Figure 1. Phylogenetic analyses of 594 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences (1,704 nt) from clade 188.8.131.52 H5 influenza viruses. A) HA-coding sequence subtree from maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the clade 184.108.40.206 H5 viruses. Colored nodes: blue, Qinghai Lake H5N8 strains (this study); red, Ubsu-Nur Lake H5N8 strains. B) Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree of the clade 220.127.116.11 HA-coding sequences, rooted with A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1). Scale bars indicate nucleotide substitutions per site. C) Median-joining phylogenetic network of the HA-coding gene sequences, including the most parsimonious trees linking the sequences. To simplify the network, nodes with only one sequence are not shown. Network branch lengths are proportional to the numbers of mutations. icA, intercontinental group A; icA1, intercontinental subgroup A1; icA2, intercontinental subgroup A2; icA3, intercontinental subgroup A3; icB1, intracontinental subgroup B1.