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Issue Cover for Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017

Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017

[PDF - 11.35 MB - 188 pages]

Perspective

Bioinformatic Analyses of Whole-Genome Sequence Data in a Public Health Laboratory [PDF - 719 KB - 5 pages]
K. F. Oakeson et al.

The ability to generate high-quality sequence data in a public health laboratory enables the identification of pathogenic strains, the determination of relatedness among outbreak strains, and the analysis of genetic information regarding virulence and antimicrobial-resistance genes. However, the analysis of whole-genome sequence data depends on bioinformatic analysis tools and processes. Many public health laboratories do not have the bioinformatic capabilities to analyze the data generated from sequencing and therefore are unable to take full advantage of the power of whole-genome sequencing. The goal of this perspective is to provide a guide for laboratories to understand the bioinformatic analyses that are needed to interpret whole-genome sequence data and how these in silico analyses can be implemented in a public health laboratory setting easily, affordably, and, in some cases, without the need for intensive computing resources and infrastructure.

EID Oakeson KF, Wagner J, Mendenhall M, Rohrwasser A, Atkinson-Dunn R. Bioinformatic Analyses of Whole-Genome Sequence Data in a Public Health Laboratory. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1441-1445. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170416
AMA Oakeson KF, Wagner J, Mendenhall M, et al. Bioinformatic Analyses of Whole-Genome Sequence Data in a Public Health Laboratory. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1441-1445. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170416.
APA Oakeson, K. F., Wagner, J., Mendenhall, M., Rohrwasser, A., & Atkinson-Dunn, R. (2017). Bioinformatic Analyses of Whole-Genome Sequence Data in a Public Health Laboratory. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1441-1445. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170416.
Research

Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh [PDF - 1.83 MB - 8 pages]
E. S. Gurley et al.

Preventing emergence of new zoonotic viruses depends on understanding determinants for human risk. Nipah virus (NiV) is a lethal zoonotic pathogen that has spilled over from bats into human populations, with limited person-to-person transmission. We examined ecologic and human behavioral drivers of geographic variation for risk of NiV infection in Bangladesh. We visited 60 villages during 2011–2013 where cases of infection with NiV were identified and 147 control villages. We compared case villages with control villages for most likely drivers for risk of infection, including number of bats, persons, and date palm sap trees, and human date palm sap consumption behavior. Case villages were similar to control villages in many ways, including number of bats, persons, and date palm sap trees, but had a higher proportion of households in which someone drank sap. Reducing human consumption of sap could reduce virus transmission and risk for emergence of a more highly transmissible NiV strain.

EID Gurley ES, Hegde ST, Hossain K, Sazzad H, Hossain M, Rahman M, et al. Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1446-1453. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161922
AMA Gurley ES, Hegde ST, Hossain K, et al. Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1446-1453. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161922.
APA Gurley, E. S., Hegde, S. T., Hossain, K., Sazzad, H., Hossain, M., Rahman, M....Luby, S. P. (2017). Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1446-1453. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161922.

Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US–Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography [PDF - 1.86 MB - 8 pages]
H. Trewby et al.

Disease control programs aim to constrain and reduce the spread of infection. Human disease interventions such as wildlife vaccination play a major role in determining the limits of a pathogen’s spatial distribution. Over the past few decades, a raccoon-specific variant of rabies virus (RRV) has invaded large areas of eastern North America. Although expansion into Canada has been largely prevented through vaccination along the US border, several outbreaks have occurred in Canada. Applying phylogeographic approaches to 289 RRV whole-genome sequences derived from isolates collected in Canada and adjacent US states, we examined the processes underlying these outbreaks. RRV incursions were attributable predominantly to systematic virus leakage of local strains across areas along the border where vaccination has been conducted but also to single stochastic events such as long-distance translocations. These results demonstrate the utility of phylogeographic analysis of pathogen genomes for understanding transboundary outbreaks.

EID Trewby H, Nadin-Davis SA, Real LA, Biek R. Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US–Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1454-1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170325
AMA Trewby H, Nadin-Davis SA, Real LA, et al. Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US–Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1454-1461. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170325.
APA Trewby, H., Nadin-Davis, S. A., Real, L. A., & Biek, R. (2017). Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US–Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1454-1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170325.

Real-Time Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes, France [PDF - 1.71 MB - 9 pages]
A. Moura et al.

During 2015–2016, we evaluated the performance of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a routine typing tool. Its added value for microbiological and epidemiologic surveillance of listeriosis was compared with that for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the current standard method. A total of 2,743 Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected as part of routine surveillance were characterized in parallel by PFGE and core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) extracted from WGS. We investigated PFGE and cgMLST clusters containing human isolates. Discrimination of isolates was significantly higher by cgMLST than by PFGE (p<0.001). cgMLST discriminated unrelated isolates that shared identical PFGE profiles and phylogenetically closely related isolates with distinct PFGE profiles. This procedure also refined epidemiologic investigations to include only phylogenetically closely related isolates, improved source identification, and facilitated epidemiologic investigations, enabling identification of more outbreaks at earlier stages. WGS-based typing should replace PFGE as the primary typing method for L. monocytogenes.

EID Moura A, Tourdjman M, Leclercq A, Hamelin E, Laurent E, Fredriksen N, et al. Real-Time Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1462-1470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170336
AMA Moura A, Tourdjman M, Leclercq A, et al. Real-Time Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1462-1470. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170336.
APA Moura, A., Tourdjman, M., Leclercq, A., Hamelin, E., Laurent, E., Fredriksen, N....Lecuit, M. (2017). Real-Time Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1462-1470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170336.

Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia [PDF - 3.10 MB - 7 pages]
M. W. Lehman et al.

In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamus deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak. Eating, carrying, and preparing meat were associated with anthrax infection. Despite the risk, 23% of respondents reported they would eat meat from hippopotamuses found dead again because of food shortage (73%), lack of meat (12%), hunger (7%), and protein shortage (5%). Chronic food insecurity can lead to consumption of unsafe foods, leaving communities susceptible to zoonotic infection. Interagency cooperation is necessary to prevent outbreaks by addressing the root cause of exposure, such as food insecurity.

EID Lehman MW, Craig A, Malama C, Kapina-Kany’anga M, Malenga P, Munsaka F, et al. Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1471-1477. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161597
AMA Lehman MW, Craig A, Malama C, et al. Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1471-1477. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161597.
APA Lehman, M. W., Craig, A., Malama, C., Kapina-Kany’anga, M., Malenga, P., Munsaka, F....Marx, M. A. (2017). Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1471-1477. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161597.

Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Northern Territory, Australia [PDF - 1.56 MB - 8 pages]
D. Whiley et al.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a globally recognized health threat; new strategies are needed to enhance AMR surveillance. The Northern Territory of Australia is unique in that 2 different first-line therapies, based primarily on geographic location, are used for gonorrhea treatment. We tested 1,629 N. gonorrhoeae nucleic acid amplification test–positive clinical samples, collected from regions where ceftriaxone plus azithromycin or amoxicillin plus azithromycin are recommended first-line treatments, by using 8 N. gonorrhoeae AMR PCR assays. We compared results with those from routine culture-based surveillance data. PCR data confirmed an absence of ceftriaxone resistance and a low level of azithromycin resistance (0.2%), and that penicillin resistance was <5% in amoxicillin plus azithromycin regions. Rates of ciprofloxacin resistance and penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae were lower when molecular methods were used. Molecular methods to detect N. gonorrhoeae AMR can increase the evidence base for treatment guidelines, particularly in settings where culture-based surveillance is limited.

EID Whiley D, Trembizki E, Buckley C, Freeman K, Baird RW, Beaman M, et al. Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Northern Territory, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1478-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170427
AMA Whiley D, Trembizki E, Buckley C, et al. Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Northern Territory, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1478-1485. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170427.
APA Whiley, D., Trembizki, E., Buckley, C., Freeman, K., Baird, R. W., Beaman, M....Lahra, M. M. (2017). Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Northern Territory, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1478-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170427.

Estimated Annual Numbers of Foodborne Pathogen–Associated Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, France, 2008–2013 [PDF - 855 KB - 7 pages]
D. Van Cauteren et al.

Estimates of the annual numbers of foodborne illnesses and associated hospitalizations and deaths are needed to set priorities for surveillance, prevention, and control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine such estimates for 2008–2013 in France. We considered 15 major foodborne pathogens (10 bacteria, 3 viruses, and 2 parasites) and estimated that each year, the pathogens accounted for 1.28–2.23 million illnesses, 16,500–20,800 hospitalizations, and 250 deaths. Campylobacter spp., nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., and norovirus accounted for >70% of all foodborne pathogen–associated illnesses and hospitalizations; nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were the main causes of foodborne pathogen–associated deaths; and hepatitis E virus appeared to be a previously unrecognized foodborne pathogen causing ≈68,000 illnesses in France every year. The substantial annual numbers of foodborne illnesses and associated hospitalizations and deaths in France highlight the need for food-safety policymakers to prioritize foodborne disease prevention and control strategies.

EID Van Cauteren D, Le Strat Y, Sommen C, Bruyand M, Tourdjman M, Da Silva N, et al. Estimated Annual Numbers of Foodborne Pathogen–Associated Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, France, 2008–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1486-1492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170081
AMA Van Cauteren D, Le Strat Y, Sommen C, et al. Estimated Annual Numbers of Foodborne Pathogen–Associated Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, France, 2008–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1486-1492. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170081.
APA Van Cauteren, D., Le Strat, Y., Sommen, C., Bruyand, M., Tourdjman, M., Da Silva, N....Desenclos, J. (2017). Estimated Annual Numbers of Foodborne Pathogen–Associated Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, France, 2008–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1486-1492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170081.

Medscape CME Activity
Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin Infections among Humans, United States, 1968–2013 [PDF - 1.31 MB - 9 pages]
R. Harvey et al.

Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin is a cattle-adapted bacterium that typically causes bloodstream infections in humans. To summarize demographic, clinical, and antimicrobial drug resistance characteristics of human infections with this organism in the United States, we analyzed data for 1968–2013 from 5 US surveillance systems. During this period, the incidence rate for infection with Salmonella Dublin increased more than that for infection with other Salmonella. Data from 1 system (FoodNet) showed that a higher percentage of persons with Salmonella Dublin infection were hospitalized and died during 2005−2013 (78% hospitalized, 4.2% died) than during 1996–2004 (68% hospitalized, 2.7% died). Susceptibility data showed that a higher percentage of isolates were resistant to >7 classes of antimicrobial drugs during 2005–2013 (50.8%) than during 1996–2004 (2.4%).

EID Harvey R, Friedman CR, Crim SM, Judd M, Barrett KA, Tolar B, et al. Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin Infections among Humans, United States, 1968–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1493-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170136
AMA Harvey R, Friedman CR, Crim SM, et al. Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin Infections among Humans, United States, 1968–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1493-1501. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170136.
APA Harvey, R., Friedman, C. R., Crim, S. M., Judd, M., Barrett, K. A., Tolar, B....Brown, A. C. (2017). Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin Infections among Humans, United States, 1968–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1493-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170136.

Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Bioserotype 3/O:3 among Children with Diarrhea, China, 2010–2015 [PDF - 1.89 MB - 8 pages]
R. Duan et al.

Yersinia enterocolitica is thought to not significantly contribute to diarrheal disease in China, but evidence substantiating this claim is limited. We determined the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica infection and strain types present among children <5 years of age with diarrhea in China. The overall prevalence of pathogenic isolates was 0.59%. Prevalence of pathogenic bioserotype 3/O:3 varied geographically. In this population, the presence of fecal leukocytes was a characteristic of Y. enterocolitica infection and should be used as an indication for microbiological diagnostic testing, rather than for the diagnosis of bacillary dysentery. In contrast with Y. enterocolitica isolates from adults, which were primarily biotype 1A, isolates from children were primarily bioserotype 3/O:3. Most pathogenic isolates from children shared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns with isolates from pigs and dogs, suggesting a possible link between isolates from animals and infections in children. Our findings underscore the need for improved diagnostics for this underestimated pathogen.

EID Duan R, Liang J, Zhang J, Chen Y, Wang X, Tong J, et al. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Bioserotype 3/O:3 among Children with Diarrhea, China, 2010–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1502-1509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.160827
AMA Duan R, Liang J, Zhang J, et al. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Bioserotype 3/O:3 among Children with Diarrhea, China, 2010–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1502-1509. doi:10.3201/eid2309.160827.
APA Duan, R., Liang, J., Zhang, J., Chen, Y., Wang, X., Tong, J....Hao, H. (2017). Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Bioserotype 3/O:3 among Children with Diarrhea, China, 2010–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1502-1509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.160827.

Risk for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus on Poultry Farms, the Netherlands, 2007–2013 [PDF - 625 KB - 7 pages]
R. Bouwstra et al.

Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007–2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors: distance from poultry farms to clay soil, waterways, and wild waterfowl areas. Outdoor-layer, turkey (meat and breeder), and duck (meat and breeder) farms had a significantly higher risk for LPAIV introduction than did indoor-layer farms. Except for outdoor-layer, all poultry types (i.e., broilers, chicken breeders, ducks, and turkeys) are kept indoors. For all production types, LPAIV risk decreased significantly with increasing distance to medium-sized waterways and with increasing distance to areas with defined wild waterfowl, but only for outdoor-layer and turkey farms. Future research should focus not only on production types but also on distance to waterways and wild bird areas. In addition, settlement of new poultry farms in high-risk areas should be discouraged.

EID Bouwstra R, Gonzales JL, de Wit S, Stahl J, Fouchier R, Elbers A. Risk for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus on Poultry Farms, the Netherlands, 2007–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1510-1516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170276
AMA Bouwstra R, Gonzales JL, de Wit S, et al. Risk for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus on Poultry Farms, the Netherlands, 2007–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1510-1516. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170276.
APA Bouwstra, R., Gonzales, J. L., de Wit, S., Stahl, J., Fouchier, R., & Elbers, A. (2017). Risk for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus on Poultry Farms, the Netherlands, 2007–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1510-1516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170276.

Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008–2016 [PDF - 748 KB - 5 pages]
J. D. Forrester et al.

Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008–2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient’s village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague.

EID Forrester JD, Apangu T, Griffith K, Acayo S, Yockey B, Kaggwa J, et al. Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1517-1521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170789
AMA Forrester JD, Apangu T, Griffith K, et al. Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1517-1521. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170789.
APA Forrester, J. D., Apangu, T., Griffith, K., Acayo, S., Yockey, B., Kaggwa, J....Mead, P. S. (2017). Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1517-1521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170789.

Protective Effect of Val129-PrP against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy but not Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease [PDF - 1.14 MB - 9 pages]
N. Fernández-Borges et al.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is the only known zoonotic prion that causes variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. The major risk determinant for this disease is the polymorphic codon 129 of the human prion protein (Hu-PrP), where either methionine (Met129) or valine (Val129) can be encoded. To date, all clinical and neuropathologically confirmed vCJD cases have been Met129 homozygous, with the exception of 1 recently reported Met/Val heterozygous case. Here, we found that transgenic mice homozygous for Val129 Hu-PrP show severely restricted propagation of the BSE prion strain, but this constraint can be partially overcome by adaptation of the BSE agent to the Met129 Hu-PrP. In addition, the transmission of vCJD to transgenic mice homozygous for Val129 Hu-PrP resulted in a prion with distinct strain features. These observations may indicate increased risk for vCJD secondary transmission in Val129 Hu-PrP–positive humans with the emergence of new strain features.

EID Fernández-Borges N, Espinosa J, Marín-Moreno A, Aguilar-Calvo P, Asante EA, Kitamoto T, et al. Protective Effect of Val129-PrP against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy but not Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1522-1530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161948
AMA Fernández-Borges N, Espinosa J, Marín-Moreno A, et al. Protective Effect of Val129-PrP against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy but not Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1522-1530. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161948.
APA Fernández-Borges, N., Espinosa, J., Marín-Moreno, A., Aguilar-Calvo, P., Asante, E. A., Kitamoto, T....Torres, J. (2017). Protective Effect of Val129-PrP against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy but not Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1522-1530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161948.
Dispatches

Norovirus in Bottled Water Associated with Gastroenteritis Outbreak, Spain, 2016 [PDF - 1.19 MB - 4 pages]
A. Blanco et al.

In April 2016, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness (4,136 cases) occurred in Catalonia, Spain. We detected high levels of norovirus genogroups I and II in office water coolers associated with the outbreak. Infectious viral titer estimates were 33–49 genome copies/L for genogroup I and 327–660 genome copies/L for genogroup II.

EID Blanco A, Guix S, Fuster N, Fuentes C, Bartolomé R, Cornejo T, et al. Norovirus in Bottled Water Associated with Gastroenteritis Outbreak, Spain, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1531-1534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161489
AMA Blanco A, Guix S, Fuster N, et al. Norovirus in Bottled Water Associated with Gastroenteritis Outbreak, Spain, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1531-1534. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161489.
APA Blanco, A., Guix, S., Fuster, N., Fuentes, C., Bartolomé, R., Cornejo, T....Bosch, A. (2017). Norovirus in Bottled Water Associated with Gastroenteritis Outbreak, Spain, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1531-1534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161489.

Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox [PDF - 1.51 MB - 4 pages]
C. Busi et al.

In 2011, a group A rotavirus was isolated from the brain of a fox with encephalitis and neurologic signs, detected by rabies surveillance in Italy. Intracerebral inoculation of fox brain homogenates into mice was fatal. Genome sequencing revealed a heterologous rotavirus of avian origin, which could provide a model for investigating rotavirus neurovirulence.

EID Busi C, Martella V, Papetti A, Sabelli C, Lelli D, Alborali G, et al. Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1535-1538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170158
AMA Busi C, Martella V, Papetti A, et al. Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1535-1538. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170158.
APA Busi, C., Martella, V., Papetti, A., Sabelli, C., Lelli, D., Alborali, G....Boniotti, M. (2017). Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1535-1538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170158.

Medscape CME Activity
Imported Infections with Mansonella perstans Nematodes, Italy [PDF - 677 KB - 4 pages]
F. Gobbi et al.
EID Gobbi F, Beltrame A, Buonfrate D, Staffolani S, Degani M, Gobbo M, et al. Imported Infections with Mansonella perstans Nematodes, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1539-1542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170263
AMA Gobbi F, Beltrame A, Buonfrate D, et al. Imported Infections with Mansonella perstans Nematodes, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1539-1542. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170263.
APA Gobbi, F., Beltrame, A., Buonfrate, D., Staffolani, S., Degani, M., Gobbo, M....Bisoffi, Z. (2017). Imported Infections with Mansonella perstans Nematodes, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1539-1542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170263.

Genetic Diversity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8/H5N5) Viruses in Italy, 2016–17 [PDF - 4.67 MB - 5 pages]
A. Fusaro et al.

In winter 2016–17, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) and A(H5N5) viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 were identified in wild and domestic birds in Italy. We report the occurrence of multiple introductions and describe the identification in Europe of 2 novel genotypes, generated through multiple reassortment events.

EID Fusaro A, Monne I, Mulatti P, Zecchin B, Bonfanti L, Ormelli S, et al. Genetic Diversity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8/H5N5) Viruses in Italy, 2016–17. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1543-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170539
AMA Fusaro A, Monne I, Mulatti P, et al. Genetic Diversity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8/H5N5) Viruses in Italy, 2016–17. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1543-1547. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170539.
APA Fusaro, A., Monne, I., Mulatti, P., Zecchin, B., Bonfanti, L., Ormelli, S....Terregino, C. (2017). Genetic Diversity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8/H5N5) Viruses in Italy, 2016–17. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1543-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170539.

Microcephaly Caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus [PDF - 695 KB - 3 pages]
M. Delaine et al.

We report congenital microencephaly caused by infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in the fetus of a 29-year-old pregnant women at 23 weeks’ gestation. The diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and negative results for other agents and confirmed by a positive PCR result for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in an amniotic fluid sample.

EID Delaine M, Weingertner A, Nougairede A, Lepiller Q, Fafi-Kremer S, Favre R, et al. Microcephaly Caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1548-1550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170775
AMA Delaine M, Weingertner A, Nougairede A, et al. Microcephaly Caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1548-1550. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170775.
APA Delaine, M., Weingertner, A., Nougairede, A., Lepiller, Q., Fafi-Kremer, S., Favre, R....Charrel, R. N. (2017). Microcephaly Caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1548-1550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170775.

Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Swine at Agricultural Fairs and Transmission to Humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016 [PDF - 1.51 MB - 5 pages]
A. S. Bowman et al.

In 2016, a total of 18 human infections with influenza A(H3N2) virus occurred after exposure to influenza-infected swine at 7 agricultural fairs. Sixteen of these cases were the result of infection by a reassorted virus with increasing prevalence among US swine containing a hemagglutinin gene from 2010–11 human seasonal H3N2 strains.

EID Bowman AS, Walia RR, Nolting JM, Vincent AL, Killian M, Zentkovich MM, et al. Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Swine at Agricultural Fairs and Transmission to Humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1551-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170847
AMA Bowman AS, Walia RR, Nolting JM, et al. Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Swine at Agricultural Fairs and Transmission to Humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1551-1555. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170847.
APA Bowman, A. S., Walia, R. R., Nolting, J. M., Vincent, A. L., Killian, M., Zentkovich, M. M....Forshey, T. (2017). Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Swine at Agricultural Fairs and Transmission to Humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1551-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170847.

Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015 [PDF - 906 KB - 4 pages]
E. Salem et al.

Influenza D virus has been identified in America, Europe, and Asia. We detected influenza D virus antibodies in cattle and small ruminants from North (Morocco) and West (Togo and Benin) Africa. Dromedary camels in Kenya harbored influenza C or D virus antibodies, indicating a potential new host for these viruses.

EID Salem E, Cook E, Lbacha H, Oliva J, Awoume F, Aplogan GL, et al. Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1556-1559. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170342
AMA Salem E, Cook E, Lbacha H, et al. Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1556-1559. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170342.
APA Salem, E., Cook, E., Lbacha, H., Oliva, J., Awoume, F., Aplogan, G. L....Ducatez, M. (2017). Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1556-1559. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170342.

Use of Blood Donor Screening to Monitor Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Viruses, South Africa [PDF - 568 KB - 4 pages]
M. Vermeulen et al.

Among 397,640 first-time blood donors screened in South Africa during 2012–2015, HIV prevalence was 1.13%, hepatitis B virus prevalence 0.66%, and hepatitis C virus prevalence 0.03%. Findings of note were a high HIV prevalence in Mpumalanga Province and the near absence of hepatitis C virus nationwide.

EID Vermeulen M, Swanevelder R, Chowdhury D, Ingram C, Reddy R, Bloch EM, et al. Use of Blood Donor Screening to Monitor Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Viruses, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1560-1563. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161594
AMA Vermeulen M, Swanevelder R, Chowdhury D, et al. Use of Blood Donor Screening to Monitor Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Viruses, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1560-1563. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161594.
APA Vermeulen, M., Swanevelder, R., Chowdhury, D., Ingram, C., Reddy, R., Bloch, E. M....Murphy, E. L. (2017). Use of Blood Donor Screening to Monitor Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Viruses, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1560-1563. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161594.

Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Fosfomycin-Resistance Genes among Escherichia coli Isolates, France [PDF - 888 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Benzerara et al.

FosA, a glutathione S-transferase that inactivates fosfomycin, has been reported as the cause of enzymatic resistance to fosfomycin. We show that multiple lineages of FosA-producing extended spectrum β-lactamase Escherichia coli have circulated in France since 2012, potentially reducing the efficacy of fosfomycin in treating infections with antimicrobial drug–resistant gram-negative bacilli.

EID Benzerara Y, Gallah S, Hommeril B, Genel N, Decré D, Rottman M, et al. Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Fosfomycin-Resistance Genes among Escherichia coli Isolates, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1564-1567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170560
AMA Benzerara Y, Gallah S, Hommeril B, et al. Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Fosfomycin-Resistance Genes among Escherichia coli Isolates, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1564-1567. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170560.
APA Benzerara, Y., Gallah, S., Hommeril, B., Genel, N., Decré, D., Rottman, M....Arlet, G. (2017). Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Fosfomycin-Resistance Genes among Escherichia coli Isolates, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1564-1567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170560.

Determination of Ferret Enteric Coronavirus Genome in Laboratory Ferrets [PDF - 459 KB - 3 pages]
T. Li et al.

Ferret enteric coronavirus (FRECV) RNA was detected in laboratory ferrets. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of 2 strains, FRCoV4370 and FRCoV063, revealed that FRECV shared 49.9%–68.9% nucleotide sequence identity with known coronaviruses. These results suggest that FRECV might be classified as a new species in the genus Alphacoronavirus.

EID Li T, Yoshizaki S, Kataoka M, Doan Y, Ami Y, Suzaki Y, et al. Determination of Ferret Enteric Coronavirus Genome in Laboratory Ferrets. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1568-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.160215
AMA Li T, Yoshizaki S, Kataoka M, et al. Determination of Ferret Enteric Coronavirus Genome in Laboratory Ferrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1568-1570. doi:10.3201/eid2309.160215.
APA Li, T., Yoshizaki, S., Kataoka, M., Doan, Y., Ami, Y., Suzaki, Y....Wakita, T. (2017). Determination of Ferret Enteric Coronavirus Genome in Laboratory Ferrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1568-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.160215.

Myocarditis Caused by Human Parechovirus in Adult [PDF - 811 KB - 3 pages]
K. Kong et al.

The infectious etiology of myocarditis often remains unidentified. We report a case of myocarditis associated with human parechovirus (HPeV) infection in an adult. HPeV is an emerging pathogen that can cause serious illness, including myocarditis, in adults. Testing for HPeV should be considered in differential diagnosis of myocarditis.

EID Kong K, Lau J, Goh S, Wilson HL, Catton M, Korman TM. Myocarditis Caused by Human Parechovirus in Adult. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1571-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161256
AMA Kong K, Lau J, Goh S, et al. Myocarditis Caused by Human Parechovirus in Adult. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1571-1573. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161256.
APA Kong, K., Lau, J., Goh, S., Wilson, H. L., Catton, M., & Korman, T. M. (2017). Myocarditis Caused by Human Parechovirus in Adult. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1571-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161256.

Cost of Nosocomial Outbreak Caused by NDM-1–Containing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Netherlands, October 2015–January 2016 [PDF - 521 KB - 3 pages]
M. Mollers et al.

During October–December 2015, 29 patients in a hospital in the Netherlands acquired nosocomial infection with a multidrug-resistant, New Delhi-metallo-β-lactamase–positive Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. Extensive infection control measures were needed to stop this outbreak. The estimated economic impact of the outbreak was $804,263; highest costs were associated with hospital bed closures.

EID Mollers M, Lutgens SP, Schoffelen AF, Schneeberger PM, Suijkerbuijk A. Cost of Nosocomial Outbreak Caused by NDM-1–Containing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Netherlands, October 2015–January 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1574-1576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161710
AMA Mollers M, Lutgens SP, Schoffelen AF, et al. Cost of Nosocomial Outbreak Caused by NDM-1–Containing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Netherlands, October 2015–January 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1574-1576. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161710.
APA Mollers, M., Lutgens, S. P., Schoffelen, A. F., Schneeberger, P. M., & Suijkerbuijk, A. (2017). Cost of Nosocomial Outbreak Caused by NDM-1–Containing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Netherlands, October 2015–January 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1574-1576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161710.

Evaluation of 5 Commercially Available Zika Virus Immunoassays [PDF - 709 KB - 4 pages]
D. Safronetz et al.

Because of the global spread of Zika virus, accurate and high-throughput diagnostic immunoassays are needed. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of 5 commercially available Zika virus serologic assays to the recommended protocol of Zika virus IgM-capture ELISA and plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Most commercial immunoassays showed low sensitivity, which can be increased.

EID Safronetz D, Sloan A, Stein DR, Mendoza E, Barairo N, Ranadheera C, et al. Evaluation of 5 Commercially Available Zika Virus Immunoassays. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1577-1580. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.162043
AMA Safronetz D, Sloan A, Stein DR, et al. Evaluation of 5 Commercially Available Zika Virus Immunoassays. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1577-1580. doi:10.3201/eid2309.162043.
APA Safronetz, D., Sloan, A., Stein, D. R., Mendoza, E., Barairo, N., Ranadheera, C....Drebot, M. (2017). Evaluation of 5 Commercially Available Zika Virus Immunoassays. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1577-1580. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.162043.

Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gyrase A Genotype, Los Angeles, California, USA [PDF - 1016 KB - 4 pages]
A. A. Bhatti et al.

We investigated the epidemiology of the mutant gyrase A gene, a reliable predictor of ciprofloxacin resistance, in Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections at UCLA Health in Los Angeles, California, USA, during November 1, 2015–August 31, 2016. Among 110 patients with N. gonorrhoeae infections, 48 (44%) had the mutant gyrase A gene.

EID Bhatti AA, Allan-Blitz L, Castrejon M, Humphries R, Hemarajata P, Klausner JD. Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gyrase A Genotype, Los Angeles, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1581-1584. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170215
AMA Bhatti AA, Allan-Blitz L, Castrejon M, et al. Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gyrase A Genotype, Los Angeles, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1581-1584. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170215.
APA Bhatti, A. A., Allan-Blitz, L., Castrejon, M., Humphries, R., Hemarajata, P., & Klausner, J. D. (2017). Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gyrase A Genotype, Los Angeles, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1581-1584. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170215.

Conveyance Contact Investigation for Imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases, United States, May 2014 [PDF - 469 KB - 5 pages]
S. A. Lippold et al.

In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted conveyance contact investigations for 2 Middle East respiratory syndrome cases imported into the United States, comprising all passengers and crew on 4 international and domestic flights and 1 bus. Of 655 contacts, 78% were interviewed; 33% had serologic testing. No secondary cases were identified.

EID Lippold SA, Objio T, Vonnahme LA, Washburn F, Cohen NJ, Chen T, et al. Conveyance Contact Investigation for Imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases, United States, May 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1585-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170365
AMA Lippold SA, Objio T, Vonnahme LA, et al. Conveyance Contact Investigation for Imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases, United States, May 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1585-1589. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170365.
APA Lippold, S. A., Objio, T., Vonnahme, L. A., Washburn, F., Cohen, N. J., Chen, T....Alvarado-Ramy, F. (2017). Conveyance Contact Investigation for Imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases, United States, May 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1585-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170365.

Possible Role of Fish as Transport Hosts for Dracunculus spp. Larvae [PDF - 663 KB - 3 pages]
C. A. Cleveland et al.

To inform Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm) eradication efforts, we evaluated the role of fish as transport hosts for Dracunculus worms. Ferrets fed fish that had ingested infected copepods became infected, highlighting the importance of recommendations to cook fish, bury entrails, and prevent dogs from consuming raw fish and entrails.

EID Cleveland CA, Eberhard ML, Thompson AT, Smith SJ, Zirimwabagabo H, Bringolf R, et al. Possible Role of Fish as Transport Hosts for Dracunculus spp. Larvae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1590-1592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161931
AMA Cleveland CA, Eberhard ML, Thompson AT, et al. Possible Role of Fish as Transport Hosts for Dracunculus spp. Larvae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1590-1592. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161931.
APA Cleveland, C. A., Eberhard, M. L., Thompson, A. T., Smith, S. J., Zirimwabagabo, H., Bringolf, R....Yabsley, M. J. (2017). Possible Role of Fish as Transport Hosts for Dracunculus spp. Larvae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1590-1592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161931.

Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case [PDF - 658 KB - 4 pages]
A. B. Diack et al.

We investigated transmission characteristics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a mother and son from Spain. Despite differences in patient age and disease manifestations, we found the same strain properties in these patients as in UK vCJD cases. A single strain of agent appears to be responsible for all vCJD cases to date.

EID Diack AB, Boyle A, Ritchie D, Plinston C, Kisielewski D, de Pedro-Cuesta J, et al. Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1593-1596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170159
AMA Diack AB, Boyle A, Ritchie D, et al. Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1593-1596. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170159.
APA Diack, A. B., Boyle, A., Ritchie, D., Plinston, C., Kisielewski, D., de Pedro-Cuesta, J....Manson, J. C. (2017). Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1593-1596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170159.
Research Letters

Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Bacteria, the Philippines, 2013–2016 [PDF - 295 KB - 2 pages]
J. Velasco et al.

During 2013–2016, we isolated blaNDM- and blaVIM-harboring Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative bacteria from patients in the Philippines. Of 130 carbapenem-resistant isolates tested, 45 were Carba NP–positive; 43 harbored blaNDM, and 2 harbored blaVIM. Multidrug-resistant microbial pathogen surveillance and antimicrobial drug stewardship are needed to prevent further spread of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase variants.

EID Velasco J, Valderama M, Peacock T, Warawadee N, Nogrado K, Navarro F, et al. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Bacteria, the Philippines, 2013–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1597-1598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161237
AMA Velasco J, Valderama M, Peacock T, et al. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Bacteria, the Philippines, 2013–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1597-1598. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161237.
APA Velasco, J., Valderama, M., Peacock, T., Warawadee, N., Nogrado, K., Navarro, F....Swierczewski, B. (2017). Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Bacteria, the Philippines, 2013–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1597-1598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161237.

Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Strain Emergence and Host Range Expansion [PDF - 283 KB - 3 pages]
A. Herbst et al.

Human and mouse prion proteins share a structural motif that regulates resistance to common chronic wasting disease (CWD) prion strains. Successful transmission of an emergent strain of CWD prion, H95+, into mice resulted in infection. Thus, emergent CWD prion strains may have higher zoonotic potential than common strains.

EID Herbst A, Velásquez C, Triscott E, Aiken JM, McKenzie D. Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Strain Emergence and Host Range Expansion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1598-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161474
AMA Herbst A, Velásquez C, Triscott E, et al. Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Strain Emergence and Host Range Expansion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1598-1600. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161474.
APA Herbst, A., Velásquez, C., Triscott, E., Aiken, J. M., & McKenzie, D. (2017). Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Strain Emergence and Host Range Expansion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1598-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161474.

Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015–2016 [PDF - 463 KB - 3 pages]
S. Chen et al.

We report rabies virus transmission among solid organ transplantation recipients in Changsha, China, in 2016. Two recipients were confirmed to have rabies and died. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the possibility of rabies virus transmission through organ transplantation for clinical and public health reasons.

EID Chen S, Zhang H, Luo M, Chen J, Yao D, Chen F, et al. Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1600-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161704
AMA Chen S, Zhang H, Luo M, et al. Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1600-1602. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161704.
APA Chen, S., Zhang, H., Luo, M., Chen, J., Yao, D., Chen, F....Chen, T. (2017). Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1600-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161704.

Identification of Clade E Avipoxvirus, Mozambique, 2016 [PDF - 389 KB - 3 pages]
L. P. Mapaco et al.

Analysis of scab samples collected from poultry during outbreaks of fowlpox in Mozambique in 2016 revealed the presence of clade E avipoxviruses. Infected poultry were from flocks that had been vaccinated against fowlpox virus. These findings require urgent reevaluation of the vaccine formula and control strategies in this country.

EID Mapaco LP, Lacerda Z, Monjane I, Gelaye E, Sussuro AH, Viljoen GJ, et al. Identification of Clade E Avipoxvirus, Mozambique, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1602-1604. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161981
AMA Mapaco LP, Lacerda Z, Monjane I, et al. Identification of Clade E Avipoxvirus, Mozambique, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1602-1604. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161981.
APA Mapaco, L. P., Lacerda, Z., Monjane, I., Gelaye, E., Sussuro, A. H., Viljoen, G. J....Achá, S. J. (2017). Identification of Clade E Avipoxvirus, Mozambique, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1602-1604. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161981.

Indication of Cross-Species Transmission of Astrovirus Associated with Encephalitis in Sheep and Cattle [PDF - 1.47 MB - 5 pages]
C. L. Boujon et al.

We report the identification of a neurotropic astrovirus associated with encephalitis in a sheep. This virus is genetically almost identical to an astrovirus recently described in neurologically diseased cattle. The similarity indicates that astroviruses of the same genotype may cause encephalitis in different species.

EID Boujon CL, Koch MC, Wüthrich D, Werder S, Jakupovic D, Bruggmann R, et al. Indication of Cross-Species Transmission of Astrovirus Associated with Encephalitis in Sheep and Cattle. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1604-1608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170168
AMA Boujon CL, Koch MC, Wüthrich D, et al. Indication of Cross-Species Transmission of Astrovirus Associated with Encephalitis in Sheep and Cattle. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1604-1608. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170168.
APA Boujon, C. L., Koch, M. C., Wüthrich, D., Werder, S., Jakupovic, D., Bruggmann, R....Seuberlich, T. (2017). Indication of Cross-Species Transmission of Astrovirus Associated with Encephalitis in Sheep and Cattle. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1604-1608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170168.

A New Bat-HKU2–like Coronavirus in Swine, China, 2017 [PDF - 428 KB - 3 pages]
L. Gong et al.

We identified from suckling piglets with diarrhea in China a new bat-HKU2–like porcine coronavirus (porcine enteric alphacoronavirus). The GDS04 strain of this coronavirus shares high aa identities (>90%) with the reported bat-HKU2 strains in Coronaviridae-wide conserved domains, suggesting that the GDS04 strain belongs to the same species as HKU2.

EID Gong L, Li J, Zhou Q, Xu Z, Chen L, Zhang Y, et al. A New Bat-HKU2–like Coronavirus in Swine, China, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1607-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170915
AMA Gong L, Li J, Zhou Q, et al. A New Bat-HKU2–like Coronavirus in Swine, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1607-1609. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170915.
APA Gong, L., Li, J., Zhou, Q., Xu, Z., Chen, L., Zhang, Y....Cao, Y. (2017). A New Bat-HKU2–like Coronavirus in Swine, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1607-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170915.

Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Infections, Michigan, USA [PDF - 345 KB - 3 pages]
S. Mukherjee et al.

High frequencies of antimicrobial drug resistance were observed in O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli strains recovered from patients in Michigan during 2010–2014. Resistance was more common in non-O157 strains and independently associated with hospitalization, indicating that resistance could contribute to more severe disease outcomes.

EID Mukherjee S, Mosci RE, Anderson CM, Snyder BA, Collins J, Rudrik JT, et al. Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Infections, Michigan, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1609-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170523
AMA Mukherjee S, Mosci RE, Anderson CM, et al. Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Infections, Michigan, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1609-1611. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170523.
APA Mukherjee, S., Mosci, R. E., Anderson, C. M., Snyder, B. A., Collins, J., Rudrik, J. T....Manning, S. D. (2017). Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Infections, Michigan, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1609-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170523.

White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France [PDF - 334 KB - 2 pages]
M. G. Campana et al.

White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

EID Campana MG, Kurata NP, Foster JT, Helgen LE, Reeder DM, Fleischer RC, et al. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1611-1612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170875
AMA Campana MG, Kurata NP, Foster JT, et al. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1611-1612. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170875.
APA Campana, M. G., Kurata, N. P., Foster, J. T., Helgen, L. E., Reeder, D. M., Fleischer, R. C....Helgen, K. M. (2017). White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1611-1612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170875.
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Hidden Dangers from the Hunt [PDF - 1.84 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove and N. M. M’ikanatha
EID Breedlove B, M’ikanatha NM. Hidden Dangers from the Hunt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1613-1614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.ac2309
AMA Breedlove B, M’ikanatha NM. Hidden Dangers from the Hunt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1613-1614. doi:10.3201/eid2309.ac2309.
APA Breedlove, B., & M’ikanatha, N. M. (2017). Hidden Dangers from the Hunt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1613-1614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.ac2309.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Negri Bodies [PDF - 650 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry and F. A. Murphy
EID Henry R, Murphy FA. Etymologia: Negri Bodies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.et2309
AMA Henry R, Murphy FA. Etymologia: Negri Bodies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1461. doi:10.3201/eid2309.et2309.
APA Henry, R., & Murphy, F. A. (2017). Etymologia: Negri Bodies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.et2309.
Page created: August 23, 2017
Page updated: August 23, 2017
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