Frameworks for Preventing, Detecting, and Controlling Zoonotic Diseases
Miriam L. Shiferaw
, Jeffrey B. Doty, Giorgi Maghlakelidze, Juliette Morgan, Ekaterine Khmaladze, Otar Parkadze, Marina Donduashvili, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Leopold Mulumba, Jean Malekani, Joelle Kabamba, Theresa Kanter, Linda Lucy Boulanger, Abraham Haile, Abyot Bekele, Meseret Bekele, Kasahun Tafese, Andrea M. McCollum, and Mary G. Reynolds
Author affiliations: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (M.L. Shiferaw, J.B. Doty, J. Morgan, T. Kanter, L.L. Boulanger, A.A. McCollum, M.G. Reynolds); US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tbilisi, Georgia (G. Maghlakelidze, J. Morgan); National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi (E. Khmaladze); National Food Agency, Tbilisi (O. Parkadze); Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tbilisi (M. Donduashvili); Ecole de Santé Publique de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (E.O. Wemakoy); Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale, Kinshasa (J.-J. Muyembe); Laboratoire Veterinaire de Kinshasa, Kinshasa (L. Mulumba); Universite de Kinshasa, Kinshasa (J. Malekani); US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kinshasa (J. Kabamba); US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (T. Kanter, L.L. Boulanger); Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa (A. Haile, A. Bekele); Ethiopian Ministry of Livestock and Fishery Resources, Addis Ababa (M. Bekele); Addis Ababa Urban Agriculture Bureau, Addis Ababa (K. Tafese)
Figure 1. Three program approaches for implementing integrated zoonotic disease detection, prevention, and control programs. A) Comprehensive (umbrella) approach, designed to accelerate collaboration and impact. B) Phased (stepwise) approach in which each step building on prior developed program areas and capacities. C) Pathogen discovery approach, based on the necessity of early intersectoral collaboration to generate knowledge in the context of discovering an emerging zoonotic pathogen, which can subsequently take an umbrella or stepwise approach for program implementation.
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