Volume 24, Number 4—April 2018
Emerging Coxsackievirus A6 Causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, Vietnam
- Xing W, Liao Q, Viboud C, Zhang J, Sun J, Wu JT, et al. Hand, foot, and mouth disease in China, 2008-12: an epidemiological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:308–18.
- Khanh TH, Sabanathan S, Thanh TT, Thoa PK, Thuong TC, Hang V, et al. Enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease, Southern Vietnam, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:2002–5.
- Bian L, Wang Y, Yao X, Mao Q, Xu M, Liang Z. Coxsackievirus A6: a new emerging pathogen causing hand, foot and mouth disease outbreaks worldwide. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2015;13:1061–71.
- Oberste MS, Peñaranda S, Maher K, Pallansch MA. Complete genome sequences of all members of the species Human enterovirus A. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1597–607.
- Ogi M, Yano Y, Chikahira M, Takai D, Oshibe T, Arashiro T, et al. Characterization of genome sequences and clinical features of coxsackievirus A6 strains collected in Hyogo, Japan in 1999-2013. J Med Virol. 2017;89:1395–403.
- Puenpa J, Chieochansin T, Linsuwanon P, Korkong S, Thongkomplew S, Vichaiwattana P, et al. Hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, Thailand, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:641–3.
- He SZ, Chen MY, Xu XR, Yan Q, Niu JJ, Wu WH, et al. Epidemics and aetiology of hand, foot and mouth disease in Xiamen, China, from 2008 to 2015. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:1865–74.
- Montes M, Artieda J, Piñeiro LD, Gastesi M, Diez-Nieves I, Cilla G. Hand, foot, and mouth disease outbreak and coxsackievirus A6, northern Spain, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19.
- Fujimoto T, Iizuka S, Enomoto M, Abe K, Yamashita K, Hanaoka N, et al. Hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, Japan, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:337–9.
- Österback R, Vuorinen T, Linna M, Susi P, Hyypiä T, Waris M. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1485–8.
- Brown BA, Oberste MS, Alexander JP Jr, Kennett ML, Pallansch MA. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of enterovirus 71 strains isolated from 1970 to 1998. J Virol. 1999;73:9969–75.
- Lu J, Zeng H, Zheng H, Yi L, Guo X, Liu L, et al. Hand, foot and mouth disease in Guangdong, China, in 2013: new trends in the continuing epidemic. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20:O442–5.
- Mao Q, Wang Y, Bian L, Xu M, Liang Z. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016;5:e75.
- Ku Z, Liu Q, Ye X, Cai Y, Wang X, Shi J, et al. A virus-like particle based bivalent vaccine confers dual protection against enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 infections in mice. Vaccine. 2014;32:4296–303.
- Li J, Liu G, Liu X, Yang J, Chang J, Zhang W, et al. Optimization and characterization of candidate strain for Coxsackievirus A16 inactivated vaccine. Viruses. 2015;7:3891–909.
- Caine EA, Fuchs J, Das SC, Partidos CD, Osorio JE. Efficacy of a trivalent hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccine against enterovirus 71 and coxsackieviruses A16 and A6 in mice. Viruses. 2015;7:5919–32.
- Puenpa J, Vongpunsawad S, Österback R, Waris M, Eriksson E, Albert J, et al. Molecular epidemiology and the evolution of human coxsackievirus A6. J Gen Virol. 2016;97:3225–31.
- Mirand A, le Sage FV, Pereira B, Cohen R, Levy C, Archimbaud C, et al. Ambulatory pediatric surveillance of hand, foot and mouth disease as signal of an outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 infections, France, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:1884–93.
- Tan X, Li L, Zhang B, Jorba J, Su X, Ji T, et al. Molecular epidemiology of coxsackievirus A6 associated with outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Tianjin, China, in 2013. Arch Virol. 2015;160:1097–104.
- Geoghegan JL, Tan V, Kühnert D, Halpin RA, Lin X, Simenauer A, et al. Phylodynamics of enterovirus A71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in Viet Nam. J Virol. 2015;89:8871–9.
- Nguyen AT, Tran TT, Hoang VM, Nghiem NM, Le NN, Le TT, et al. Development and evaluation of a non-ribosomal random PCR and next-generation sequencing based assay for detection and sequencing of hand, foot and mouth disease pathogens. Virol J. 2016;13:125.
- Edgar RC. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:1792–7.
- Nguyen LT, Schmidt HA, von Haeseler A, Minh BQ. IQ-TREE: a fast and effective stochastic algorithm for estimating maximum-likelihood phylogenies. Mol Biol Evol. 2015;32:268–74.
- Lanave C, Preparata G, Saccone C, Serio G. A new method for calculating evolutionary substitution rates. J Mol Evol. 1984;20:86–93.
- Tamura K, Nei M. Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees. Mol Biol Evol. 1993;10:512–26.
- Yang F, Yuan J, Wang X, Li J, Du J, Su H, et al. Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease and coxsackievirus A6-Shenzhen, China. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:1504–5.
- Tee KK, Lam TT, Chan YF, Bible JM, Kamarulzaman A, Tong CY, et al. Evolutionary genetics of human enterovirus 71: origin, population dynamics, natural selection, and seasonal periodicity of the VP1 gene. J Virol. 2010;84:3339–50.
- Chang LY, Tsao KC, Hsia SH, Shih SR, Huang CG, Chan WK, et al. Transmission and clinical features of enterovirus 71 infections in household contacts in Taiwan. JAMA. 2004;291:222–7.
- Xu L, Zheng Q, Li S, He M, Wu Y, Li Y, et al. Atomic structures of Coxsackievirus A6 and its complex with a neutralizing antibody. Nat Commun. 2017;8:505.
Page created: March 16, 2018
Page updated: March 16, 2018
Page reviewed: March 16, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.