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Volume 23, Number 4—April 2017


Markers of Disease Severity in Patients with Spanish Influenza in the Japanese Armed Forces, 1919–1920

Koichiro KudoComments to Author , Toshie Manabe, Shinyu Izumi, Jin Takasaki, Yuji Fujikura, Akihiko Kawana, and Kenji Yamamoto
Author affiliations: Koto Hospital, Tokyo, Japan (K. Kudo); Waseda University Organization for Regional and Inter-regional Studies, Tokyo (K. Kudo, T. Manabe); Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (T. Manabe); Tsukuba University Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Ibaraki, Japan (T. Manabe); National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (S. Izumi, J. Takasaki, K. Yamamoto); National Defence Medical College, Saitama, Japan (Y. Fujikura, A. Kawana); So-Yu Medical Foundation Institute of Medicine, Tokyo (K. Yamamoto)

Main Article

Table 2

Risk factors for length of hospitalization among 462 Spanish influenza survivors determined by the Cox proportional hazards model, Japan, 1919–1920*

Risk factor Hazard ratio (95% CI) p value
Diphasic fever 1.73 (1.33–2.25) <0.001
≥6 d of high fever from admission 1.70 (1.29–2.25) <0.001
≥26 breaths/min on maximum respiration rate 1.57 (1.19–2.06) <0.001
Adventitious discontinuous lung sounds 1.56 (1.17–2.07) <0.001

*Diphasic fever, a body temperature >38°C at a time after the initial fever had decreased to <37.5°C; high fever, body temperature >38°C.

Main Article