Volume 24, Number 3—March 2018
Evidence for Previously Unidentified Sexual Transmission of Protozoan Parasites
|Parasite (reference)||Method for parasite identification||Type of study||Evidence of sexual transmission||Evidence of causing infertility|
|Entamoeba hystolytica (2)||Microscopy||Case report||In humans||In humans|
|Schistosoma haematobium (3)||Microscopy||Cohort study||No evidence||In humans|
|Trichomonas vaginalis (4)||PCR||Cohort study||In humans||In humans|
|Trypanosoma cruzi (5)||PCR||Cohort study||Experimental mouse model||In animals|
|Toxoplasma gondii (6)||Microscopy||Cohort study||Experimental sheep model||In humans|
- Salam AP, Horby PW. The breadth of viruses in human semen. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:1922–4.
- Ozdemir E, Keleştemur N, Kaplan M. Trichomonas vaginalis as a rare cause of male factor infertility at a hospital in East Anatolia. Andrologia. 2011;43:283–5.
- Hines LE. Entamoeba histolytica in seminal fluid in a case of amoebic dysentery. JAMA. 1923;81:274–5.
- Leutscher P, Ramarokoto CE, Reimert C, Feldmeier H, et al. Community-based study of genital schistosomiasis in men from Madagascar. Lancet. 2000; 8;355(9198):117–8.
- Araujo PF, Almeida AB, Pimentel CF, Silva AR, Sousa A, Valente SA, et al. Sexual transmission of American trypanosomiasis in humans: a new potential pandemic route for Chagas parasites. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2017;112:437–46.
- Disko R, Braveny I, Vogel P. [Studies on the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in the human ejaculate] [in German]. Z Tropenmed Parasitol. 1971;22:391–6.
- Martínez-García F, Regadera J, Mayer R, Sanchez S, Nistal M. Protozoan infections in the male genital tract. J Urol. 1996;156:340–9.
- Shiadeh MN, Niyyati M, Fallahi S, Rostami A. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:469–77.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Laboratory identification of parasitic diseases of public health concern. Schistosomiasis infection. Dec 18, 2017 [cited 2018 Jan 15] https://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/schistosomiasis/index.html
- Leutscher P, Ravaoalimalala VE, Raharisolo C, Ramarokoto CE, Rasendramino M, Raobelison A, et al. Clinical findings in female genital schistosomiasis in Madagascar. Trop Med Int Health. 1998;3:327–32.
- World Health Organization. Global incidence and prevalence of selected curable sexually transmitted infections—2008. Geneva: The Organization; 2012 [cited 2017 Nov 6]. http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/rtis/stisestimates/en/
1These first authors contributed equally to this article.
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