Figure. The 4 epidemiologic cycles of African swine fever and main transmission agents. 1) Sylvatic cycle: the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanuus), bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus), and soft ticks of Ornithodoros spp. The role of the bushpig in the sylvatic cycle remains unclear. 2) The tick–pig cycle: soft ticks and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus). 3) The domestic cycle: domestic pigs and pig-derived products (pork, blood, fat, lard, bones, bone marrow, hides). 4) The wild boar–habitat cycle: wild boar (S. scrofa), pig- and wild boar–derived products and carcasses, and the habitat.