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Volume 23, Number 11—November 2017
Dispatch

Increased Detection of Emergent Recombinant Norovirus GII.P16-GII.2 Strains in Young Adults, Hong Kong, China, 2016–2017

Kirsty Kwok, Sandra Niendorf, Nelson Lee, Tin-Nok Hung, Lok-Yi Chan, Sonja Jacobsen, E. Anthony S. Nelson, Ting F. Leung, Raymond W.M. Lai, Paul K.S. ChanComments to Author , and Martin C.W. Chan
Author affiliations: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (K. Kwok, N. Lee, T.-N. Hung, L.-Y. Chan, E.A.S. Nelson, T.F. Leung, R.W.M. Lai, P.K.S. Chan, M.C.W. Chan); Consultant Laboratory for Noroviruses, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany (S. Niendorf, S. Jacobsen)

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Table

Age distribution of hospitalized patients with norovirus GII.4 infections, by season, Hong Kong, China, 2012–2017

Seasons
Median age, y (IQR)
References
2012–13 3 (1–74) (11)
2012–13, 2013–14 2 (1–60) (6)
2014–15 1 (1–8) (8)
2015–16 2 (1–4) Unpublished†
2016–17 1 (1–3) This study

*IQR, interquartile range.
†Chan MC. Molecular surveillance of norovirus in Hong Kong. Unpublished raw data; 2017.

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References
  1. Ahmed  SM, Hall  AJ, Robinson  AE, Verhoef  L, Premkumar  P, Parashar  UD, et al. Global prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:72530. DOIPubMed
  2. Ao  Y, Wang  J, Ling  H, He  Y, Dong  X, Wang  X, et al. Norovirus GII.P16/GII.2-associated gastroenteritis, China, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:11725. DOIPubMed
  3. Thongprachum  A, Okitsu  S, Khamrin  P, Maneekarn  N, Hayakawa  S, Ushijima  H. Emergence of norovirus GII.2 and its novel recombination during the gastroenteritis outbreak in Japanese children in mid-2016. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;51:868. DOIPubMed
  4. Niendorf  S, Jacobsen  S, Faber  M, Eis-Hübinger  AM, Hofmann  J, Zimmermann  O, et al. Steep rise in norovirus cases and emergence of a new recombinant strain GII.P16-GII.2, Germany, winter 2016. Euro Surveill. 2017;22:30447. DOIPubMed
  5. Bidalot  M, Théry  L, Kaplon  J, De Rougemont  A, Ambert-Balay  K. Emergence of new recombinant noroviruses GII.p16-GII.4 and GII.p16-GII.2, France, winter 2016 to 2017. Euro Surveill. 2017;22:30508. DOIPubMed
  6. Chan  MC, Leung  TF, Chung  TW, Kwok  AK, Nelson  EA, Lee  N, et al. Virus genotype distribution and virus burden in children and adults hospitalized for norovirus gastroenteritis, 2012–2014, Hong Kong. Sci Rep. 2015;5:11507. DOIPubMed
  7. Hoa Tran  TN, Trainor  E, Nakagomi  T, Cunliffe  NA, Nakagomi  O. Molecular epidemiology of noroviruses associated with acute sporadic gastroenteritis in children: global distribution of genogroups, genotypes and GII.4 variants. J Clin Virol. 2013;56:18593. DOIPubMed
  8. Chan  MC, Lee  N, Hung  TN, Kwok  K, Cheung  K, Tin  EK, et al. Rapid emergence and predominance of a broadly recognizing and fast-evolving norovirus GII.17 variant in late 2014. Nat Commun. 2015;6:10061. DOIPubMed
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  10. Zhirakovskaia  EV, Tikunov  AY, Bodnev  SA, Klemesheva  VV, Netesov  SV, Tikunova  NV. Molecular epidemiology of noroviruses associated with sporadic gastroenteritis in children in Novosibirsk, Russia, 2003-2012. J Med Virol. 2015;87:74053. DOIPubMed
  11. Chan  MC, Leung  TF, Kwok  AK, Lee  N, Chan  PK. Characteristics of patients infected with norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012, Hong Kong, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:65861. DOIPubMed
  12. Matsushima  Y, Ishikawa  M, Shimizu  T, Komane  A, Kasuo  S, Shinohara  M, et al. Genetic analyses of GII.17 norovirus strains in diarrheal disease outbreaks from December 2014 to March 2015 in Japan reveal a novel polymerase sequence and amino acid substitutions in the capsid region. Euro Surveill. 2015;20:21173. DOIPubMed
  13. Fu  J, Ai  J, Jin  M, Jiang  C, Zhang  J, Shi  C, et al. Emergence of a new GII.17 norovirus variant in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Jiangsu, China, September 2014 to March 2015. Euro Surveill. 2015;20:21157. DOIPubMed
  14. Chen  H, Qian  F, Xu  J, Chan  M, Shen  Z, Zai  S, et al. A novel norovirus GII.17 lineage contributed to adult gastroenteritis in Shanghai, China, during the winter of 2014–2015. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2015;4:e67. DOIPubMed
  15. Toha  K, Lepore  CJ, Ford-Siltz  LA, Parra  GI. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that factors other than the capsid protein play a role in the epidemic potential of GII.2 norovirus. mSphere. 2017;2:pii:e00187-17.

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Page created: October 17, 2017
Page updated: October 17, 2017
Page reviewed: October 17, 2017
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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