [PDF - 415 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Straková et al.
        View Abstract

    Little is known about the presence of human pathogenic Puumala virus (PUUV) in Lithuania. We detected this virus in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in a region of this country in which previously PUUV-seropositive humans were identified. Our results are consistent with heterogeneous distributions of PUUV in other countries in Europe.

        Cite This Article
    EID Straková P, Jagdmann S, Balčiauskas L, Balčiauskienė L, Drewes S, Ulrich RG, et al. Puumala Virus in Bank Voles, Lithuania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):158-160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161400
    AMA Straková P, Jagdmann S, Balčiauskas L, et al. Puumala Virus in Bank Voles, Lithuania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):158-160. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161400.
    APA Straková, P., Jagdmann, S., Balčiauskas, L., Balčiauskienė, L., Drewes, S., & Ulrich, R. G. (2017). Puumala Virus in Bank Voles, Lithuania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 158-160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161400.
        Email Email this Article
  • Loiasis in US Traveler Returning from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, 2016 PDF Version [PDF - 507 KB - 3 pages]
    D. H. Priest and T. B. Nutman
        View Abstract

    The filarial parasite Loa loa overlaps geographically with Onchocera volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti filariae in central Africa. Accurate information regarding this overlap is critical to elimination programs targeting O. volvulus and W. bancrofti. We describe a case of loiasis in a traveler returning from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, a location heretofore unknown for L. loa transmission.

        Cite This Article
    EID Priest DH, Nutman TB. Loiasis in US Traveler Returning from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):160-162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161427
    AMA Priest DH, Nutman TB. Loiasis in US Traveler Returning from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):160-162. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161427.
    APA Priest, D. H., & Nutman, T. B. (2017). Loiasis in US Traveler Returning from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 160-162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161427.
        Email Email this Article
  • Invasive Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Yeast Candida auris, Colombia PDF Version [PDF - 303 KB - 3 pages]
    S. E. Morales-López et al.
        View Abstract

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungus that causes a wide range of symptoms. We report finding 17 cases of C. auris infection that were originally misclassified but correctly identified 27.5 days later on average. Patients with a delayed diagnosis of C. auris had a 30-day mortality rate of 35.2%.

        Cite This Article
    EID Morales-López SE, Parra-Giraldo CM, Ceballos-Garzón A, Martínez HP, Rodríguez GJ, Álvarez-Moreno CA, et al. Invasive Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Yeast Candida auris, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):162-164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161497
    AMA Morales-López SE, Parra-Giraldo CM, Ceballos-Garzón A, et al. Invasive Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Yeast Candida auris, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):162-164. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161497.
    APA Morales-López, S. E., Parra-Giraldo, C. M., Ceballos-Garzón, A., Martínez, H. P., Rodríguez, G. J., Álvarez-Moreno, C. A....Rodríguez, J. Y. (2017). Invasive Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Yeast Candida auris, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 162-164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161497.
        Email Email this Article
  • Zika Virus Knowledge among Pregnant Women Who Were in Areas with Active Transmission PDF Version [PDF - 279 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Whittemore et al.
        View Abstract

    We surveyed women in New York, New York, USA, who were in areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant. Of 99 women who were US residents, 30 were unaware of the government travel advisory to areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant, and 37 were unaware of their pregnancies during travel.

        Cite This Article
    EID Whittemore K, Tate A, Illescas A, Saffa A, Collins A, Varma JK, et al. Zika Virus Knowledge among Pregnant Women Who Were in Areas with Active Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):164-166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161614
    AMA Whittemore K, Tate A, Illescas A, et al. Zika Virus Knowledge among Pregnant Women Who Were in Areas with Active Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):164-166. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161614.
    APA Whittemore, K., Tate, A., Illescas, A., Saffa, A., Collins, A., Varma, J. K....Vora, N. M. (2017). Zika Virus Knowledge among Pregnant Women Who Were in Areas with Active Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 164-166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161614.
        Email Email this Article
  • Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Hospitalized Syrian Children PDF Version [PDF - 1.34 MB - 3 pages]
    D. Kassem et al.
        View Abstract

    Since 2013, wounded and ill children from Syria have received treatment in Israel. Screening cultures indicated that multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens colonized 89 (83%) of 107 children. For 58% of MDR infections, the pathogen was similar to that identified during screening. MDR screening of these children is valuable for purposes of isolation and treatment.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kassem D, Hoffmann Y, Shahar N, Ocampo S, Salomon L, Zonis Z, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Hospitalized Syrian Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):166-168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161204
    AMA Kassem D, Hoffmann Y, Shahar N, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Hospitalized Syrian Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):166-168. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161204.
    APA Kassem, D., Hoffmann, Y., Shahar, N., Ocampo, S., Salomon, L., Zonis, Z....Glikman, D. (2017). Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Hospitalized Syrian Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 166-168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161204.
        Email Email this Article
  • Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 756 KB - 1 page]
    V. Hira and B. Rockx
            Cite This Article
    EID Hira V, Rockx B. Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161405
    AMA Hira V, Rockx B. Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):169. doi:10.3201/eid2301.161405.
    APA Hira, V., & Rockx, B. (2017). Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.161405.
        Email Email this Article

Books and Media

About the Cover

  • Extrapolation Yields Painting, Probability, and Predictions PDF Version [PDF - 430 KB - 2 pages]
    B. Breedlove and M. I. Meltzer
            Cite This Article
    EID Breedlove B, Meltzer MI. Extrapolation Yields Painting, Probability, and Predictions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):171-172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.AC2301
    AMA Breedlove B, Meltzer MI. Extrapolation Yields Painting, Probability, and Predictions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):171-172. doi:10.3201/eid2301.AC2301.
    APA Breedlove, B., & Meltzer, M. I. (2017). Extrapolation Yields Painting, Probability, and Predictions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 171-172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.AC2301.
        Email Email this Article

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Bayesian Probability PDF Version [PDF - 369 KB - 1 page]
    R. Henry and M. I. Meltzer
            Cite This Article
    EID Henry R, Meltzer MI. Etymologia: Bayesian Probability. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(1):28. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.ET2301
    AMA Henry R, Meltzer MI. Etymologia: Bayesian Probability. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(1):28. doi:10.3201/eid2301.ET2301.
    APA Henry, R., & Meltzer, M. I. (2017). Etymologia: Bayesian Probability. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(1), 28. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.ET2301.
        Email Email this Article
TOP