Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 24, Number 5—May 2018
Perspective

History of Mosquitoborne Diseases in the United States and Implications for New Pathogens

Max J. Moreno-MadriñánComments to Author  and Michael Turell
Author affiliations: Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA (M.J. Moreno-Madriñán); VectorID LLC, Frederick, Maryland, USA (M. Turell)

Main Article

Figure

Outbreaks of yellow fever reported during 1693–1905 among cities comprising part of present-day United States. Because deaths from yellow fever were often not recorded, or only referred to as “a significant portion of the population” and thus not accounted for here, the numbers presented in this figure represent a minimum for the cities cited (4,6–8).

Figure. Outbreaks of yellow fever reported during 1693–1905 among cities comprising part of present-day United States. Because deaths from yellow fever were often not recorded, or only referred to as “a significant portion of the population” and thus not accounted for here, the numbers presented in this figure represent a minimum for the cities cited (4,68).

Main Article

References
  1. Takken  W, Knols  BG, editors. Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe, vol. 1. Wageningen (the Netherlands): Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2007.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Final cumulative maps and data for 1999–2015 [cited 2016 Jul 15]. https://www.cdc.gov/westnile/statsmaps/cumMapsData.html
  3. Lindsey  NP, Lehman  JA, Staples  JE, Fischer  M; Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC. West nile virus and other arboviral diseases - United States, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:5216.PubMed
  4. Patterson  KD. Yellow fever epidemics and mortality in the United States, 1693-1905. Soc Sci Med. 1992;34:85565. DOIPubMed
  5. Kakkilaya  BS. Malaria in wars and victims [cited 2015 May 23]. http://www.malariasite.com/tag/civil-war
  6. Kottek  M, Grieser  J, Beck  C, Rudolf  B, Rubel  F. World map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorol Z. 2006;15:25963. DOI
  7. Brathwaite Dick  O, San Martín  JL, Montoya  RH, del Diego  J, Zambrano  B, Dayan  GH. The history of dengue outbreaks in the Americas. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:58493. DOIPubMed
  8. Yalcindag  E, Elguero  E, Arnathau  C, Durand  P, Akiana  J, Anderson  TJ, et al. Multiple independent introductions of Plasmodium falciparum in South America. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5116. DOIPubMed
  9. Arnebeck  B. A short history of yellow fever in the US [cited 2016 Apr 11]. http://bobarnebeck.com/history.html
  10. Curtis  RB. A history of mosquitoes in Massachusetts [cited 2016 May 23]. http://www.nmca.org/Nmca93-4.htm
  11. Harden  FW, Hepburn  HR, Ethridge  B. A history of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in Mississippi 1699–1965. Mosq News. 1967;27:606.
  12. Jobin  W. How did USA get rid of malaria? [cited 2016 Apr 12]. https://malariaworld.org/blog/how-did-usa-get-rid-malaria
  13. Humphreys  M. Water won’t run uphill: the New Deal and malaria control in the American South, 1933-1940. Parassitologia. 1998;40:18391.PubMed
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Elimination of malaria in the United States (1947–1951) [cited 2016 Apr 12]. http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/history/elimination_us.html
  15. Filler  SJ, MacArthur  JR, Parise  M, Wirtz  R, Eliades  MJ, Dasilva  A, et al.; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Locally acquired mosquito-transmitted malaria: a guide for investigations in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55(RR-13):19.PubMed
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Malaria facts [cited 2017 Jul 7]. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/facts.html
  17. Arnold  JN, editor. Narragansett historical register: early owners of land in West Greenwich, RI. Hamilton (Rhode Island): Narragansett Historical Publishing Company; 1884. p. 136–8 [cited 2016 May 28]. https://archive.org/details/narragansetthistv3rhod
  18. Crosby  MC. The American plague: the untold story of yellow fever, the epidemic that shaped our history. New York: Penguin; 2007.
  19. Nelson  B, Morrison  S, Joseph  H, Wojno  A, Lash  RR, Haber  Y, et al. Travel volume to the United States from countries and US territories with local Zika virus transmission. PLoS Curr. 2016;8:ecurrents.outbreaks.ac6d0f8c9c35e88825c1a1147697531c. PMID: 27990321
  20. Capanna  E. Grassi versus Ross: who solved the riddle of malaria? Int Microbiol. 2006;9:6974.PubMed
  21. McCullough  D. The path between the seas: the creation of the Panama Canal, 1870–1914. New York: Simon and Schuster; 2001.
  22. Pinheiro  FP, Corber  SJ. Global situation of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever, and its emergence in the Americas. World Health Stat Q. 1997;50:1619.PubMed
  23. Radke  EG, Gregory  CJ, Kintziger  KW, Sauber-Schatz  EK, Hunsperger  EA, Gallagher  GR, et al. Dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, USA, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1357. DOIPubMed
  24. Adalja  AA, Sell  TK, Bouri  N, Franco  C. Lessons learned during dengue outbreaks in the United States, 2001-2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:60814. DOIPubMed
  25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chikungunya virus in the United States [cited 2018 Feb 20]. https://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/geo/united-states.html
  26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Zika cases in the United States. Cumulative Zika virus diseases case counts in the United States, 2015–2017 [cited 2018 Feb 20]. https://www.cdc.gov/zika/reporting/case-counts.html
  27. Ramos  MM, Mohammed  H, Zielinski-Gutierrez  E, Hayden  MH, Lopez  JL, Fournier  M, et al.; Dengue Serosurvey Working Group. Epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever at the Texas-Mexico border: results of a household-based seroepidemiologic survey, December 2005. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:3649.PubMed
  28. Reiter  P, Lathrop  S, Bunning  M, Biggerstaff  B, Singer  D, Tiwari  T, et al. Texas lifestyle limits transmission of dengue virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:869. DOIPubMed
  29. Moreno-Madriñán  MJ, Turell  M. Factors of concern regarding Zika and other Aedes aegypti–transmitted viruses in the United States. J Med Entomol. 2017;54:2517.PubMed
  30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Eastern equine encephalitis [cited 2017 Aug 3]. https://www.cdc.gov/EasternEquineEncephalitis
  31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. La Crosse encephalitis [cited 2017 Aug 3]. https://www.cdc.gov/lac/index.html
  32. Lanciotti  RS, Roehrig  JT, Deubel  V, Smith  J, Parker  M, Steele  K, et al. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science. 1999;286:23337. DOIPubMed
  33. Reisen  WK. Ecology of West Nile virus in North America. Viruses. 2013;5:2079105. DOIPubMed
  34. Hayes  EB, Komar  N, Nasci  RS, Montgomery  SP, O’Leary  DR, Campbell  GL. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:116773. DOIPubMed
  35. Pan American Health Organization. Geographic spread of chikungunya in the Americas, 2013–2017 [cited 2017 Aug 3]. http://ais.paho.org/phip/viz/ed_chikungunya_amro.asp
  36. Pan American Health Organization. Zika cumulative cases [cited 2017 Aug 3]. http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12390&Itemid=42090&lang=en
  37. Chouin-Carneiro  T, Vega-Rua  A, Vazeille  M, Yebakima  A, Girod  R, Goindin  D, et al. Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0004543. DOIPubMed
  38. Ciota  AT, Bialosuknia  SM, Zink  SD, Brecher  M, Ehrbar  DJ, Morrissette  MN, et al. Effects of Zika virus strain and Aedes mosquito species on vector competence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:11107. DOIPubMed
  39. Turell  MJ, Beaman  JR, Tammariello  RF. Susceptibility of selected strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) to chikungunya virus. J Med Entomol. 1992;29:4953. DOIPubMed
  40. Delatte  H, Paupy  C, Dehecq  JS, Thiria  J, Failloux  AB, Fontenille  D. [Aedes albopictus, vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses in Reunion Island: biology and control] [in French]. Parasite. 2008;15:313. DOIPubMed
  41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. First chikungunya case acquired in the United States reported in Florida [cited 2017 Jul 7]. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/p0717-chikungunya.html
  42. Lazear  HM, Diamond  MS. Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the western hemisphere. J Virol. 2016;90:486475. DOIPubMed
  43. Kindhauser  MK, Allen  T, Frank  V, Santhana  RS, Dye  C. Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus. Bull World Health Organ. 2016;94:675686C. DOIPubMed
  44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Transmission and risks [cited 2017 Jul 7]. https://www.cdc.gov/zika/transmission/index.html
  45. Foy  BD, Kobylinski  KC, Chilson Foy  JL, Blitvich  BJ, Travassos da Rosa  A, Haddow  AD, et al. Probable non-vector-borne transmission of Zika virus, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:8802. DOIPubMed
  46. Likos  A, Griffin  I, Bingham  AM, Stanek  D, Fischer  M, White  S, et al. Local Mosquito-Borne Transmission of Zika Virus - Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida, June-August 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65:10328. DOIPubMed
  47. Grubaugh  ND, Ladner  JT, Kraemer  MUG, Dudas  G, Tan  AL, Gangavarapu  K, et al. Genomic epidemiology reveals multiple introductions of Zika virus into the United States. Nature. 2017;546:4015. DOIPubMed
  48. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Advice for people living or traveling to Brownsville, Texas [cited 2017 Aug 8]. https://www.cdc.gov/zika/intheus/texas-update.html

Main Article

Page created: April 17, 2018
Page updated: April 17, 2018
Page reviewed: April 17, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external