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Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017

Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia

Mark W. Lehman1, Allen Craig2, Constantine Malama, Muzala Kapina-Kany’anga, Philip Malenga, Fanny Munsaka, Sergio Muwowo, Sean Shadomy, and Melissa A. Marx3Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (M.W. Lehman, S. Shadomy); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lusaka, Zambia (A.S. Craig, C. Malama, M.A. Marx); Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia (M. Kapina-Kany’anga, P. Malenga); Provincial Health Office, Chipata, Zambia (F. Munsaka); District Health Office, Chama, Zambia (S. Muwowo)

Main Article

Table 3

Association of anthrax diagnosis with specific activities involving hippopotamus carcasses based on responses to a survey conducted after an outbreak of anthrax infections among humans and hippopotamuses living in a game reserve area, Chama District, Zambia, September 2011*

Activity No. (%) persons
OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
With anthrax diagnosed since July 2011, n = 31 Without anthrax diagnosed, n = 137
Skinning 14 (45) 8 (6) 13.3 (4.4–41.5) 12.0 (4.3–36.5)
Cutting 28 (90) 70 (51) 8.9 (2.5–47.5) 8.1 (2.2–29.2)
Eating 30 (97) 106 (77) 8.8 (1.3–369.3)
Carrying 24 (77) 54 (39) 5.3 (2.0–15.4) 4.4 (1.7–11.8)
Preparing 27 (87) 92 (67) 3.3 (1.1–13.7) 2.1 (0.5–11.8)
Cooking 27(87) 93(68) 3.2 (1.0–13.2) 2.0 (0.5–1.1)
Drying 21(68) 64(47) 2.4 (1.0–6.1) 1.7 (0.6–4.5)

*aOR, adjusted odds ratio (adjusted for eating hippopotamus meat); OR, odds ratio.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: US Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, USA.

2Current affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

3Current affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Page created: August 15, 2017
Page updated: August 15, 2017
Page reviewed: August 15, 2017
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