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Volume 23, Number 3—March 2017

Molecular Evidence of Drug Resistance in Asymptomatic Malaria Infections, Myanmar, 2015

Myat Htut Nyunt, Thinzar Shein, Ni Ni Zaw, Soe Soe Han, Fauzi Muh, Seong-Kyun Lee, Jin-Hee Han, Kyaw Zin Thant, Eun-Taek Han1Comments to Author , and Myat Phone Kyaw1
Author affiliations: Department of Medical Research, Yangon, Myanmar (M.H. Nyunt, T. Shein, N.N. Zaw, S.S. Han, K.Z. Thant, M.P. Kyaw); Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea (M.H. Nyunt, S.-K. Lee, J.-H. Han, F. Muh, E.-T. Han)

Main Article


Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax drug-resistance molecular markers in asymptomatic infections, Myanmar, 2015

Target Description* No. isolates/total (%)
kelch 13 (K13)
Wild 2/4 (50.0)
C580Y 1/4 (25.0)
1/4 (25.0)
P. falciparum apicoplast ribosomal protein S10 (pfarps10)
Wild 2/4 (50.0)
2/4 (50.0)
P. falciparum ferredoxin (pffd)
Wild 1/4 (25.0)
3/4 (75.0)
P. falciparum multidrug-resistance protein 2 (pfmdr2)
Wild 0/4 (0.0)
4/4 (100.0)
P. vivax chloroquine-resistance transporter (pvcrt-o)
Wild 7/21 (33.3)
Mutant (AAG insert)
14/21 (66.7)
P. vivax multidrug-resistance protein 1 (pvmdr1)
Wild (T, Y, F) (958, 976, 1076) 0/21 (0.0)
Double mutant (M,Y, L) 4/21 (19.0)
Single mutant (M, Y, F) 12/21 (57.1)
Triple mutant (M, F, L)
5/21 (23.8)
P. vivax dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps)
Wild (S, A, K, A) (382, 383, 512, 553) 0/20 (0.0)
Single mutant (S, G, K, A) 4/20 (20.0)
Double mutant (S, G, K, G) 9/20 (45.0)
Triple mutant (A, G, K, G) 5/20 (25.0)
Quadruple mutant (A, G, M, G)
2/20 (10.0)
P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) Wild (F, S, T, S) (57, 58, 61, 117) 0/21 (0.0)
Single mutant (L, S, T, S) 1/21 (4.8)
Double mutant (F, R, T, N) 2/21 (9.5)
Quadruple mutant (L/I, R, M, T) 18/21 (85.7)

*Numbers in parentheses indicate the amino acid position. Mutant amino acids are shown in bold. All sequences were aligned with 3D7 (P. falciparum) and Sal-1 (P. vivax) reference sequences from

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: February 17, 2017
Page updated: February 17, 2017
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