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Issue Cover for Volume 23, Number 4—April 2017

Volume 23, Number 4—April 2017

[PDF - 8.25 MB - 172 pages]

Perspective

Biologic Evidence Required for Zika Disease Enhancement by Dengue Antibodies [PDF - 780 KB - 5 pages]
S. B. Halstead

The sudden appearance of overt human Zika virus infections that cross the placenta to damage fetal tissues, target sexual organs, and are followed in some instances by Guillain-Barré syndrome raises questions regarding whether these outcomes are caused by genetic mutations or if prior infection by other flaviviruses affects disease outcome. Because dengue and Zika viruses co-circulate in the urban Aedes aegypti mosquito–human cycle, a logical question, as suggested by in vitro data, is whether dengue virus infections result in antibody-dependent enhancement of Zika virus infections. This review emphasizes the critical role for epidemiologic studies (retrospective and prospective) in combination with the studies to identify specific sites of Zika virus infection in humans that are needed to establish antibody-dependent enhancement as a possibility or a reality.

EID Halstead SB. Biologic Evidence Required for Zika Disease Enhancement by Dengue Antibodies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):569-573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161879
AMA Halstead SB. Biologic Evidence Required for Zika Disease Enhancement by Dengue Antibodies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):569-573. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161879.
APA Halstead, S. B. (2017). Biologic Evidence Required for Zika Disease Enhancement by Dengue Antibodies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 569-573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161879.
Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Neurologic Complications of Influenza B Virus Infection in Adults, Romania [PDF - 1.08 MB - 8 pages]
C. P. Popescu et al.

We characterized influenza B virus–related neurologic manifestations in an unusually high number of hospitalized adults at a tertiary care facility in Romania during the 2014–15 influenza epidemic season. Of 32 patients with a confirmed laboratory diagnosis of influenza B virus infection, neurologic complications developed in 7 adults (median age 31 years). These complications were clinically diagnosed as confirmed encephalitis (4 patients), possible encephalitis (2 patients), and cerebellar ataxia (1 patient). Two of the patients died. Virus sequencing identified influenza virus B (Yam)-lineage clade 3, which is representative of the B/Phuket/3073/2013 strain, in 4 patients. None of the patients had been vaccinated against influenza. These results suggest that influenza B virus can cause a severe clinical course and should be considered as an etiologic factor for encephalitis.

EID Popescu CP, Florescu SA, Lupulescu E, Zaharia M, Tardei G, Lazar M, et al. Neurologic Complications of Influenza B Virus Infection in Adults, Romania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):574-581. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161317
AMA Popescu CP, Florescu SA, Lupulescu E, et al. Neurologic Complications of Influenza B Virus Infection in Adults, Romania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):574-581. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161317.
APA Popescu, C. P., Florescu, S. A., Lupulescu, E., Zaharia, M., Tardei, G., Lazar, M....Ruta, S. M. (2017). Neurologic Complications of Influenza B Virus Infection in Adults, Romania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 574-581. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161317.

Implementation and Initial Analysis of a Laboratory-Based Weekly Biosurveillance System, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, France [PDF - 1.47 MB - 8 pages]
M. Huart et al.

We describe the implementation of an automated infectious disease surveillance system that uses data collected from 210 microbiologic laboratories throughout the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region in France. Each week, these facilities report bacterial species that have been isolated from patients in their area. An alarm is triggered whenever the case count for a bacterial species infection exceeds 2 SDs of the historical mean for that species at the participating laboratory. At its inception in July 2013, the system monitored 611 bacterial species. During July 1, 2013–March 20, 2016, weekly analyses of incoming surveillance data generated 34 alarms signaling possible infectious disease outbreaks; after investigation, 14 (41%) of these alarms resulted in health alerts declared by the regional health authority. We are currently improving the system by developing an Internet-based surveillance platform and extending our surveillance to include more laboratories in the region.

EID Huart M, Bedubourg G, Abat C, Colson P, Rolain J, Chaudet H, et al. Implementation and Initial Analysis of a Laboratory-Based Weekly Biosurveillance System, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):582-589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161399
AMA Huart M, Bedubourg G, Abat C, et al. Implementation and Initial Analysis of a Laboratory-Based Weekly Biosurveillance System, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):582-589. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161399.
APA Huart, M., Bedubourg, G., Abat, C., Colson, P., Rolain, J., Chaudet, H....Deparis, X. (2017). Implementation and Initial Analysis of a Laboratory-Based Weekly Biosurveillance System, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 582-589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161399.

Medscape CME Activity
Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus through Combined Liver–Small Intestine–Pancreas Transplantation [PDF - 741 KB - 7 pages]
M. A. Foster et al.

Although transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) through blood transfusion has been documented, transmission through organ transplantation has not been reported. In August 2015, state health officials in Texas, USA, were notified of 2 home health nurses with HAV infection whose only common exposure was a child who had undergone multi–visceral organ transplantation 9 months earlier. Specimens from the nurses, organ donor, and all organ recipients were tested and medical records reviewed to determine a possible infection source. Identical HAV RNA sequences were detected from the serum of both nurses and the organ donor, as well as from the multi–visceral organ recipient’s serum and feces; this recipient’s posttransplant liver and intestine biopsy specimens also had detectable virus. The other organ recipients tested negative for HAV RNA. Vaccination of the donor might have prevented infection in the recipient and subsequent transmission to the healthcare workers.

EID Foster MA, Weil LM, Jin S, Johnson T, Hayden-Mixson TR, Khudyakov Y, et al. Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus through Combined Liver–Small Intestine–Pancreas Transplantation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):590-596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161532
AMA Foster MA, Weil LM, Jin S, et al. Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus through Combined Liver–Small Intestine–Pancreas Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):590-596. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161532.
APA Foster, M. A., Weil, L. M., Jin, S., Johnson, T., Hayden-Mixson, T. R., Khudyakov, Y....Moorman, A. C. (2017). Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus through Combined Liver–Small Intestine–Pancreas Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 590-596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161532.
Research

Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias [PDF - 432 KB - 4 pages]
F. Rudolf et al.

Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0.02). The difference was mediated by Ebola viral load at diagnosis, suggesting a survival selection bias. Comparisons of case-fatality rates across ETCs and clinical management strategies should account for potential survival selection bias.

EID Rudolf F, Damkjær M, Lunding S, Dornonville de la Cour K, Young A, Brooks T, et al. Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):597-600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160485
AMA Rudolf F, Damkjær M, Lunding S, et al. Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):597-600. doi:10.3201/eid2304.160485.
APA Rudolf, F., Damkjær, M., Lunding, S., Dornonville de la Cour, K., Young, A., Brooks, T....Storgaard, M. (2017). Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 597-600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160485.

Plasmodium malariae Prevalence and csp Gene Diversity, Kenya, 2014 and 2015 [PDF - 2.10 MB - 10 pages]
E. Lo et al.

In Africa, control programs that target primarily Plasmodium falciparum are inadequate for eliminating malaria. To learn more about prevalence and genetic variability of P. malariae in Africa, we examined blood samples from 663 asymptomatic and 245 symptomatic persons from western Kenya during June–August of 2014 and 2015. P. malariae accounted for 5.3% (35/663) of asymptomatic infections and 3.3% (8/245) of clinical cases. Among asymptomatic persons, 71% (32/45) of P. malariae infections detected by PCR were undetected by microscopy. The low sensitivity of microscopy probably results from the significantly lower parasitemia of P. malariae. Analyses of P. malariae circumsporozoite protein gene sequences revealed high genetic diversity among P. malariae in Africa, but no clear differentiation among geographic populations was observed. Our findings suggest that P. malariae should be included in the malaria elimination strategy in Africa and highlight the need for sensitive and field-applicable methods to identify P. malariae in malaria-endemic areas.

EID Lo E, Nguyen K, Nguyen J, Hemming-Schroeder E, Xu J, Etemesi H, et al. Plasmodium malariae Prevalence and csp Gene Diversity, Kenya, 2014 and 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):601-610. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161245
AMA Lo E, Nguyen K, Nguyen J, et al. Plasmodium malariae Prevalence and csp Gene Diversity, Kenya, 2014 and 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):601-610. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161245.
APA Lo, E., Nguyen, K., Nguyen, J., Hemming-Schroeder, E., Xu, J., Etemesi, H....Yan, G. (2017). Plasmodium malariae Prevalence and csp Gene Diversity, Kenya, 2014 and 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 601-610. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161245.

Presence and Persistence of Zika Virus RNA in Semen, United Kingdom, 2016 [PDF - 871 KB - 5 pages]
B. Atkinson et al.

Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (56.5%) and was not detected in 9 (39.1%); detection was indeterminate in 1 sample (4.4%). After symptomatic infection, a substantial proportion of men have detectable Zika virus RNA at high copy numbers in semen during early convalescence, suggesting high risk for sexual transmission. Viral RNA clearance times are not consistent and can be prolonged.

EID Atkinson B, Thorburn F, Petridou C, Bailey D, Hewson R, Simpson A, et al. Presence and Persistence of Zika Virus RNA in Semen, United Kingdom, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):611-615. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161692
AMA Atkinson B, Thorburn F, Petridou C, et al. Presence and Persistence of Zika Virus RNA in Semen, United Kingdom, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):611-615. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161692.
APA Atkinson, B., Thorburn, F., Petridou, C., Bailey, D., Hewson, R., Simpson, A....Aarons, E. J. (2017). Presence and Persistence of Zika Virus RNA in Semen, United Kingdom, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 611-615. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161692.

Three Divergent Subpopulations of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium knowlesi [PDF - 2.66 MB - 9 pages]
P. Divis et al.

Multilocus microsatellite genotyping of Plasmodium knowlesi isolates previously indicated 2 divergent parasite subpopulations in humans on the island of Borneo, each associated with a different macaque reservoir host species. Geographic divergence was also apparent, and independent sequence data have indicated particularly deep divergence between parasites from mainland Southeast Asia and Borneo. To resolve the overall population structure, multilocus microsatellite genotyping was conducted on a new sample of 182 P. knowlesi infections (obtained from 134 humans and 48 wild macaques) from diverse areas of Malaysia, first analyzed separately and then in combination with previous data. All analyses confirmed 2 divergent clusters of human cases in Malaysian Borneo, associated with long-tailed macaques and pig-tailed macaques, and a third cluster in humans and most macaques in peninsular Malaysia. High levels of pairwise divergence between each of these sympatric and allopatric subpopulations have implications for the epidemiology and control of this zoonotic species.

EID Divis P, Lin LC, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Kadir KA, Anderios F, Hisam S, et al. Three Divergent Subpopulations of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):616-624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161738
AMA Divis P, Lin LC, Rovie-Ryan JJ, et al. Three Divergent Subpopulations of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):616-624. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161738.
APA Divis, P., Lin, L. C., Rovie-Ryan, J. J., Kadir, K. A., Anderios, F., Hisam, S....Conway, D. J. (2017). Three Divergent Subpopulations of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 616-624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161738.

Variation in Aedes aegypti Mosquito Competence for Zika Virus Transmission [PDF - 2.15 MB - 8 pages]
C. M. Roundy et al.

To test whether Zika virus has adapted for more efficient transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, leading to recent urban outbreaks, we fed mosquitoes from Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and the United States artificial blood meals containing 1 of 3 Zika virus strains (Senegal, Cambodia, Mexico) and monitored infection, dissemination, and virus in saliva. Contrary to our hypothesis, Cambodia and Mexica strains were less infectious than the Senegal strain. Only mosquitoes from the Dominican Republic transmitted the Cambodia and Mexica strains. However, blood meals from viremic mice were more infectious than artificial blood meals of comparable doses; the Cambodia strain was not transmitted by mosquitoes from Brazil after artificial blood meals, whereas 61% transmission occurred after a murine blood meal (saliva titers up to 4 log10 infectious units/collection). Although regional origins of vector populations and virus strain influence transmission efficiency, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes appear to be competent vectors of Zika virus in several regions of the Americas.

EID Roundy CM, Azar SR, Rossi SL, Huang JH, Leal G, Yun R, et al. Variation in Aedes aegypti Mosquito Competence for Zika Virus Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):625-632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161484
AMA Roundy CM, Azar SR, Rossi SL, et al. Variation in Aedes aegypti Mosquito Competence for Zika Virus Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):625-632. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161484.
APA Roundy, C. M., Azar, S. R., Rossi, S. L., Huang, J. H., Leal, G., Yun, R....Vasilakis, N. (2017). Variation in Aedes aegypti Mosquito Competence for Zika Virus Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 625-632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161484.
Dispatches

Outbreaks among Wild Birds and Domestic Poultry Caused by Reassorted Influenza A(H5N8) Clade 2.3.4.4 Viruses, Germany, 2016 [PDF - 1.97 MB - 4 pages]
A. Pohlmann et al.

In November 2016, an influenza A(H5N8) outbreak caused deaths of wild birds and domestic poultry in Germany. Clade 2.3.4.4 virus was closely related to viruses detected at the Russia–Mongolia border in 2016 but had new polymerase acidic and nucleoprotein segments. These new strains may be more efficiently transmitted to and shed by birds.

EID Pohlmann A, Starick E, Harder T, Grund C, Höper D, Globig A, et al. Outbreaks among Wild Birds and Domestic Poultry Caused by Reassorted Influenza A(H5N8) Clade 2.3.4.4 Viruses, Germany, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):633-636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161949
AMA Pohlmann A, Starick E, Harder T, et al. Outbreaks among Wild Birds and Domestic Poultry Caused by Reassorted Influenza A(H5N8) Clade 2.3.4.4 Viruses, Germany, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):633-636. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161949.
APA Pohlmann, A., Starick, E., Harder, T., Grund, C., Höper, D., Globig, A....Beer, M. (2017). Outbreaks among Wild Birds and Domestic Poultry Caused by Reassorted Influenza A(H5N8) Clade 2.3.4.4 Viruses, Germany, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 633-636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161949.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Wild Migratory Birds, Qinghai Lake, China [PDF - 2.51 MB - 5 pages]
M. Li et al.

In May 2016, a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus strain caused deaths among 3 species of wild migratory birds in Qinghai Lake, China. Genetic analysis showed that the novel reassortant virus belongs to group B H5N8 viruses and that the reassortment events likely occurred in early 2016.

EID Li M, Liu H, Bi Y, Sun J, Wong G, Liu D, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Wild Migratory Birds, Qinghai Lake, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):637-641. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161866
AMA Li M, Liu H, Bi Y, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Wild Migratory Birds, Qinghai Lake, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):637-641. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161866.
APA Li, M., Liu, H., Bi, Y., Sun, J., Wong, G., Liu, D....Chen, J. (2017). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Wild Migratory Birds, Qinghai Lake, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 637-641. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161866.

Design Strategies for Efficient Arbovirus Surveillance [PDF - 1.58 MB - 3 pages]
S. V. Scarpino et al.

As public health agencies struggle to track and contain emerging arbovirus threats, timely and efficient surveillance is more critical than ever. Using historical dengue data from Puerto Rico, we developed methods for streamlining and designing novel arbovirus surveillance systems with or without historical disease data.

EID Scarpino SV, Meyers L, Johansson MA. Design Strategies for Efficient Arbovirus Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):642-644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160944
AMA Scarpino SV, Meyers L, Johansson MA. Design Strategies for Efficient Arbovirus Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):642-644. doi:10.3201/eid2304.160944.
APA Scarpino, S. V., Meyers, L., & Johansson, M. A. (2017). Design Strategies for Efficient Arbovirus Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 642-644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160944.

Typhus Group Rickettsiosis, Texas, USA, 2003–2013 [PDF - 1.43 MB - 4 pages]
K. O. Murray et al.

We characterized the epidemiology of typhus group rickettsiosis in Texas, USA. During 2003–2013, a total of 1,762 cases were reported to the state health department. The number of diagnosed cases and geographic expansion increased over time. Physician awareness is critical to diagnose and effectively treat rickettsial infections.

EID Murray KO, Evert N, Mayes B, Fonken E, Erickson T, Garcia MN, et al. Typhus Group Rickettsiosis, Texas, USA, 2003–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):645-648. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160958
AMA Murray KO, Evert N, Mayes B, et al. Typhus Group Rickettsiosis, Texas, USA, 2003–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):645-648. doi:10.3201/eid2304.160958.
APA Murray, K. O., Evert, N., Mayes, B., Fonken, E., Erickson, T., Garcia, M. N....Sidwa, T. (2017). Typhus Group Rickettsiosis, Texas, USA, 2003–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 645-648. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160958.

Detection and Molecular Characterization of Zoonotic Poxviruses Circulating in the Amazon Region of Colombia, 2014 [PDF - 1.92 MB - 5 pages]
J. A. Usme-Ciro et al.

During 2014, cutaneous lesions were reported in dairy cattle and farmworkers in the Amazon Region of western Colombia. Samples from 6 patients were analyzed by serologic and PCR testing, and results demonstrated the presence of vaccinia virus and pseudocowpox virus. These findings highlight the need for increased poxvirus surveillance in Colombia.

EID Usme-Ciro JA, Paredes A, Walteros DM, Tolosa-Pérez E, Laiton-Donato K, Pinzón M, et al. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Zoonotic Poxviruses Circulating in the Amazon Region of Colombia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):649-653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161041
AMA Usme-Ciro JA, Paredes A, Walteros DM, et al. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Zoonotic Poxviruses Circulating in the Amazon Region of Colombia, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):649-653. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161041.
APA Usme-Ciro, J. A., Paredes, A., Walteros, D. M., Tolosa-Pérez, E., Laiton-Donato, K., Pinzón, M....Páez-Martínez, A. (2017). Detection and Molecular Characterization of Zoonotic Poxviruses Circulating in the Amazon Region of Colombia, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 649-653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161041.

Reassortment of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Alaska before H5 Clade 2.3.4.4 Outbreaks [PDF - 1.67 MB - 4 pages]
N. J. Hill et al.

Sampling of mallards in Alaska during September 2014–April 2015 identified low pathogenic avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N2 and H1N1) that shared ancestry with highly pathogenic reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Molecular dating indicated reassortment soon after interhemispheric movement of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4, suggesting genetic exchange in Alaska or surrounds before outbreaks.

EID Hill NJ, Hussein I, Davis KR, Ma EJ, Spivey TJ, Ramey AM, et al. Reassortment of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Alaska before H5 Clade 2.3.4.4 Outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):654-657. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161668
AMA Hill NJ, Hussein I, Davis KR, et al. Reassortment of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Alaska before H5 Clade 2.3.4.4 Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):654-657. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161668.
APA Hill, N. J., Hussein, I., Davis, K. R., Ma, E. J., Spivey, T. J., Ramey, A. M....Runstadler, J. A. (2017). Reassortment of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Alaska before H5 Clade 2.3.4.4 Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 654-657. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161668.

Incidence and Characteristics of Scarlet Fever, South Korea, 2008–2015 [PDF - 1.03 MB - 4 pages]
D. Park et al.

The incidence rate for scarlet fever in South Korea is rising. During 2008–2015, we collected group A Streptococcus isolates and performed emm and exotoxin genotyping and disk-diffusion antimicrobial tests. Scarlet fever in South Korea was most closely associated with emm types emm4, emm28, emm1, and emm3. In 2015, tetracycline resistance started increasing.

EID Park D, Kim S, Park J, Kim M, Cho S, Park H, et al. Incidence and Characteristics of Scarlet Fever, South Korea, 2008–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):658-661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160773
AMA Park D, Kim S, Park J, et al. Incidence and Characteristics of Scarlet Fever, South Korea, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):658-661. doi:10.3201/eid2304.160773.
APA Park, D., Kim, S., Park, J., Kim, M., Cho, S., Park, H....Chung, J. (2017). Incidence and Characteristics of Scarlet Fever, South Korea, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 658-661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160773.

Markers of Disease Severity in Patients with Spanish Influenza in the Japanese Armed Forces, 1919–1920 [PDF - 379 KB - 3 pages]
K. Kudo et al.

We examined preserved medical charts of 470 Spanish influenza patients (8 with fatal cases) hospitalized at former army hospitals in Japan during 1919–1920. The following factors were associated with longer periods of hospitalization: adventitious discontinuous lung sounds, maximum respiration rate, continuation of high fever after hospital admission, and diphasic fever.

EID Kudo K, Manabe T, Izumi S, Takasaki J, Fujikura Y, Kawana A, et al. Markers of Disease Severity in Patients with Spanish Influenza in the Japanese Armed Forces, 1919–1920. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):662-664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.152097
AMA Kudo K, Manabe T, Izumi S, et al. Markers of Disease Severity in Patients with Spanish Influenza in the Japanese Armed Forces, 1919–1920. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):662-664. doi:10.3201/eid2304.152097.
APA Kudo, K., Manabe, T., Izumi, S., Takasaki, J., Fujikura, Y., Kawana, A....Yamamoto, K. (2017). Markers of Disease Severity in Patients with Spanish Influenza in the Japanese Armed Forces, 1919–1920. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 662-664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.152097.

Molecular Identification of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei Tapeworm in Cases of Human Sparganosis, Hong Kong [PDF - 600 KB - 4 pages]
T. Tang et al.

Human sparganosis is a foodborne zoonosis endemic in Asia. We report a series of 9 histologically confirmed human sparganosis cases in Hong Kong, China. All parasites were retrospectively identified as Spirometra erinaceieuropaei. Skin and soft tissue swelling was the most common symptom, followed by central nervous system lesions.

EID Tang T, Wong S, Lai C, Poon R, Chan H, Wu T, et al. Molecular Identification of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei Tapeworm in Cases of Human Sparganosis, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):665-668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160791
AMA Tang T, Wong S, Lai C, et al. Molecular Identification of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei Tapeworm in Cases of Human Sparganosis, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):665-668. doi:10.3201/eid2304.160791.
APA Tang, T., Wong, S., Lai, C., Poon, R., Chan, H., Wu, T....Wu, A. (2017). Molecular Identification of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei Tapeworm in Cases of Human Sparganosis, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 665-668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160791.

Zika Virus Seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015 [PDF - 999 KB - 4 pages]
M. Aubry et al.

During 2013–2014, French Polynesia experienced an outbreak of Zika virus infection. Serosurveys conducted at the end of the outbreak and 18 months later showed lower than expected disease prevalence rates (49%) and asymptomatic:symptomatic case ratios (1:1) in the general population but significantly different prevalence rates (66%) and asymptomatic:symptomatic ratios (1:2) in schoolchildren.

EID Aubry M, Teissier A, Huart M, Merceron S, Vanhomwegen J, Roche C, et al. Zika Virus Seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):669-672. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161549
AMA Aubry M, Teissier A, Huart M, et al. Zika Virus Seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):669-672. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161549.
APA Aubry, M., Teissier, A., Huart, M., Merceron, S., Vanhomwegen, J., Roche, C....Cao-Lormeau, V. (2017). Zika Virus Seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 669-672. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161549.

Persistent Arthralgia Associated with Chikungunya Virus Outbreak, US Virgin Islands, December 2014–February 2016 [PDF - 408 KB - 4 pages]
L. R. Feldstein et al.

After the 2014–2015 outbreak of chikungunya virus in the US Virgin Islands, we compared the prevalence of persistent arthralgia among case-patients and controls. Prevalence was higher in case-patients than controls 6 and 12 months after disease onset. Continued vaccine research to prevent acute illness and long-term sequelae is essential.

EID Feldstein LR, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Staples J, Weaver MR, Halloran M, Ellis EM. Persistent Arthralgia Associated with Chikungunya Virus Outbreak, US Virgin Islands, December 2014–February 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):673-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161562
AMA Feldstein LR, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Staples J, et al. Persistent Arthralgia Associated with Chikungunya Virus Outbreak, US Virgin Islands, December 2014–February 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):673-676. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161562.
APA Feldstein, L. R., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., Staples, J., Weaver, M. R., Halloran, M., & Ellis, E. M. (2017). Persistent Arthralgia Associated with Chikungunya Virus Outbreak, US Virgin Islands, December 2014–February 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 673-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161562.

Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Surveillance Case Definitions for Zika Virus Disease [PDF - 355 KB - 3 pages]
A. Chow et al.

We evaluated performance of 5 case definitions for Zika virus disease surveillance in a human cohort during an outbreak in Singapore, August 26–September 5, 2016. Because laboratory tests are largely inaccessible, use of case definitions that include rash as a required clinical feature are useful in identifying this disease.

EID Chow A, Ho HJ, Win M, Leo Y. Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Surveillance Case Definitions for Zika Virus Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):677-679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161716
AMA Chow A, Ho HJ, Win M, et al. Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Surveillance Case Definitions for Zika Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):677-679. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161716.
APA Chow, A., Ho, H. J., Win, M., & Leo, Y. (2017). Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Surveillance Case Definitions for Zika Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 677-679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161716.

Detection of Zika Virus in Desiccated Mosquitoes by Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR and Plaque Assay [PDF - 349 KB - 2 pages]
K. L. Burkhalter and H. M. Savage

We assayed Zika virus–infected mosquitoes stored at room temperature for <30 days for live virus by using plaque assay and virus RNA by using real-time reverse transcription PCR. Viable virus was detected in samples stored <10 days, and virus RNA was detected in samples held for 30 days.

EID Burkhalter KL, Savage HM. Detection of Zika Virus in Desiccated Mosquitoes by Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR and Plaque Assay. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):680-681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161772
AMA Burkhalter KL, Savage HM. Detection of Zika Virus in Desiccated Mosquitoes by Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR and Plaque Assay. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):680-681. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161772.
APA Burkhalter, K. L., & Savage, H. M. (2017). Detection of Zika Virus in Desiccated Mosquitoes by Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR and Plaque Assay. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 680-681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161772.

Surveillance and Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Saudi Arabia, April 2015–February 2016 [PDF - 459 KB - 4 pages]
A. A. Bin Saeed et al.

Saudi Arabia has reported >80% of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases worldwide. During April 2015–February 2016, Saudi Arabia identified and tested 57,363 persons (18.4/10,000 residents) with suspected MERS-CoV infection; 384 (0.7%) tested positive. Robust, extensive, and timely surveillance is critical for limiting virus transmission.

EID Bin Saeed AA, Abedi GR, Alzahrani AG, Salameh I, Abdirizak F, Alhakeem R, et al. Surveillance and Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Saudi Arabia, April 2015–February 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):682-685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161793
AMA Bin Saeed AA, Abedi GR, Alzahrani AG, et al. Surveillance and Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Saudi Arabia, April 2015–February 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):682-685. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161793.
APA Bin Saeed, A. A., Abedi, G. R., Alzahrani, A. G., Salameh, I., Abdirizak, F., Alhakeem, R....Gerber, S. I. (2017). Surveillance and Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Saudi Arabia, April 2015–February 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 682-685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161793.

Antiviral Drug–Resistant Influenza B Viruses Carrying H134N Substitution in Neuraminidase, Laos, February 2016 [PDF - 2.20 MB - 5 pages]
T. Baranovich et al.

In February 2016, three influenza B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses exhibiting 4- to 158-fold reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibitors were detected in Laos. These viruses had an H134N substitution in the neuraminidase and replicated efficiently in vitro and in ferrets. Current antiviral drugs may be ineffective in controlling infections caused by viruses harboring this mutation.

EID Baranovich T, Vongphrachanh P, Ketmayoon P, Sisouk T, Chomlasack K, Khanthamaly V, et al. Antiviral Drug–Resistant Influenza B Viruses Carrying H134N Substitution in Neuraminidase, Laos, February 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):686-690. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161876
AMA Baranovich T, Vongphrachanh P, Ketmayoon P, et al. Antiviral Drug–Resistant Influenza B Viruses Carrying H134N Substitution in Neuraminidase, Laos, February 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):686-690. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161876.
APA Baranovich, T., Vongphrachanh, P., Ketmayoon, P., Sisouk, T., Chomlasack, K., Khanthamaly, V....Gubareva, L. (2017). Antiviral Drug–Resistant Influenza B Viruses Carrying H134N Substitution in Neuraminidase, Laos, February 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 686-690. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161876.

Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus A(H5N6), Japan, November 2016 [PDF - 1.17 MB - 5 pages]
M. Okamatsu et al.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) A(H5N6) were concurrently introduced into several distant regions of Japan in November 2016. These viruses were classified into the genetic clade 2.3.4.4c and were genetically closely related to H5N6 HPAIVs recently isolated in South Korea and China. In addition, these HPAIVs showed further antigenic drift.

EID Okamatsu M, Ozawa M, Soda K, Takakuwa H, Haga A, Hiono T, et al. Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus A(H5N6), Japan, November 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):691-695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161957
AMA Okamatsu M, Ozawa M, Soda K, et al. Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus A(H5N6), Japan, November 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):691-695. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161957.
APA Okamatsu, M., Ozawa, M., Soda, K., Takakuwa, H., Haga, A., Hiono, T....Kida, H. (2017). Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus A(H5N6), Japan, November 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 691-695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161957.

Severe Thrombocytopenia after Zika Virus Infection, Guadeloupe, 2016 [PDF - 357 KB - 3 pages]
T. Boyer Chammard et al.

Severe thrombocytopenia during or after the course of Zika virus infection has been rarely reported. We report 7 cases of severe thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic signs and symptoms in Guadeloupe after infection with this virus. Clinical course and laboratory findings strongly suggest a causal link between Zika virus infection and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia.

EID Boyer Chammard T, Schepers K, Breurec S, Messiaen T, Destrem A, Mahevas M, et al. Severe Thrombocytopenia after Zika Virus Infection, Guadeloupe, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):696-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161967
AMA Boyer Chammard T, Schepers K, Breurec S, et al. Severe Thrombocytopenia after Zika Virus Infection, Guadeloupe, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):696-698. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161967.
APA Boyer Chammard, T., Schepers, K., Breurec, S., Messiaen, T., Destrem, A., Mahevas, M....Hoen, B. (2017). Severe Thrombocytopenia after Zika Virus Infection, Guadeloupe, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 696-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161967.

Significant Decrease in Pertactin-Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Japan [PDF - 447 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Hiramatsu et al.

Prevalence of pertactin-lacking Bordetella pertussis isolates has been observed worldwide. In Japan, however, we found that the frequency of pertactin-deficient isolates in 2014–2016 (8%) was significantly lower than the frequency in 2005–2007 (41%), 2008–2010 (35%), and 2011–2013 (25%). This reduction was closely associated with changes in genotypes.

EID Hiramatsu Y, Miyaji Y, Otsuka N, Arakawa Y, Shibayama K, Kamachi K. Significant Decrease in Pertactin-Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):699-701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161575
AMA Hiramatsu Y, Miyaji Y, Otsuka N, et al. Significant Decrease in Pertactin-Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):699-701. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161575.
APA Hiramatsu, Y., Miyaji, Y., Otsuka, N., Arakawa, Y., Shibayama, K., & Kamachi, K. (2017). Significant Decrease in Pertactin-Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 699-701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161575.
Research Letters

Increased Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in Prolonged Arthralgia in Ross River Virus Infection [PDF - 345 KB - 3 pages]
D. Tappe et al.

Ross River virus, a mosquitoborne alphavirus, causes epidemic polyarthritis in Australia and the Pacific region. We analyzed serum cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor levels in travelers returning to Germany from Australia. Serum samples showed elevated concentrations in the acute phase of the illness and, more pronounced, in the long-lasting convalescent phase.

EID Tappe D, Pérez-Girón J, Gómez-Medina S, Günther S, Muñoz-Fontela C, Schmidt-Chanasit J. Increased Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in Prolonged Arthralgia in Ross River Virus Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):702-704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160466
AMA Tappe D, Pérez-Girón J, Gómez-Medina S, et al. Increased Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in Prolonged Arthralgia in Ross River Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):702-704. doi:10.3201/eid2304.160466.
APA Tappe, D., Pérez-Girón, J., Gómez-Medina, S., Günther, S., Muñoz-Fontela, C., & Schmidt-Chanasit, J. (2017). Increased Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in Prolonged Arthralgia in Ross River Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 702-704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.160466.

Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Vulnerable Wild Small Ruminants, Iran, 2014–2016 [PDF - 749 KB - 3 pages]
M. Marashi et al.

In 2014–2016, >1,000 wild goats and sheep in 4 northern and central provinces of Iran died from peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection. Partial nucleoprotein sequencing of PPRV from 3 animals showed a close relationship to lineage 4 strains from China. Control measures are needed to preserve vulnerable ruminant populations.

EID Marashi M, Masoudi S, Moghadam M, Modirrousta H, Marashi M, Parvizifar M, et al. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Vulnerable Wild Small Ruminants, Iran, 2014–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):704-706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161218
AMA Marashi M, Masoudi S, Moghadam M, et al. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Vulnerable Wild Small Ruminants, Iran, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):704-706. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161218.
APA Marashi, M., Masoudi, S., Moghadam, M., Modirrousta, H., Marashi, M., Parvizifar, M....Fereidouni, S. (2017). Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Vulnerable Wild Small Ruminants, Iran, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 704-706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161218.

Discussion of Average versus Extreme Case Severity in Pandemic Risk Communications [PDF - 353 KB - 3 pages]
B. J. Zikmund-Fisher et al.

To investigate determinants of the public’s perceptions of disease threat, in 2015 we conducted a randomized survey experiment in the Netherlands. Adults who read a mock news article describing average +or extreme outcomes from a hypothetical influenza pandemic were more influenced by average than by extreme case information. Presenting both types of information simultaneously appeared counterproductive.

EID Zikmund-Fisher BJ, Scherer AM, Knaus M, Das E, Fagerlin A. Discussion of Average versus Extreme Case Severity in Pandemic Risk Communications. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):706-708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161600
AMA Zikmund-Fisher BJ, Scherer AM, Knaus M, et al. Discussion of Average versus Extreme Case Severity in Pandemic Risk Communications. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):706-708. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161600.
APA Zikmund-Fisher, B. J., Scherer, A. M., Knaus, M., Das, E., & Fagerlin, A. (2017). Discussion of Average versus Extreme Case Severity in Pandemic Risk Communications. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 706-708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161600.

West Nile Virus Seroprevalence, Connecticut, USA, 2000–2014 [PDF - 391 KB - 3 pages]
M. E. Cahill et al.

West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mainly asymptomatic but can be severe in elderly persons. As part of studies on immunity and aging in Connecticut, USA, we detected WNV seroconversion in 8.5% of nonimmunosuppressed and 16.8% of immunosuppressed persons. Age was not a significant seroconversion factor. Our findings suggest that immune factors affect seroconversion.

EID Cahill ME, Yao Y, Nock D, Armstrong PM, Andreadis TG, Diuk-Wasser MA, et al. West Nile Virus Seroprevalence, Connecticut, USA, 2000–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):708-710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161669
AMA Cahill ME, Yao Y, Nock D, et al. West Nile Virus Seroprevalence, Connecticut, USA, 2000–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):708-710. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161669.
APA Cahill, M. E., Yao, Y., Nock, D., Armstrong, P. M., Andreadis, T. G., Diuk-Wasser, M. A....Montgomery, R. R. (2017). West Nile Virus Seroprevalence, Connecticut, USA, 2000–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 708-710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161669.

mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae from Companion Animals, Beijing, China, 2012–2016 [PDF - 388 KB - 2 pages]
L. Lei et al.

To investigate the prevalence of the recently emerging colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae among companion animals, we examined 566 isolates collected from cats and dogs in Beijing, China, during 2012–2016. Of these isolates, 49 (8.7%) were mcr-1–positive.

EID Lei L, Wang Y, Schwarz S, Walsh TR, Ou Y, Wu Y, et al. mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae from Companion Animals, Beijing, China, 2012–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):710-711. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161732
AMA Lei L, Wang Y, Schwarz S, et al. mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae from Companion Animals, Beijing, China, 2012–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):710-711. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161732.
APA Lei, L., Wang, Y., Schwarz, S., Walsh, T. R., Ou, Y., Wu, Y....Shen, Z. (2017). mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae from Companion Animals, Beijing, China, 2012–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 710-711. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161732.

Bartonella-Associated Transverse Myelitis [PDF - 738 KB - 2 pages]
P. Sendi et al.

Each year in the United States, 500 patients are hospitalized for cat-scratch disease, caused by Bartonella henselae infection. We report a case of rare but serious neurologic B. henselae infection. When typical features of cat-scratch disease occur with neurologic findings, Bartonella infection should be suspected and diagnostic testing should be performed.

EID Sendi P, Hirzel C, Bloch A, Fischer U, Jeannet N, Berlinger L, et al. Bartonella-Associated Transverse Myelitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):712-713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161733
AMA Sendi P, Hirzel C, Bloch A, et al. Bartonella-Associated Transverse Myelitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):712-713. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161733.
APA Sendi, P., Hirzel, C., Bloch, A., Fischer, U., Jeannet, N., Berlinger, L....Krestel, H. (2017). Bartonella-Associated Transverse Myelitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 712-713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161733.

Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola [PDF - 367 KB - 2 pages]
L. J. Purpura et al.

Ebola virus is known to persist in semen of male survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, maximum duration of, or risk factors for, virus persistence are unknown. We report an EVD survivor with preexisting HIV infection, whose semen was positive for Ebola virus RNA 565 days after recovery from EVD.

EID Purpura LJ, Rogers E, Baller A, White S, Soka M, Choi MJ, et al. Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):714-715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161743
AMA Purpura LJ, Rogers E, Baller A, et al. Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):714-715. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161743.
APA Purpura, L. J., Rogers, E., Baller, A., White, S., Soka, M., Choi, M. J....Williams, D. (2017). Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 714-715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161743.

Treatment Failure of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Vietnam [PDF - 348 KB - 3 pages]
B. Phuc et al.

We conducted a study in Binh Phuoc, Vietnam, in 2015 on the therapeutic efficacy of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. A high number of treatment failures (14/40) was found, and piperaquine resistance in Vietnam was confirmed. A change in the malaria treatment policy for Vietnam is in process.

EID Phuc B, Rasmussen C, Duong T, Dong L, Loi M, Ménard D, et al. Treatment Failure of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):715-717. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161872
AMA Phuc B, Rasmussen C, Duong T, et al. Treatment Failure of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):715-717. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161872.
APA Phuc, B., Rasmussen, C., Duong, T., Dong, L., Loi, M., Ménard, D....Thieu, N. (2017). Treatment Failure of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 715-717. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161872.

Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus in Zoos, India [PDF - 341 KB - 3 pages]
S. Nagarajan et al.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) viruses were detected in waterfowl at 2 zoos in India in October 2016. Both viruses were different 7:1 reassortants of H5N8 viruses isolated in May 2016 from wild birds in the Russian Federation and China, suggesting virus spread during southward winter migration of birds.

EID Nagarajan S, Kumar M, Murugkar HV, Tripathi S, Shukla S, Agarwal S, et al. Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus in Zoos, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):717-719. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161886
AMA Nagarajan S, Kumar M, Murugkar HV, et al. Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus in Zoos, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):717-719. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161886.
APA Nagarajan, S., Kumar, M., Murugkar, H. V., Tripathi, S., Shukla, S., Agarwal, S....Tosh, C. (2017). Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus in Zoos, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 717-719. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161886.

Acute Tetraplegia Caused by Rat Bite Fever in Snake Keeper and Transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis [PDF - 479 KB - 3 pages]
T. Eisenberg et al.

We report acute tetraplegia caused by rat bite fever in a 59-year old man (snake keeper) and transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis. We found an identical characteristic bacterial pattern in rat and human samples, which validated genotyping-based evidence for infection with the same strain, and identified diagnostic difficulties concerning infection with this microorganism.

EID Eisenberg T, Poignant S, Jouan Y, Fawzy A, Nicklas W, Ewers C, et al. Acute Tetraplegia Caused by Rat Bite Fever in Snake Keeper and Transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):719-721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161987
AMA Eisenberg T, Poignant S, Jouan Y, et al. Acute Tetraplegia Caused by Rat Bite Fever in Snake Keeper and Transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):719-721. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161987.
APA Eisenberg, T., Poignant, S., Jouan, Y., Fawzy, A., Nicklas, W., Ewers, C....Guillon, A. (2017). Acute Tetraplegia Caused by Rat Bite Fever in Snake Keeper and Transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 719-721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161987.

Malaria in Children Adopted from the Democratic Republic of the Congo [PDF - 302 KB - 2 pages]
E. Chiappini et al.

Data are lacking regarding asymptomatic and symptomatic malaria prevalence in internationally adopted children. Among 20 children from Democratic Republic of the Congo evaluated in Florence, Italy, in April 2016, malaria prevalence was 80%; 50% of infected children had symptomatic malaria. Adopted children from areas of high malaria endemicity should be screened for malaria.

EID Chiappini E, Sollai S, de Martino M, Galli L. Malaria in Children Adopted from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):721-722. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161777
AMA Chiappini E, Sollai S, de Martino M, et al. Malaria in Children Adopted from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):721-722. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161777.
APA Chiappini, E., Sollai, S., de Martino, M., & Galli, L. (2017). Malaria in Children Adopted from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 721-722. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161777.
Letters

Cord Blood Sample Screening for Evidence of Maternal Chagas Disease [PDF - 274 KB - 2 pages]
S. P. Montgomery and S. L. Stramer
EID Montgomery SP, Stramer SL. Cord Blood Sample Screening for Evidence of Maternal Chagas Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):722-723. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161287
AMA Montgomery SP, Stramer SL. Cord Blood Sample Screening for Evidence of Maternal Chagas Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):722-723. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161287.
APA Montgomery, S. P., & Stramer, S. L. (2017). Cord Blood Sample Screening for Evidence of Maternal Chagas Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 722-723. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161287.
Books and Media

One Health and the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance [PDF - 480 KB - 1 page]
J. B. Patel
EID Patel JB. One Health and the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161871
AMA Patel JB. One Health and the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):724. doi:10.3201/eid2304.161871.
APA Patel, J. B. (2017). One Health and the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.161871.
About the Cover

The Exploding Aliveness of the World [PDF - 1.19 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove and P. M. Arguin
EID Breedlove B, Arguin PM. The Exploding Aliveness of the World. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):725-726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.ac2304
AMA Breedlove B, Arguin PM. The Exploding Aliveness of the World. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):725-726. doi:10.3201/eid2304.ac2304.
APA Breedlove, B., & Arguin, P. M. (2017). The Exploding Aliveness of the World. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 725-726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.ac2304.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Sparganosis [PDF - 624 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry
EID Henry R. Etymologia: Sparganosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):672. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.et2304
AMA Henry R. Etymologia: Sparganosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):672. doi:10.3201/eid2304.et2304.
APA Henry, R. (2017). Etymologia: Sparganosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 672. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.et2304.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 23, No. 3 [PDF - 480 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 23, No. 3. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.c12304
AMA Correction: Vol. 23, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):724. doi:10.3201/eid2304.c12304.
APA (2017). Correction: Vol. 23, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.c12304.

Correction: Vol. 22, No. 11 [PDF - 480 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 22, No. 11. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.c22304
AMA Correction: Vol. 22, No. 11. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):724. doi:10.3201/eid2304.c22304.
APA (2017). Correction: Vol. 22, No. 11. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.c22304.

Correction: Vol. 23, No. 1 [PDF - 480 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 23, No. 1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(4):724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.c32304
AMA Correction: Vol. 23, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(4):724. doi:10.3201/eid2304.c32304.
APA (2017). Correction: Vol. 23, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(4), 724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.c32304.
Page created: April 06, 2017
Page updated: April 06, 2017
Page reviewed: April 06, 2017
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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