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Issue Cover for Volume 24, Number 3—March 2018

Volume 24, Number 3—March 2018

[PDF - 9.06 MB - 212 pages]

Perspective

Ending the HIV/AIDS Pandemic [PDF - 324 KB - 4 pages]
R. Eisinger and A. S. Fauci

The goal of ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic is theoretically achievable and would require addressing this global health catastrophe on individual and global levels by providing optimal prevention strategies and treatment regimens for individual persons living with or at risk for HIV, as well as ending the pandemic as an epidemiologic and global health phenomenon. However, from a practical standpoint, the pathway to ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic will be difficult and will require aggressive implementation of the biomedical research advances that have been made in the areas of treatment and prevention; development of additional tools, such as a moderately effective HIV vaccine; and attention to critical behavioral and social determinants. An end to the HIV/AIDS pandemic can be achieved only with provision of sustained and additional resources at the local, regional, national, and global levels.

EID Eisinger R, Fauci AS. Ending the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):413-416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171797
AMA Eisinger R, Fauci AS. Ending the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):413-416. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171797.
APA Eisinger, R., & Fauci, A. S. (2018). Ending the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 413-416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171797.
Synopses

Coccidioidomycosis Outbreaks, United States and Worldwide, 1940–2015 [PDF - 1.11 MB - 7 pages]
M. Freedman et al.

Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial illness and death in the United States each year. Although most cases are sporadic, outbreaks provide insight into the clinical and environmental features of coccidioidomycosis, high-risk activities, and the geographic range of Coccidioides fungi. We identified reports published in English of 47 coccidioidomycosis outbreaks worldwide that resulted in 1,464 cases during 1940–2015. Most (85%) outbreaks were associated with environmental exposures; the 2 largest outbreaks resulted from an earthquake and a large dust storm. More than one third of outbreaks occurred in areas where the fungus was not previously known to be endemic, and more than half of outbreaks involved occupational exposures. Coccidioidomycosis outbreaks can be difficult to detect and challenging to prevent given the unknown effectiveness of environmental control methods and personal protective equipment; therefore, increased awareness of coccidioidomycosis outbreaks is needed among public health professionals, healthcare providers, and the public.

EID Freedman M, Jackson BR, McCotter O, Benedict K. Coccidioidomycosis Outbreaks, United States and Worldwide, 1940–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):417-423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170623
AMA Freedman M, Jackson BR, McCotter O, et al. Coccidioidomycosis Outbreaks, United States and Worldwide, 1940–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):417-423. doi:10.3201/eid2403.170623.
APA Freedman, M., Jackson, B. R., McCotter, O., & Benedict, K. (2018). Coccidioidomycosis Outbreaks, United States and Worldwide, 1940–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 417-423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170623.

Multistate Epidemiology of Histoplasmosis, United States, 2011–2014 [PDF - 1020 KB - 7 pages]
P. A. Armstrong et al.

Histoplasmosis is one of the most common mycoses endemic to the United States, but it was reportable in only 10 states during 2016, when a national case definition was approved. To better characterize the epidemiologic features of histoplasmosis, we analyzed deidentified surveillance data for 2011–2014 from the following 12 states: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. We examined epidemiologic and laboratory features and calculated state-specific annual and county-specific mean annual incidence rates. A total of 3,409 cases were reported. Median patient age was 49 (interquartile range 33–61) years, 2,079 (61%) patients were male, 1,273 (57%) patients were hospitalized, and 76 (7%) patients died. Incidence rates varied markedly between and within states. The high hospitalization rate suggests that histoplasmosis surveillance underestimates the true number of cases. Improved surveillance standardization and surveillance by additional states would provide more comprehensive knowledge of histoplasmosis in the United States.

EID Armstrong PA, Jackson BR, Haselow D, Fields V, Ireland M, Austin C, et al. Multistate Epidemiology of Histoplasmosis, United States, 2011–20141. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):425-431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171258
AMA Armstrong PA, Jackson BR, Haselow D, et al. Multistate Epidemiology of Histoplasmosis, United States, 2011–20141. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):425-431. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171258.
APA Armstrong, P. A., Jackson, B. R., Haselow, D., Fields, V., Ireland, M., Austin, C....Benedict, K. (2018). Multistate Epidemiology of Histoplasmosis, United States, 2011–20141. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 425-431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171258.

Medscape CME Activity
Epidemiology of Recurrent Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, China, 2008–2015 [PDF - 3.00 MB - 11 pages]
J. Huang et al.

Using China’s national surveillance data on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) for 2008–2015, we described the epidemiologic and virologic features of recurrent HFMD. A total of 398,010 patients had HFMD recurrence; 1,767 patients had 1,814 cases of recurrent laboratory-confirmed HFMD: 99 reinfections of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) with EV-A71, 45 of coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) with CV-A16, 364 of other enteroviruses with other enteroviruses, 383 of EV-A71 with CV-A16 and CV-A16 with EV-A71, and 923 of EV-A71 or CV-A16 with other enteroviruses and other enteroviruses with EV-A71 or CV-A16. The probability of HFMD recurrence was 1.9% at 12 months, 3.3% at 24 months, 3.9% at 36 months, and 4.0% at 38.8 months after the primary episode. HFMD severity was not associated with recurrent episodes or time interval between episodes. Elucidation of the mechanism underlying HFMD recurrence with the same enterovirus serotype and confirmation that HFMD recurrence is not associated with disease severity is needed.

EID Huang J, Liao Q, Ooi M, Cowling BJ, Chang Z, Wu P, et al. Epidemiology of Recurrent Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, China, 2008–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):432-442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171303
AMA Huang J, Liao Q, Ooi M, et al. Epidemiology of Recurrent Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, China, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):432-442. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171303.
APA Huang, J., Liao, Q., Ooi, M., Cowling, B. J., Chang, Z., Wu, P....Wei, S. (2018). Epidemiology of Recurrent Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, China, 2008–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 432-442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171303.
Research

Capsule Typing of Haemophilus influenzae by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry [PDF - 2.06 MB - 10 pages]
V. Månsson et al.

Encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae strains belong to type-specific genetic lineages. Reliable capsule typing requires PCR, but a more efficient method would be useful. We evaluated capsule typing by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Isolates of all capsule types (a−f and nontypeable; n = 258) and isogenic capsule transformants (types a−d) were investigated. Principal component and biomarker analyses of mass spectra showed clustering, and mass peaks correlated with capsule type-specific genetic lineages. We used 31 selected isolates to construct a capsule typing database. Validation with the remaining isolates (n = 227) showed 100% sensitivity and 92.2% specificity for encapsulated strains (a−f; n = 61). Blinded validation of a supplemented database (n = 50) using clinical isolates (n = 126) showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for encapsulated strains (b, e, and f; n = 28). MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is an accurate method for capsule typing of H. influenzae.

EID Månsson V, Gilsdorf JR, Kahlmeter G, Kilian M, Kroll J, Riesbeck K, et al. Capsule Typing of Haemophilus influenzae by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):443-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170459
AMA Månsson V, Gilsdorf JR, Kahlmeter G, et al. Capsule Typing of Haemophilus influenzae by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):443-452. doi:10.3201/eid2403.170459.
APA Månsson, V., Gilsdorf, J. R., Kahlmeter, G., Kilian, M., Kroll, J., Riesbeck, K....Resman, F. (2018). Capsule Typing of Haemophilus influenzae by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 443-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170459.

Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 12F after Sequential Introduction of 7- and 13-Valent Vaccines, Israel [PDF - 2.43 MB - 9 pages]
A. Rokney et al.

Israel implemented use of 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine in 2009 and 2010, respectively. We describe results of prospective, population-based, nationwide active surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F (Sp12F) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) dynamics in the 7 years after vaccine introduction. Of 4,573 IPD episodes during July 2009–June 2016, a total of 434 (9.5%) were caused by Sp12F. Sp12F IPD rates (cases/100,000 population) increased in children <5 years of age, from 1.44 in 2009–2010 to >3.9 since 2011–2012, followed by an increase in all ages. During 2011–2016, Sp12F was the most prevalent IPD serotype. Sp12F isolates were mostly penicillin nonsusceptible (MIC >0.06 µg/mL; MIC50 = 0.12) and predominantly of sequence type 3774), a clone exclusively found in Israel (constituting ≈90% of isolates in 2000–2009). The sharp increase, long duration, and predominance of Sp12F IPD after vaccine implementation reflect a single clone expansion and may represent more than a transient outbreak.

EID Rokney A, Ben-Shimol S, Korenman Z, Porat N, Gorodnitzky Z, Givon-Lavi N, et al. Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 12F after Sequential Introduction of 7- and 13-Valent Vaccines, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):453-461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170769
AMA Rokney A, Ben-Shimol S, Korenman Z, et al. Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 12F after Sequential Introduction of 7- and 13-Valent Vaccines, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):453-461. doi:10.3201/eid2403.170769.
APA Rokney, A., Ben-Shimol, S., Korenman, Z., Porat, N., Gorodnitzky, Z., Givon-Lavi, N....Valinsky, L. (2018). Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 12F after Sequential Introduction of 7- and 13-Valent Vaccines, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 453-461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170769.

Major Threat to Malaria Control Programs by Plasmodium falciparum Lacking Histidine-Rich Protein 2, Eritrea [PDF - 1.23 MB - 9 pages]
A. Berhane et al.

False-negative results for Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein (HRP) 2–based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are increasing in Eritrea. We investigated HRP gene 2/3 (pfhrp2/pfhrp3) status in 50 infected patients at 2 hospitals. We showed that 80.8% (21/26) of patients at Ghindae Hospital and 41.7% (10/24) at Massawa Hospital were infected with pfhrp2-negative parasites and 92.3% (24/26) of patients at Ghindae Hospital and 70.8% (17/24) at Massawa Hospital were infected with pfhrp3-negative parasites. Parasite densities between pfhrp2-positive and pfhrp2-negative patients were comparable. All pfhrp2-negative samples had no detectable HRP2/3 antigen and showed negative results for HRP2-based RDTs. pfhrp2-negative parasites were genetically less diverse and formed 2 clusters with no close relationships to parasites from Peru. These parasites probably emerged independently by selection in Eritrea. High prevalence of pfhrp2-negative parasites caused a high rate of false-negative results for RDTs. Determining prevalence of pfhrp2-negative parasites is urgently needed in neighboring countries to assist case management policies.

EID Berhane A, Anderson KF, Mihreteab S, Gresty K, Rogier E, Mohamed S, et al. Major Threat to Malaria Control Programs by Plasmodium falciparum Lacking Histidine-Rich Protein 2, Eritrea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):462-470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171723
AMA Berhane A, Anderson KF, Mihreteab S, et al. Major Threat to Malaria Control Programs by Plasmodium falciparum Lacking Histidine-Rich Protein 2, Eritrea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):462-470. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171723.
APA Berhane, A., Anderson, K. F., Mihreteab, S., Gresty, K., Rogier, E., Mohamed, S....Cunningham, J. (2018). Major Threat to Malaria Control Programs by Plasmodium falciparum Lacking Histidine-Rich Protein 2, Eritrea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 462-470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171723.

Use of Influenza Risk Assessment Tool for Prepandemic Preparedness [PDF - 831 KB - 7 pages]
S. A. Burke and S. C. Trock

In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began to develop an Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT) to methodically capture and assess information relating to influenza A viruses not currently circulating among humans. The IRAT uses a multiattribute, additive model to generate a summary risk score for each virus. Although the IRAT is not intended to predict the next pandemic influenza A virus, it has provided input into prepandemic preparedness decisions.

EID Burke SA, Trock SC. Use of Influenza Risk Assessment Tool for Prepandemic Preparedness. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):471-477. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171852
AMA Burke SA, Trock SC. Use of Influenza Risk Assessment Tool for Prepandemic Preparedness. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):471-477. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171852.
APA Burke, S. A., & Trock, S. C. (2018). Use of Influenza Risk Assessment Tool for Prepandemic Preparedness. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 471-477. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171852.

Use of Verbal Autopsy to Determine Underlying Cause of Death during Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, India [PDF - 1.53 MB - 7 pages]
P. Naik et al.

Of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), <50% complete treatment. Most treatment failures for patients with MDR TB are due to death during TB treatment. We sought to determine the proportion of deaths during MDR TB treatment attributable to TB itself. We used a structured verbal autopsy tool to interview family members of patients who died during MDR TB treatment in India during January–December 2016. A committee triangulated information from verbal autopsy, death certificate, or other medical records available with the family members to ascertain the underlying cause of death. For 66% of patient deaths (47/71), TB was the underlying cause of death. We assigned TB as the underlying cause of death for an additional 6 patients who died of suicide and 2 of pulmonary embolism. Deaths during TB treatment signify program failure; accurately determining the cause of death is the first step to designing appropriate, timely interventions to prevent premature deaths.

EID Naik P, Moonan PK, Nirgude A, Shewade H, Satyanarayana S, Raghuveer P, et al. Use of Verbal Autopsy to Determine Underlying Cause of Death during Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):478-484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171718
AMA Naik P, Moonan PK, Nirgude A, et al. Use of Verbal Autopsy to Determine Underlying Cause of Death during Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):478-484. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171718.
APA Naik, P., Moonan, P. K., Nirgude, A., Shewade, H., Satyanarayana, S., Raghuveer, P....Singarajipura, A. (2018). Use of Verbal Autopsy to Determine Underlying Cause of Death during Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 478-484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171718.

Increasing Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Specimens from US-Affiliated Pacific Island Jurisdictions [PDF - 636 KB - 7 pages]
C. Lin et al.

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) respiratory infections represent a growing public health problem in many countries. However, there are limited published epidemiologic studies for the Western Pacific region. We reviewed respiratory specimens submitted to Diagnostic Laboratory Services in Hawaii, USA, for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during August 2007–December 2011 to determine the NTM isolation rate. We observed a statistically significant increase in the rate of specimens with NTM isolated in respiratory culture (adjusted rate ratio per year 1.65, 95% CI 1.54–1.77; p<0.01). In contrast, the number of patients with respiratory cultures positive for M. tuberculosis showed no increase (adjusted rate ratio per year 0.98, 95% CI 0.94–1.01; p = 0.19). A 6-month subset of NTM isolates was identified by using a nucleic acid probe or 16S rRNA sequencing. M. avium complex and M. fortuitum were the most common NTM identified.

EID Lin C, Russell C, Soll B, Chow D, Bamrah S, Brostrom R, et al. Increasing Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Specimens from US-Affiliated Pacific Island Jurisdictions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):485-491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171301
AMA Lin C, Russell C, Soll B, et al. Increasing Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Specimens from US-Affiliated Pacific Island Jurisdictions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):485-491. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171301.
APA Lin, C., Russell, C., Soll, B., Chow, D., Bamrah, S., Brostrom, R....Bankowski, M. J. (2018). Increasing Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Specimens from US-Affiliated Pacific Island Jurisdictions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 485-491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171301.

Use of Genome Sequencing to Define Institutional Influenza Outbreaks, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2014–15 [PDF - 773 KB - 6 pages]
D. R. MacFadden et al.

Adequacy of the current clinical definition of institutional influenza outbreaks is unclear. We performed a retrospective genome sequencing and epidemiologic analysis of institutional influenza outbreaks that occurred during the 2014–15 influenza season in Toronto, Canada. We sequenced the 2 earliest submitted samples positive for influenza A(H3N2) from each of 38 reported institutional outbreaks in long-term care facilities. Genome sequencing showed most outbreak pairs identified by using the current clinical definition were highly related. Inclusion of surveillance samples demonstrated that outbreak sources were likely introductions from broader circulating lineages. Pairwise distance analysis using majority genome and hemagglutinin-specific genes enabled identification of thresholds for discrimination of within and between outbreak pairs; the area under the curve ranged 0.93–0.95. Routine genome sequencing for defining influenza outbreaks in long-term care facilities is unlikely to add significantly to the current clinical definition. Sequencing may prove most useful for investigating sources of outbreak introductions.

EID MacFadden DR, McGeer A, Athey T, Perusini S, Olsha R, Li A, et al. Use of Genome Sequencing to Define Institutional Influenza Outbreaks, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2014–15. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):492-497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171499
AMA MacFadden DR, McGeer A, Athey T, et al. Use of Genome Sequencing to Define Institutional Influenza Outbreaks, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2014–15. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):492-497. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171499.
APA MacFadden, D. R., McGeer, A., Athey, T., Perusini, S., Olsha, R., Li, A....Hanage, W. P. (2018). Use of Genome Sequencing to Define Institutional Influenza Outbreaks, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2014–15. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 492-497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171499.

Influenza Vaccination and Incident Tuberculosis among Elderly Persons, Taiwan [PDF - 1.13 MB - 8 pages]
Y. Yen et al.

Experimental studies have demonstrated that influenza vaccination may protect against tuberculosis (TB) through a Th17 response. This nationwide cohort study aimed to evaluate the association of influenza vaccination with incident TB among elderly persons in Taiwan. This 2005–2012 study included 99,982 elderly persons (64,290 vaccinated and 35,692 unvaccinated) from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. During the 738,367 person-years of follow-up, 1,141 (1.14%) persons had incident TB. The cumulative incidences of TB were 145.2 cases/100,000 person-years among vaccinated elderly persons and 175.5 cases/100,000 person-years among unvaccinated elderly persons (p = 0.002). The time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model revealed that influenza vaccination was an independent protective factor for incident TB. Our results suggest that influenza vaccination is associated with a lower risk of incident TB among elderly persons in Taiwan. Further investigation of biologic mechanisms is warranted.

EID Yen Y, Pan S, Su V, Chuang P, Feng J, Su W. Influenza Vaccination and Incident Tuberculosis among Elderly Persons, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):498-505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.152071
AMA Yen Y, Pan S, Su V, et al. Influenza Vaccination and Incident Tuberculosis among Elderly Persons, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):498-505. doi:10.3201/eid2403.152071.
APA Yen, Y., Pan, S., Su, V., Chuang, P., Feng, J., & Su, W. (2018). Influenza Vaccination and Incident Tuberculosis among Elderly Persons, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 498-505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.152071.

Epidemiology and Molecular Identification and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, South Africa, 2012–2015 [PDF - 580 KB - 8 pages]
M. Carrim et al.

During 2012–2015, we tested respiratory specimens from patients with severe respiratory illness (SRI), patients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and controls in South Africa by real-time PCR for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, followed by culture and molecular characterization of positive samples. M. pneumoniae prevalence was 1.6% among SRI patients, 0.7% among ILI patients, and 0.2% among controls (p<0.001). Age <5 years (adjusted odd ratio 7.1; 95% CI 1.7–28.7) and HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio 23.8; 95% CI 4.1–138.2) among M. pneumonia–positive persons were associated with severe disease. The detection rate attributable to illness was 93.9% (95% CI 74.4%–98.5%) in SRI patients and 80.7% (95% CI 16.7%–95.6%) in ILI patients. The hospitalization rate was 28 cases/100,000 population. We observed the macrolide-susceptible M. pneumoniae genotype in all cases and found P1 types 1, 2, and a type 2 variant with multilocus variable number tandem repeat types 3/6/6/2, 3/5/6/2, and 4/5/7/2.

EID Carrim M, Wolter N, Benitez AJ, Tempia S, du Plessis M, Walaza S, et al. Epidemiology and Molecular Identification and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, South Africa, 2012–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):506-513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.162052
AMA Carrim M, Wolter N, Benitez AJ, et al. Epidemiology and Molecular Identification and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, South Africa, 2012–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):506-513. doi:10.3201/eid2403.162052.
APA Carrim, M., Wolter, N., Benitez, A. J., Tempia, S., du Plessis, M., Walaza, S....von Gottberg, A. (2018). Epidemiology and Molecular Identification and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, South Africa, 2012–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 506-513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.162052.

Prospective Observational Study of Incidence and Preventable Burden of Childhood Tuberculosis, Kenya [PDF - 1.25 MB - 10 pages]
A. J. Brent et al.
EID Brent AJ, Nyundo C, Langat J, Mulunda C, Wambua J, Bauni E, et al. Prospective Observational Study of Incidence and Preventable Burden of Childhood Tuberculosis, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):514-523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170785
AMA Brent AJ, Nyundo C, Langat J, et al. Prospective Observational Study of Incidence and Preventable Burden of Childhood Tuberculosis, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):514-523. doi:10.3201/eid2403.170785.
APA Brent, A. J., Nyundo, C., Langat, J., Mulunda, C., Wambua, J., Bauni, E....Scott, J. (2018). Prospective Observational Study of Incidence and Preventable Burden of Childhood Tuberculosis, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 514-523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170785.

Acquired Resistance to Antituberculosis Drugs in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2000–2015 [PDF - 756 KB - 10 pages]
M. G. Loutet et al.

Among tuberculosis (TB) patients, acquired resistance to anti-TB drugs represents a failure in the treatment pathway. To improve diagnosis and care for patients with drug-resistant TB, we examined the epidemiology and risk factors associated with acquired drug resistance during 2000–2015 among TB patients in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. We found acquired resistance in 0.2% (158/67,710) of patients with culture-confirmed TB. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified the following factors associated with acquired drug resistance: having pulmonary disease; initial resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, or both; a previous TB episode; and being born in China or South Africa. Treatment outcomes were worse for patients with than without acquired resistance. Although acquired resistance is rare in the study area, certain patient groups are at higher risk. Identifying these patients and ensuring that adequate resources are available for treatment may prevent acquisition of resistance, thereby limiting transmission of drug-resistant strains of mycobacteria.

EID Loutet MG, Davidson JA, Brown T, Dedicoat M, Thomas H, Lalor MK. Acquired Resistance to Antituberculosis Drugs in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2000–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):524-533. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171362
AMA Loutet MG, Davidson JA, Brown T, et al. Acquired Resistance to Antituberculosis Drugs in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2000–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):524-533. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171362.
APA Loutet, M. G., Davidson, J. A., Brown, T., Dedicoat, M., Thomas, H., & Lalor, M. K. (2018). Acquired Resistance to Antituberculosis Drugs in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2000–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 524-533. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171362.

Characteristics Associated with Negative Interferon-γ Release Assay Results in Culture-Confirmed Tuberculosis Patients, Texas, USA, 2013–2015 [PDF - 2.00 MB - 7 pages]
D. T. Nguyen et al.

Interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) are the preferred diagnostic test for tuberculosis (TB) infection in at-risk populations in developed countries. However, IGRAs have high false-negative rates in patients with TB disease. Population-based studies assessing the factors associated with negative IGRA results in TB patients have not been performed. Using statewide TB surveillance data of culture-confirmed TB patients in Texas, USA, during 2013–2015, we describe the patient characteristics and treatment outcomes associated with false-negative IGRA results. Among 2,854 TB patients, 1,527 (53.5%) had an IGRA result; 97.4% (1,487/1,527) of those had a positive (87.7%) or negative (12.3%) result. Older age, HIV co-infection, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and being tested with T-SPOT.TB were associated with negative IGRA results. TB patients with negative IGRA results had a higher mortality, potentially due to delayed treatment. Healthcare providers should consider these risk factors when making decisions for patients with suspected TB and negative IGRA results and potentially provide treatment.

EID Nguyen DT, Teeter LD, Graves J, Graviss EA. Characteristics Associated with Negative Interferon-γ Release Assay Results in Culture-Confirmed Tuberculosis Patients, Texas, USA, 2013–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):534-540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171633
AMA Nguyen DT, Teeter LD, Graves J, et al. Characteristics Associated with Negative Interferon-γ Release Assay Results in Culture-Confirmed Tuberculosis Patients, Texas, USA, 2013–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):534-540. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171633.
APA Nguyen, D. T., Teeter, L. D., Graves, J., & Graviss, E. A. (2018). Characteristics Associated with Negative Interferon-γ Release Assay Results in Culture-Confirmed Tuberculosis Patients, Texas, USA, 2013–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 534-540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171633.

Genetic Spatiotemporal Anatomy of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Episodes in Greece, 2009–2013 [PDF - 1.50 MB - 8 pages]
G. Spanakos et al.

An influx of immigrants is contributing to the reemergence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Greece; 1 persistent focus of transmission is in Laconia, Pelopónnese. We genotyped archived blood samples from a substantial proportion of malaria cases recorded in Greece in 2009–2013 using 8 microsatellite markers and a PvMSP-3α gene fragment and plotted their spatiotemporal distribution. High parasite genetic diversity with low multiplicity of infection was observed. A subset of genetically identical/related parasites was restricted to 3 areas in migrants and Greek residents, with some persisting over 2 consecutive transmission periods. We identified 2 hitherto unsuspected additional foci of local transmission: Kardhítsa and Attica. Furthermore, this analysis indicates that several cases in migrants initially classified as imported malaria were actually locally acquired. This study shows the potential for P. vivax to reestablish transmission and counsels public health authorities about the need for vigilance to achieve or maintain sustainable malaria elimination.

EID Spanakos G, Snounou G, Pervanidou D, Alifrangis M, Rosanas-Urgell A, Baka A, et al. Genetic Spatiotemporal Anatomy of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Episodes in Greece, 2009–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):541-548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170605
AMA Spanakos G, Snounou G, Pervanidou D, et al. Genetic Spatiotemporal Anatomy of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Episodes in Greece, 2009–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):541-548. doi:10.3201/eid2403.170605.
APA Spanakos, G., Snounou, G., Pervanidou, D., Alifrangis, M., Rosanas-Urgell, A., Baka, A....Hadjichristodoulou, C. (2018). Genetic Spatiotemporal Anatomy of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Episodes in Greece, 2009–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 541-548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170605.
Dispatches

Invasive Infections Caused by Nannizziopsis spp. Molds in Immunocompromised Patients [PDF - 2.22 MB - 4 pages]
C. Nourrisson et al.

We report 2 new cases of invasive infections caused by Nannizziopsis spp. molds in France. Both patients had cerebral abscesses and were immunocompromised. Both patients had recently spent time in Africa.

EID Nourrisson C, Vidal-Roux M, Cayot S, Jacomet C, Bothorel C, Ledoux-Pilon A, et al. Invasive Infections Caused by Nannizziopsis spp. Molds in Immunocompromised Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):549-552. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170772
AMA Nourrisson C, Vidal-Roux M, Cayot S, et al. Invasive Infections Caused by Nannizziopsis spp. Molds in Immunocompromised Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):549-552. doi:10.3201/eid2403.170772.
APA Nourrisson, C., Vidal-Roux, M., Cayot, S., Jacomet, C., Bothorel, C., Ledoux-Pilon, A....Poirier, P. (2018). Invasive Infections Caused by Nannizziopsis spp. Molds in Immunocompromised Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 549-552. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170772.

Cache Valley Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes, Appalachian Region, United States [PDF - 2.29 MB - 5 pages]
F. Yang et al.

We detected Cache Valley virus in Aedes japonicus, a widely distributed invasive mosquito species, in an Appalachian forest in the United States. The forest contained abundant white-tailed deer, a major host of the mosquito and virus. Vector competence trials indicated that Ae. j. japonicus mosquitoes can transmit this virus in this region.

EID Yang F, Chan K, Marek PE, Armstrong PM, Liu P, Bova JE, et al. Cache Valley Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes, Appalachian Region, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):553-557. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.161275
AMA Yang F, Chan K, Marek PE, et al. Cache Valley Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes, Appalachian Region, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):553-557. doi:10.3201/eid2403.161275.
APA Yang, F., Chan, K., Marek, P. E., Armstrong, P. M., Liu, P., Bova, J. E....Paulson, S. L. (2018). Cache Valley Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes, Appalachian Region, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 553-557. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.161275.

Seroprevalence of Dengue and Chikungunya Virus Antibodies, French Polynesia, 2014–2015 [PDF - 1.56 MB - 4 pages]
M. Aubry et al.

We investigated dengue and chikungunya virus antibody seroprevalence in French Polynesia during 2014–2015. Dengue virus seroprevalence was ≈60% among schoolchildren and >83% among the general population; chikungunya virus seroprevalence was <3% before and 76% after Zika virus emergence (2013). Dengue virus herd immunity may affect Zika virus infection and pathogenesis.

EID Aubry M, Teissier A, Huart M, Merceron S, Vanhomwegen J, Mapotoeke M, et al. Seroprevalence of Dengue and Chikungunya Virus Antibodies, French Polynesia, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):558-561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171149
AMA Aubry M, Teissier A, Huart M, et al. Seroprevalence of Dengue and Chikungunya Virus Antibodies, French Polynesia, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):558-561. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171149.
APA Aubry, M., Teissier, A., Huart, M., Merceron, S., Vanhomwegen, J., Mapotoeke, M....Cao-Lormeau, V. (2018). Seroprevalence of Dengue and Chikungunya Virus Antibodies, French Polynesia, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 558-561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171149.

Molecular and Epidemiologic Analysis of Reemergent Salmonella enterica Serovar Napoli, Italy, 2011–2015 [PDF - 972 KB - 4 pages]
M. Sabbatucci et al.

Human infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli are uncommon in Europe. However, these infections represented 5.9% of salmonellosis cases in Italy during 2014–2015. The source of infection is unknown. We analyzed surveillance data and compared strain genetic similarities and found that contaminated vegetables and surface water are probable sources of human infection.

EID Sabbatucci M, Dionisi A, Pezzotti P, Lucarelli C, Barco L, Mancin M, et al. Molecular and Epidemiologic Analysis of Reemergent Salmonella enterica Serovar Napoli, Italy, 2011–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):562-565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171178
AMA Sabbatucci M, Dionisi A, Pezzotti P, et al. Molecular and Epidemiologic Analysis of Reemergent Salmonella enterica Serovar Napoli, Italy, 2011–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):562-565. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171178.
APA Sabbatucci, M., Dionisi, A., Pezzotti, P., Lucarelli, C., Barco, L., Mancin, M....Luzzi, I. (2018). Molecular and Epidemiologic Analysis of Reemergent Salmonella enterica Serovar Napoli, Italy, 2011–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 562-565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171178.

Increase in Hospital Admissions for Severe Influenza A/B among Travelers on Cruise Ships to Alaska, 2015 [PDF - 1.84 MB - 3 pages]
M. Payne et al.

An increase in hospital admissions for influenza occurred during the summer of 2015 at an acute care facility in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Investigation identified 25 patients with recent history of cruise ship travel to Alaska. All characterized influenza A viruses were A(H3N2). We describe patient treatment regimens and outcomes.

EID Payne M, Skowronski D, Sabaiduc S, Merrick L, Lowe C. Increase in Hospital Admissions for Severe Influenza A/B among Travelers on Cruise Ships to Alaska, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):566-568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171378
AMA Payne M, Skowronski D, Sabaiduc S, et al. Increase in Hospital Admissions for Severe Influenza A/B among Travelers on Cruise Ships to Alaska, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):566-568. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171378.
APA Payne, M., Skowronski, D., Sabaiduc, S., Merrick, L., & Lowe, C. (2018). Increase in Hospital Admissions for Severe Influenza A/B among Travelers on Cruise Ships to Alaska, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 566-568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171378.

Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Rural Setting, Angola [PDF - 1.57 MB - 4 pages]
A. Rando-Segura et al.

We found high prevalence rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among retreatment patients (71.1%) and persons with new cases (8.0%) in Angola. These findings are of concern but should be interpreted with caution. A national drug-resistance survey is urgently needed to determine the actual prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Angola.

EID Rando-Segura A, Aznar M, Moreno M, Espasa M, Sulleiro E, Bocanegra C, et al. Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Rural Setting, Angola. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):569-572. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171562
AMA Rando-Segura A, Aznar M, Moreno M, et al. Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Rural Setting, Angola. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):569-572. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171562.
APA Rando-Segura, A., Aznar, M., Moreno, M., Espasa, M., Sulleiro, E., Bocanegra, C....Tórtola, M. (2018). Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Rural Setting, Angola. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 569-572. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171562.

Statistical Method to Detect Tuberculosis Outbreaks among Endemic Clusters in a Low-Incidence Setting [PDF - 508 KB - 3 pages]
S. P. Althomsons et al.

We previously reported use of genotype surveillance data to predict outbreaks among incident tuberculosis clusters. We propose a method to detect possible outbreaks among endemic tuberculosis clusters. We detected 15 possible outbreaks, of which 10 had epidemiologic data or whole-genome sequencing results. Eight outbreaks were corroborated.

EID Althomsons SP, Hill AN, Harrist AV, France A, Powell KM, Posey JE, et al. Statistical Method to Detect Tuberculosis Outbreaks among Endemic Clusters in a Low-Incidence Setting. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):573-575. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171613
AMA Althomsons SP, Hill AN, Harrist AV, et al. Statistical Method to Detect Tuberculosis Outbreaks among Endemic Clusters in a Low-Incidence Setting. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):573-575. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171613.
APA Althomsons, S. P., Hill, A. N., Harrist, A. V., France, A., Powell, K. M., Posey, J. E....Navin, T. R. (2018). Statistical Method to Detect Tuberculosis Outbreaks among Endemic Clusters in a Low-Incidence Setting. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 573-575. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171613.

Global Health Estimate of Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections Associated with Heater–Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery [PDF - 617 KB - 3 pages]
R. Sommerstein et al.

Investigations of a worldwide epidemic of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera associated with heater–cooler devices in cardiac surgery have been hampered by low clinical awareness and challenging diagnoses. Using data from Switzerland, we estimated the burden of invasive M. chimaera to be 156–282 cases/year in 10 major cardiac valve replacement market countries.

EID Sommerstein R, Hasse B, Marschall J, Sax H, Genoni M, Schlegel M, et al. Global Health Estimate of Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections Associated with Heater–Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):576-578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171554
AMA Sommerstein R, Hasse B, Marschall J, et al. Global Health Estimate of Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections Associated with Heater–Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):576-578. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171554.
APA Sommerstein, R., Hasse, B., Marschall, J., Sax, H., Genoni, M., Schlegel, M....Widmer, A. F. (2018). Global Health Estimate of Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections Associated with Heater–Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 576-578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171554.

Whole-Genome Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Patients with Tuberculous Spondylitis, Russia [PDF - 1.80 MB - 5 pages]
E. Chernyaeva et al.

Whole-genome analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected in Russia (N = 71) from patients with tuberculous spondylitis supports a detailed characterization of pathogen strain distributions and drug resistance phenotype, plus distinguished occurrence and association of known resistance mutations. We identify known and novel genome determinants related to bacterial virulence, pathogenicity, and drug resistance.

EID Chernyaeva E, Rotkevich M, Krasheninnikova K, Yurchenko A, Vyazovaya A, Mokrousov I, et al. Whole-Genome Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Patients with Tuberculous Spondylitis, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):579-583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170151
AMA Chernyaeva E, Rotkevich M, Krasheninnikova K, et al. Whole-Genome Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Patients with Tuberculous Spondylitis, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):579-583. doi:10.3201/eid2403.170151.
APA Chernyaeva, E., Rotkevich, M., Krasheninnikova, K., Yurchenko, A., Vyazovaya, A., Mokrousov, I....O’Brien, S. J. (2018). Whole-Genome Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Patients with Tuberculous Spondylitis, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 579-583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170151.

Artificial Differences in Clostridium difficile Infection Rates Associated with Disparity in Testing [PDF - 1.06 MB - 4 pages]
M. Kamboj et al.

In 2015, Clostridium difficile testing rates among 30 US community, multispecialty, and cancer hospitals were 14.0, 16.3, and 33.9/1,000 patient-days, respectively. Pooled hospital onset rates were 0.56, 0.84, and 1.57/1,000 patient-days, respectively. Higher testing rates may artificially inflate reported rates of C. difficile infection. C. difficile surveillance should consider testing frequency.

EID Kamboj M, Brite J, Aslam A, Kennington J, Babady N, Calfee D, et al. Artificial Differences in Clostridium difficile Infection Rates Associated with Disparity in Testing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):584-587. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170961
AMA Kamboj M, Brite J, Aslam A, et al. Artificial Differences in Clostridium difficile Infection Rates Associated with Disparity in Testing. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):584-587. doi:10.3201/eid2403.170961.
APA Kamboj, M., Brite, J., Aslam, A., Kennington, J., Babady, N., Calfee, D....Sepkowitz, K. (2018). Artificial Differences in Clostridium difficile Infection Rates Associated with Disparity in Testing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 584-587. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170961.

Severe Pneumonia Caused by Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection, Japan [PDF - 1.34 MB - 4 pages]
I. Yasuda et al.

Corynebacterium ulcerans infection was recently recognized as a zoonosis. We present 2 cases of severe pneumonia complicated by diffuse pseudomembrane formation on the bronchus caused by C. ulcerans–producing diphtheria toxin. Our purpose is to alert medical professionals to the virulence of Corynebacterium species other than C. diphtheriae.

EID Yasuda I, Matsuyama H, Ishifuji T, Yamashita Y, Takaki M, Morimoto K, et al. Severe Pneumonia Caused by Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):588-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171837
AMA Yasuda I, Matsuyama H, Ishifuji T, et al. Severe Pneumonia Caused by Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):588-591. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171837.
APA Yasuda, I., Matsuyama, H., Ishifuji, T., Yamashita, Y., Takaki, M., Morimoto, K....Tanaka, T. (2018). Severe Pneumonia Caused by Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 588-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171837.
Research Letters

Delftia tsuruhatensis, an Emergent Opportunistic Healthcare-Associated Pathogen [PDF - 308 KB - 3 pages]
A. Ranc et al.

Delftia tsuruhatensis, which was first isolated in environmental samples, was rarely associated with human infections. We report on pneumonia caused by D. tsuruhatensis in an infant who underwent cardiac surgery. Retrospective analyses detected 9 other isolates from 8 patients. D. tsuruhatensis is an emergent pathogen, at least for immunocompromised patients.

EID Ranc A, Dubourg G, Fournier P, Raoult D, Fenollar F. Delftia tsuruhatensis, an Emergent Opportunistic Healthcare-Associated Pathogen. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):594-596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.160939
AMA Ranc A, Dubourg G, Fournier P, et al. Delftia tsuruhatensis, an Emergent Opportunistic Healthcare-Associated Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):594-596. doi:10.3201/eid2403.160939.
APA Ranc, A., Dubourg, G., Fournier, P., Raoult, D., & Fenollar, F. (2018). Delftia tsuruhatensis, an Emergent Opportunistic Healthcare-Associated Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 594-596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.160939.

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in a Domestic Rabbit, Germany [PDF - 800 KB - 2 pages]
D. Klotz et al.

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an opportunistic pathogen present in soil and dust. We report M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection found in a domestic rabbit in Hannover, Germany, in May 2017.

EID Klotz D, Barth SA, Baumgärtner W, Hewicker-Trautwein M. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in a Domestic Rabbit, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):596-598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171692
AMA Klotz D, Barth SA, Baumgärtner W, et al. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in a Domestic Rabbit, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):596-598. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171692.
APA Klotz, D., Barth, S. A., Baumgärtner, W., & Hewicker-Trautwein, M. (2018). Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in a Domestic Rabbit, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 596-598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171692.

Acetobacter indonesiensis Pneumonia after Lung Transplantation [PDF - 313 KB - 2 pages]
S. S. Basu et al.

We report a case of Acetobacter indonesiensis pneumonia in a 51-year-old woman after bilateral lung transplantation. We found 2 other A. indonesiensis pneumonia cases reported in the literature. All 3 cases involved complex patients exposed to broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs, suggesting that this pathogen may be opportunistic and highly drug-resistant.

EID Basu SS, Delaney ML, Li N, Onderdonk A, Bry L. Acetobacter indonesiensis Pneumonia after Lung Transplantation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):598-599. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170409
AMA Basu SS, Delaney ML, Li N, et al. Acetobacter indonesiensis Pneumonia after Lung Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):598-599. doi:10.3201/eid2403.170409.
APA Basu, S. S., Delaney, M. L., Li, N., Onderdonk, A., & Bry, L. (2018). Acetobacter indonesiensis Pneumonia after Lung Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 598-599. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170409.

New Lineage of Lassa Virus, Togo, 2016 [PDF - 522 KB - 4 pages]
S. Whitmer et al.

We describe a strain of Lassa virus representing a putative new lineage that was isolated from a cluster of human infections with an epidemiologic link to Togo. This finding extends the known range of Lassa virus to Togo.

EID Whitmer S, Strecker T, Cadar D, Dienes H, Faber K, Patel K, et al. New Lineage of Lassa Virus, Togo, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):599-602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171905
AMA Whitmer S, Strecker T, Cadar D, et al. New Lineage of Lassa Virus, Togo, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):599-602. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171905.
APA Whitmer, S., Strecker, T., Cadar, D., Dienes, H., Faber, K., Patel, K....Günther, S. (2018). New Lineage of Lassa Virus, Togo, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 599-602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171905.

Evidence for Previously Unidentified Sexual Transmission of Protozoan Parasites [PDF - 293 KB - 2 pages]
C. Crespillo-Andujar et al.

Knowing the mode of transmission of a disease can affect its control and prevention. Here, we identify 5 protozoan parasites with demonstrated presence in seminal fluid, only 1 of which has been identified as a sexually transmitted disease among humans.

EID Crespillo-Andujar C, Díaz-Menéndez M, Mora-Rillo M. Evidence for Previously Unidentified Sexual Transmission of Protozoan Parasites. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):602-603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171838
AMA Crespillo-Andujar C, Díaz-Menéndez M, Mora-Rillo M. Evidence for Previously Unidentified Sexual Transmission of Protozoan Parasites. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):602-603. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171838.
APA Crespillo-Andujar, C., Díaz-Menéndez, M., & Mora-Rillo, M. (2018). Evidence for Previously Unidentified Sexual Transmission of Protozoan Parasites. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 602-603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171838.

Introduction of the Anopheles bancroftii Mosquito, a Malaria Vector, into New Caledonia [PDF - 392 KB - 2 pages]
M. Pol et al.

In June 2017, an Anopheles mosquito species was detected in New Caledonia. Morphologic identification and genomic sequencing revealed that the specimens tested belong to An. bancroftii genotype A1. This introduction underscores the risk for local malaria transmission and the vulnerability of New Caledonia to vector introduction.

EID Pol M, Kilama S, Duperier S, Soupé-Gilbert M, Calvez E, Pocquet N. Introduction of the Anopheles bancroftii Mosquito, a Malaria Vector, into New Caledonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):604-605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171689
AMA Pol M, Kilama S, Duperier S, et al. Introduction of the Anopheles bancroftii Mosquito, a Malaria Vector, into New Caledonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):604-605. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171689.
APA Pol, M., Kilama, S., Duperier, S., Soupé-Gilbert, M., Calvez, E., & Pocquet, N. (2018). Introduction of the Anopheles bancroftii Mosquito, a Malaria Vector, into New Caledonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 604-605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171689.

Fishborne Zoonotic Trematodes Transmitted by Melanoides tuberculata Snails, Peru [PDF - 2.13 MB - 3 pages]
E. A. Pulido-Murillo et al.

We investigated the transmission of the fishborne trematodes Centrocestus formosanus and Haplorchis pumilio by Melanoides tuberculata snails in Peru. We report on results of experimental, morphological, and molecular approaches and discuss the potential risk for future human cases, given the existence of food habits in the country involving the ingestion of raw fish.

EID Pulido-Murillo EA, Furtado LV, Melo AL, Rabelo É, Pinto HA. Fishborne Zoonotic Trematodes Transmitted by Melanoides tuberculata Snails, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):606-608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.172056
AMA Pulido-Murillo EA, Furtado LV, Melo AL, et al. Fishborne Zoonotic Trematodes Transmitted by Melanoides tuberculata Snails, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):606-608. doi:10.3201/eid2403.172056.
APA Pulido-Murillo, E. A., Furtado, L. V., Melo, A. L., Rabelo, É., & Pinto, H. A. (2018). Fishborne Zoonotic Trematodes Transmitted by Melanoides tuberculata Snails, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 606-608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.172056.
Letters

Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada, 2017 [PDF - 273 KB - 1 page]
A. R. Katz
EID Katz AR. Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171892
AMA Katz AR. Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):608. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171892.
APA Katz, A. R. (2018). Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171892.
Another Dimension

Tuberculosis—the Face of Struggles, the Struggles We Face, and the Dreams That Lie Within [PDF - 1.25 MB - 2 pages]
P. K. Moonan
EID Moonan PK. Tuberculosis—the Face of Struggles, the Struggles We Face, and the Dreams That Lie Within. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):592-593. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170128
AMA Moonan PK. Tuberculosis—the Face of Struggles, the Struggles We Face, and the Dreams That Lie Within. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):592-593. doi:10.3201/eid2403.170128.
APA Moonan, P. K. (2018). Tuberculosis—the Face of Struggles, the Struggles We Face, and the Dreams That Lie Within. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 592-593. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.170128.
Books and Media

Paleomicrobiology of Humans [PDF - 516 KB - 1 page]
C. E. Carr
EID Carr CE. Paleomicrobiology of Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171908
AMA Carr CE. Paleomicrobiology of Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):609. doi:10.3201/eid2403.171908.
APA Carr, C. E. (2018). Paleomicrobiology of Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.171908.
About the Cover

Peace, Liberty, Mycobacteria, and Tuberculosis Mortality [PDF - 1.27 MB - 2 pages]
T. Chorba
EID Chorba T. Peace, Liberty, Mycobacteria, and Tuberculosis Mortality. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):611-612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.ac2403
AMA Chorba T. Peace, Liberty, Mycobacteria, and Tuberculosis Mortality. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):611-612. doi:10.3201/eid2403.ac2403.
APA Chorba, T. (2018). Peace, Liberty, Mycobacteria, and Tuberculosis Mortality. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 611-612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.ac2403.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Rifampin [PDF - 439 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry
EID Henry R. Etymologia: Rifampin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.et2403
AMA Henry R. Etymologia: Rifampin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):523. doi:10.3201/eid2403.et2403.
APA Henry, R. (2018). Etymologia: Rifampin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.et2403.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 24, No. 1 [PDF - 866 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 24, No. 1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(3):610. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.c12403
AMA Correction: Vol. 24, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(3):610. doi:10.3201/eid2403.c12403.
APA (2018). Correction: Vol. 24, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 610. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2403.c12403.
Page created: March 05, 2018
Page updated: March 05, 2018
Page reviewed: March 05, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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