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Issue Cover for Volume 24, Number 5—May 2018

Volume 24, Number 5—May 2018

[PDF - 7.74 MB - 152 pages]

Perspective

History of Mosquitoborne Diseases in the United States and Implications for New Pathogens [PDF - 1.32 MB - 6 pages]
M. J. Moreno-Madriñán and M. Turell

The introduction and spread of West Nile virus and the recent introduction of chikungunya and Zika viruses into the Americas have raised concern about the potential for various tropical pathogens to become established in North America. A historical analysis of yellow fever and malaria incidences in the United States suggests that it is not merely a temperate climate that keeps these pathogens from becoming established. Instead, socioeconomic changes are the most likely explanation for why these pathogens essentially disappeared from the United States yet remain a problem in tropical areas. In contrast to these anthroponotic pathogens that require humans in their transmission cycle, zoonotic pathogens are only slightly affected by socioeconomic factors, which is why West Nile virus became established in North America. In light of increasing globalization, we need to be concerned about the introduction of pathogens such as Rift Valley fever, Japanese encephalitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses.

EID Moreno-Madriñán MJ, Turell M. History of Mosquitoborne Diseases in the United States and Implications for New Pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):821-826. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171609
AMA Moreno-Madriñán MJ, Turell M. History of Mosquitoborne Diseases in the United States and Implications for New Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):821-826. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171609.
APA Moreno-Madriñán, M. J., & Turell, M. (2018). History of Mosquitoborne Diseases in the United States and Implications for New Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 821-826. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171609.
Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Surveillance for Mosquitoborne Transmission of Zika Virus, New York City, NY, USA, 2016 [PDF - 955 KB - 8 pages]
A. Wahnich et al.

A large number of imported cases of Zika virus infection and the potential for transmission by Aedes albopictus mosquitoes prompted the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to conduct sentinel, enhanced passive, and syndromic surveillance for locally acquired mosquitoborne Zika virus infections in New York City, NY, USA, during June–October 2016. Suspected case-patients were those >5 years of age without a travel history or sexual exposure who had >3 compatible signs/symptoms (arthralgia, fever, conjunctivitis, or rash). We identified 15 suspected cases and tested urine samples for Zika virus by using real-time reverse transcription PCR; all results were negative. We identified 308 emergency department visits for Zika-like illness, 40,073 visits for fever, and 17 unique spatiotemporal clusters of visits for fever. We identified no evidence of local transmission. Our experience offers possible surveillance tools for jurisdictions concerned about local mosquitoborne Zika virus or other arboviral transmission.

EID Wahnich A, Clark S, Bloch D, Kubinson H, Hrusa G, Liu D, et al. Surveillance for Mosquitoborne Transmission of Zika Virus, New York City, NY, USA, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):827-834. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.170764
AMA Wahnich A, Clark S, Bloch D, et al. Surveillance for Mosquitoborne Transmission of Zika Virus, New York City, NY, USA, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):827-834. doi:10.3201/eid2405.170764.
APA Wahnich, A., Clark, S., Bloch, D., Kubinson, H., Hrusa, G., Liu, D....Conners, E. E. (2018). Surveillance for Mosquitoborne Transmission of Zika Virus, New York City, NY, USA, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 827-834. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.170764.

Medscape CME Activity
Two Cases of Israeli Spotted Fever with Purpura Fulminans, Sharon District, Israel [PDF - 980 KB - 6 pages]
R. Cohen et al.

We report a series of 5 case-patients who had Israeli spotted fever, of whom 2 had purpura fulminans and died. Four case-patients were given a diagnosis on the basis of PCR of skin biopsy specimens 3–4 days after treatment with doxycycline; 1 case-patient was given a diagnosis on the basis of seroconversion. Rickettsia spp. from the 2 case-patients who died were sequenced and identified as Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis. Purpura fulminans has been described in association with R. rickettsii and R. indica, but rarely with R. conorii subsp. israelensis.

EID Cohen R, Babushkin F, Shapiro M, Uda M, Atiya-Nasagi Y, Klein D, et al. Two Cases of Israeli Spotted Fever with Purpura Fulminans, Sharon District, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):835-840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171992
AMA Cohen R, Babushkin F, Shapiro M, et al. Two Cases of Israeli Spotted Fever with Purpura Fulminans, Sharon District, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):835-840. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171992.
APA Cohen, R., Babushkin, F., Shapiro, M., Uda, M., Atiya-Nasagi, Y., Klein, D....Finn, T. (2018). Two Cases of Israeli Spotted Fever with Purpura Fulminans, Sharon District, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 835-840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171992.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Invasive Bacterial Infections in Hospitalized Children, Cambodia, 2007–2016 [PDF - 898 KB - 11 pages]
A. Fox-Lewis et al.

To determine trends, mortality rates, and costs of antimicrobial resistance in invasive bacterial infections in hospitalized children, we analyzed data from Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, for 2007–2016. A total of 39,050 cultures yielded 1,341 target pathogens. Resistance rates were high; 82% each of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were multidrug resistant. Hospital-acquired isolates were more often resistant than community-acquired isolates; resistance trends over time were heterogeneous. K. pneumoniae isolates from neonates were more likely than those from nonneonates to be resistant to ampicillin–gentamicin and third-generation cephalosporins. In patients with community-acquired gram-negative bacteremia, third-generation cephalosporin resistance was associated with increased mortality rates, increased intensive care unit admissions, and 2.26-fold increased healthcare costs among survivors. High antimicrobial resistance in this setting is a threat to human life and the economy. In similar low-resource settings, our methods could be reproduced as a robust surveillance model for antimicrobial resistance.

EID Fox-Lewis A, Takata J, Miliya T, Lubell Y, Soeng S, Sar P, et al. Antimicrobial Resistance in Invasive Bacterial Infections in Hospitalized Children, Cambodia, 2007–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):841-851. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171830
AMA Fox-Lewis A, Takata J, Miliya T, et al. Antimicrobial Resistance in Invasive Bacterial Infections in Hospitalized Children, Cambodia, 2007–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):841-851. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171830.
APA Fox-Lewis, A., Takata, J., Miliya, T., Lubell, Y., Soeng, S., Sar, P....Turner, P. (2018). Antimicrobial Resistance in Invasive Bacterial Infections in Hospitalized Children, Cambodia, 2007–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 841-851. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171830.
Research

Epidemic Dynamics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Illness in a Hotspot of Disease Emergence, Galicia, Spain [PDF - 5.75 MB - 8 pages]
J. Martinez-Urtaza et al.

Galicia in northwestern Spain has been considered a hotspot for Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. Infections abruptly emerged in 1998 and, over the next 15 years, were associated with large outbreaks caused by strains belonging to a single clone. We report a recent transition in the epidemiologic pattern in which cases throughout the region have been linked to different and unrelated strains. Global genome-wide phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the pathogenic strains isolated from infections were associated with globally diverse isolates, indicating frequent episodic introductions from disparate and remote sources. Moreover, we identified that the 2 major switches in the epidemic dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus in the regions, the emergence of cases and an epidemiologic shift in 2015–2016, were associated with the rise of sea surface temperature in coastal areas of Galicia. This association may represent a fundamental contributing factor in the emergence of illness linked to these introduced pathogenic strains.

EID Martinez-Urtaza J, Trinanes J, Abanto M, Lozano-Leon A, Llovo-Taboada J, Garcia-Campello M, et al. Epidemic Dynamics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Illness in a Hotspot of Disease Emergence, Galicia, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):852-859. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171700
AMA Martinez-Urtaza J, Trinanes J, Abanto M, et al. Epidemic Dynamics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Illness in a Hotspot of Disease Emergence, Galicia, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):852-859. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171700.
APA Martinez-Urtaza, J., Trinanes, J., Abanto, M., Lozano-Leon, A., Llovo-Taboada, J., Garcia-Campello, M....Gonzalez-Escalona, N. (2018). Epidemic Dynamics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Illness in a Hotspot of Disease Emergence, Galicia, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 852-859. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171700.

Dynamics of Spirochetemia and Early PCR Detection of Borrelia miyamotoi [PDF - 1.33 MB - 8 pages]
L. Karan et al.

We investigated whether Borrelia miyamotoi disease can be detected in its early stage by using PCR for borrelial 16S rRNA, which molecule (DNA or RNA) is the best choice for this test, and whether spirochetes are present in blood during the acute phase of B. miyamotoi disease. A total of 473 patients with a suspected tickborne infection in Yekaterinburg, Russia, in 2009, 2010, and 2015 were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were analyzed by using quantitative PCR or ELISA, and a diagnosis of borreliosis was confirmed for 310 patients. For patients with erythema migrans, 5 (3%) of 167 were positive for B. miyamotoi by PCR; for patients without erythema migrans, 65 (45%) of 143 were positive for B. miyamotoi by PCR. The median concentration for RNA was 3.8 times that for DNA. Median time for detection of B. miyamotoi in blood was 4 days.

EID Karan L, Makenov M, Kolyasnikova N, Stukolova O, Toporkova M, Olenkova O. Dynamics of Spirochetemia and Early PCR Detection of Borrelia miyamotoi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):860-867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.170829
AMA Karan L, Makenov M, Kolyasnikova N, et al. Dynamics of Spirochetemia and Early PCR Detection of Borrelia miyamotoi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):860-867. doi:10.3201/eid2405.170829.
APA Karan, L., Makenov, M., Kolyasnikova, N., Stukolova, O., Toporkova, M., & Olenkova, O. (2018). Dynamics of Spirochetemia and Early PCR Detection of Borrelia miyamotoi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 860-867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.170829.
Dispatches

Transmission of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus by Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks, China [PDF - 1.47 MB - 4 pages]
L. Zhuang et al.

We demonstrate maintenance and transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus by Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in the larva, nymph, and adult stages with dissemination in salivary gland, midgut, and ovarian tissues. The H. longicornis tick is a competent vector to transmit this virus in both transovarial and transstadial modes.

EID Zhuang L, Sun Y, Cui X, Tang F, Hu J, Wang L, et al. Transmission of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus by Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):868-871. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.151435
AMA Zhuang L, Sun Y, Cui X, et al. Transmission of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus by Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):868-871. doi:10.3201/eid2405.151435.
APA Zhuang, L., Sun, Y., Cui, X., Tang, F., Hu, J., Wang, L....Cao, W. (2018). Transmission of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus by Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 868-871. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.151435.

Seroprevalence of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Antibodies in Rural Areas, South Korea [PDF - 937 KB - 3 pages]
M. Han et al.

We investigated 1,228 residents of 3 rural areas in South Korea and determined that 50 (4.1%) were positive for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus antibodies. Fever and gastrointestinal symptoms in the previous 3 years and career duration were associated with virus seropositivity.

EID Han M, Kim C, Kim D, Yun N, Park S, Han M, et al. Seroprevalence of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Antibodies in Rural Areas, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):872-874. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.152104
AMA Han M, Kim C, Kim D, et al. Seroprevalence of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Antibodies in Rural Areas, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):872-874. doi:10.3201/eid2405.152104.
APA Han, M., Kim, C., Kim, D., Yun, N., Park, S., Han, M....Lee, W. (2018). Seroprevalence of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Antibodies in Rural Areas, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 872-874. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.152104.

Human Usutu Virus Infection with Atypical Neurologic Presentation, Montpellier, France, 2016 [PDF - 1.49 MB - 4 pages]
Y. Simonin et al.

Infection with Usutu virus (USUV) has been recently associated with neurologic disorders, such as encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, in humans. These findings indicate that USUV is a potential health threat. We report an acute human infection with USUV in France putatively associated with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic facial paralysis.

EID Simonin Y, Sillam O, Carles MJ, Gutierrez S, Gil P, Constant O, et al. Human Usutu Virus Infection with Atypical Neurologic Presentation, Montpellier, France, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):875-878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171122
AMA Simonin Y, Sillam O, Carles MJ, et al. Human Usutu Virus Infection with Atypical Neurologic Presentation, Montpellier, France, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):875-878. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171122.
APA Simonin, Y., Sillam, O., Carles, M. J., Gutierrez, S., Gil, P., Constant, O....Foulongne, V. (2018). Human Usutu Virus Infection with Atypical Neurologic Presentation, Montpellier, France, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 875-878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171122.

Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus RNA in Hyalomma rufipes Ticks Infesting Migratory Birds, Europe and Asia Minor [PDF - 1.29 MB - 4 pages]
T. Hoffman et al.

Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus RNA was detected in immature Hyalomma rufipes ticks infesting northward migratory birds caught in the North Mediterranean Basin. This finding suggests a role for birds in the ecology of the Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus and a potential mechanism for dissemination to novel regions. Increased surveillance is warranted.

EID Hoffman T, Lindeborg M, Barboutis C, Erciyas-Yavuz K, Evander M, Fransson T, et al. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus RNA in Hyalomma rufipes Ticks Infesting Migratory Birds, Europe and Asia Minor. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):879-882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171369
AMA Hoffman T, Lindeborg M, Barboutis C, et al. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus RNA in Hyalomma rufipes Ticks Infesting Migratory Birds, Europe and Asia Minor. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):879-882. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171369.
APA Hoffman, T., Lindeborg, M., Barboutis, C., Erciyas-Yavuz, K., Evander, M., Fransson, T....Salaneck, E. (2018). Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus RNA in Hyalomma rufipes Ticks Infesting Migratory Birds, Europe and Asia Minor. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 879-882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171369.

Cholera Epidemic in South Sudan and Uganda and Need for International Collaboration in Cholera Control [PDF - 1.84 MB - 5 pages]
A. Abubakar et al.

Combining the official cholera line list data and outbreak investigation reports from the ministries of health in Uganda and South Sudan with molecular analysis of Vibrio cholerae strains revealed the interrelatedness of the epidemics in both countries in 2014. These results highlight the need for collaboration to control cross-border outbreaks.

EID Abubakar A, Bwire G, Azman AS, Bouhenia M, Deng LL, Wamala JF, et al. Cholera Epidemic in South Sudan and Uganda and Need for International Collaboration in Cholera Control. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):883-887. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171651
AMA Abubakar A, Bwire G, Azman AS, et al. Cholera Epidemic in South Sudan and Uganda and Need for International Collaboration in Cholera Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):883-887. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171651.
APA Abubakar, A., Bwire, G., Azman, A. S., Bouhenia, M., Deng, L. L., Wamala, J. F....Quilici, M. (2018). Cholera Epidemic in South Sudan and Uganda and Need for International Collaboration in Cholera Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 883-887. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171651.

External Quality Assessment for Zika Virus Molecular Diagnostic Testing, Brazil [PDF - 869 KB - 5 pages]
C. Fischer et al.

We conducted an external quality assessment of Zika virus molecular diagnostic tests in Brazil using a new Zika virus standard. Of 15 laboratories, 73% showed limited sensitivity and specificity. Viral load estimates varied significantly. Continuous quality assurance is required for adequate estimates of Zika virus–associated disease and determination of patient care.

EID Fischer C, Pedroso C, Mendrone A, Bispo de Filippis A, Vallinoto A, Ribeiro B, et al. External Quality Assessment for Zika Virus Molecular Diagnostic Testing, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):888-892. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171747
AMA Fischer C, Pedroso C, Mendrone A, et al. External Quality Assessment for Zika Virus Molecular Diagnostic Testing, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):888-892. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171747.
APA Fischer, C., Pedroso, C., Mendrone, A., Bispo de Filippis, A., Vallinoto, A., Ribeiro, B....Drexler, J. (2018). External Quality Assessment for Zika Virus Molecular Diagnostic Testing, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 888-892. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171747.

Heartland Virus and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Immunocompromised Patient, Missouri, USA [PDF - 1.11 MB - 5 pages]
A. L. Carlson et al.

Heartland virus is a suspected tickborne pathogen in the United States. We describe a case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, then death, in an immunosuppressed elderly man in Missouri, USA, who was infected with Heartland virus.

EID Carlson AL, Pastula DM, Lambert AJ, Staples J, Muehlenbachs A, Turabelidze G, et al. Heartland Virus and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Immunocompromised Patient, Missouri, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):893-897. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171802
AMA Carlson AL, Pastula DM, Lambert AJ, et al. Heartland Virus and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Immunocompromised Patient, Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):893-897. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171802.
APA Carlson, A. L., Pastula, D. M., Lambert, A. J., Staples, J., Muehlenbachs, A., Turabelidze, G....Kuhlmann, F. (2018). Heartland Virus and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Immunocompromised Patient, Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 893-897. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171802.

Equine Encephalosis Virus in India, 2008 [PDF - 940 KB - 4 pages]
P. D. Yadav et al.

A virus isolated from a sick horse from India in 2008 was confirmed by next-generation sequencing analysis to be equine encephalosis virus (EEV). EEV in India is concerning because several species of Culicoides midge, which play a major role in EEV natural maintenance and transmission, are present in this country.

EID Yadav PD, Albariño CG, Nyayanit DA, Guerrero L, Jenks M, Sarkale P, et al. Equine Encephalosis Virus in India, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):898-901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171844
AMA Yadav PD, Albariño CG, Nyayanit DA, et al. Equine Encephalosis Virus in India, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):898-901. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171844.
APA Yadav, P. D., Albariño, C. G., Nyayanit, D. A., Guerrero, L., Jenks, M., Sarkale, P....Mourya, D. T. (2018). Equine Encephalosis Virus in India, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 898-901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171844.

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 6 Infection in Cattle, Japan, 2015 [PDF - 1.20 MB - 4 pages]
Y. Kamomae et al.

During October–December 2015, an epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak occurred in cattle in Japan. Forty-six animals displayed fever, anorexia, cessation of rumination, salivation, and dysphagia. Virologic, serologic, and pathologic investigations revealed the causative agent was epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6. Further virus characterization is needed to determine virus pathogenicity.

EID Kamomae Y, Kamomae M, Ohta Y, Nabe M, Kagawa Y, Ogura Y, et al. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 6 Infection in Cattle, Japan, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):902-905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171859
AMA Kamomae Y, Kamomae M, Ohta Y, et al. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 6 Infection in Cattle, Japan, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):902-905. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171859.
APA Kamomae, Y., Kamomae, M., Ohta, Y., Nabe, M., Kagawa, Y., Ogura, Y....Shirafuji, H. (2018). Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 6 Infection in Cattle, Japan, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 902-905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171859.

Fatal Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum, Lebanon [PDF - 1.53 MB - 2 pages]
R. El Hajj et al.

Visceral leishmaniasis, a fatal disease if not treated, is caused by Leishmania parasites. This disease might be overlooked in the Middle East because of limited awareness and low incidence. We report 5 patients who died of visceral leishmaniasis in Lebanon and make recommendations to improve faster diagnosis and treatment.

EID El Hajj R, El Hajj H, Khalifeh I. Fatal Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum, Lebanon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):906-907. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.180019
AMA El Hajj R, El Hajj H, Khalifeh I. Fatal Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum, Lebanon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):906-907. doi:10.3201/eid2405.180019.
APA El Hajj, R., El Hajj, H., & Khalifeh, I. (2018). Fatal Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum, Lebanon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 906-907. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.180019.

Second Human Pegivirus in Hepatitis C Virus–Infected and Hepatitis C Virus/HIV-1–Co-infected Persons Who Inject Drugs, China [PDF - 659 KB - 4 pages]
H. Wang et al.

We report the presence of the second human pegivirus (HPgV-2) in Guangdong and Sichuan Provinces in China. The prevalence of HPgV-2 in hepatitis C virus/HIV-1–co-infected persons who inject drugs was 12.9% in Guangdong and 15.9% in Sichuan. This population is at high risk for HPgV-2 infection.

EID Wang H, Wan Z, Sun Q, Zhu N, Li T, Ren X, et al. Second Human Pegivirus in Hepatitis C Virus–Infected and Hepatitis C Virus/HIV-1–Co-infected Persons Who Inject Drugs, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):908-911. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.161162
AMA Wang H, Wan Z, Sun Q, et al. Second Human Pegivirus in Hepatitis C Virus–Infected and Hepatitis C Virus/HIV-1–Co-infected Persons Who Inject Drugs, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):908-911. doi:10.3201/eid2405.161162.
APA Wang, H., Wan, Z., Sun, Q., Zhu, N., Li, T., Ren, X....Tang, S. (2018). Second Human Pegivirus in Hepatitis C Virus–Infected and Hepatitis C Virus/HIV-1–Co-infected Persons Who Inject Drugs, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 908-911. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.161162.

Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Bartonella henselae Strains, South Korea [PDF - 1.17 MB - 4 pages]
H. Kwon et al.

Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacterium, is a common causative agent of zoonotic infections. We report 5 culture-proven cases of B. henselae infection in South Korea. By alignment of the 16S rRNA sequences and multilocus sequencing typing analysis, we identified all isolates as B. henselae Houston-1 strain, which belongs to sequence type 1.

EID Kwon H, Park Y, Lee S, Baek J, Kang J, Chung M, et al. Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Bartonella henselae Strains, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):912-915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171497
AMA Kwon H, Park Y, Lee S, et al. Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Bartonella henselae Strains, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):912-915. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171497.
APA Kwon, H., Park, Y., Lee, S., Baek, J., Kang, J., Chung, M....Lee, J. (2018). Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Bartonella henselae Strains, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 912-915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171497.

Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Infected Wounds, Ghana, 2014 [PDF - 2.20 MB - 4 pages]
H. Janssen et al.

Wound infections are an emerging medical problem worldwide, frequently neglected in under-resourced countries. Bacterial culture and antimicrobial drug resistance testing of infected wounds in patients in a rural hospital in Ghana identified no methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae but identified high combined resistance of Enterobacteriaceae against third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

EID Janssen H, Janssen I, Cooper P, Kainyah C, Pellio T, Quintel M, et al. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Infected Wounds, Ghana, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):916-919. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171506
AMA Janssen H, Janssen I, Cooper P, et al. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Infected Wounds, Ghana, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):916-919. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171506.
APA Janssen, H., Janssen, I., Cooper, P., Kainyah, C., Pellio, T., Quintel, M....Schulze, M. H. (2018). Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Infected Wounds, Ghana, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 916-919. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171506.

Foodborne Outbreaks Caused by Human Norovirus GII.P17-GII.17–Contaminated Nori, Japan, 2017 [PDF - 948 KB - 4 pages]
N. Sakon et al.

Seven foodborne norovirus outbreaks attributable to the GII.P17-GII.17 strain were reported across Japan in 2017, causing illness in a total of 2,094 persons. Nori (dried shredded seaweed) was implicated in all outbreaks and tested positive for norovirus. Our data highlight the stability of norovirus in dehydrated food products.

EID Sakon N, Sadamasu K, Shinkai T, Hamajima Y, Yoshitomi H, Matsushima Y, et al. Foodborne Outbreaks Caused by Human Norovirus GII.P17-GII.17–Contaminated Nori, Japan, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):920-923. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171733
AMA Sakon N, Sadamasu K, Shinkai T, et al. Foodborne Outbreaks Caused by Human Norovirus GII.P17-GII.17–Contaminated Nori, Japan, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):920-923. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171733.
APA Sakon, N., Sadamasu, K., Shinkai, T., Hamajima, Y., Yoshitomi, H., Matsushima, Y....Kimura, H. (2018). Foodborne Outbreaks Caused by Human Norovirus GII.P17-GII.17–Contaminated Nori, Japan, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 920-923. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171733.
Research Letters

Bartonella henselae DNA in Seronegative Patients with Cat-Scratch Disease [PDF - 349 KB - 2 pages]
M. Yanagihara et al.

We used real-time PCR to detect Bartonella henselae DNA in 7.9% (5/63) of blood specimens from seronegative patients in Japan suspected of having cat-scratch disease. The combined use of serologic tests and real-time PCR to analyze blood specimens is recommended for the prompt, noninvasive laboratory diagnosis of cat-scratch disease.

EID Yanagihara M, Tsuneoka H, Tanimoto A, Otsuyama K, Nishikawa J, Matsui T, et al. Bartonella henselae DNA in Seronegative Patients with Cat-Scratch Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):924-925. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.152033
AMA Yanagihara M, Tsuneoka H, Tanimoto A, et al. Bartonella henselae DNA in Seronegative Patients with Cat-Scratch Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):924-925. doi:10.3201/eid2405.152033.
APA Yanagihara, M., Tsuneoka, H., Tanimoto, A., Otsuyama, K., Nishikawa, J., Matsui, T....Ichihara, K. (2018). Bartonella henselae DNA in Seronegative Patients with Cat-Scratch Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 924-925. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.152033.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Antibodies in Dromedary Camels, Bangladesh, 2015 [PDF - 369 KB - 3 pages]
A. Islam et al.

Dromedary camels are bred domestically and imported into Bangladesh. In 2015, of 55 camels tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Dhaka, 17 (31%) were seropositive, including 1 bred locally. None were PCR positive. The potential for infected camels in urban markets could have public health implications and warrants further investigation.

EID Islam A, Epstein JH, Rostal MK, Islam S, Rahman M, Hossain M, et al. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Antibodies in Dromedary Camels, Bangladesh, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):926-928. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171192
AMA Islam A, Epstein JH, Rostal MK, et al. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Antibodies in Dromedary Camels, Bangladesh, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):926-928. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171192.
APA Islam, A., Epstein, J. H., Rostal, M. K., Islam, S., Rahman, M., Hossain, M....Daszak, P. (2018). Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Antibodies in Dromedary Camels, Bangladesh, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 926-928. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171192.

Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato in Père David Deer and Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks [PDF - 818 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Yang et al.

By sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, flaB, p66, and glpQ, we identified Borrelia miyamotoi in 1 of 4 Père David deer (n = 43) seropositive for Borrelia spp. and 1.2% (3/244) of Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks from Dafeng Elk National Natural Reserve, China. Future studies should assess Borrelia pathogenesis in deer.

EID Yang Y, Yang Z, Kelly P, Li J, Ren Y, Wang C. Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato in Père David Deer and Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):928-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171355
AMA Yang Y, Yang Z, Kelly P, et al. Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato in Père David Deer and Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):928-931. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171355.
APA Yang, Y., Yang, Z., Kelly, P., Li, J., Ren, Y., & Wang, C. (2018). Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato in Père David Deer and Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 928-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171355.

Rickettsia asembonensis Characterization by Multilocus Sequence Typing of Complete Genes, Peru [PDF - 346 KB - 3 pages]
S. Loyola et al.

While studying rickettsial infections in Peru, we detected Rickettsia asembonensis in fleas from domestic animals. We characterized 5 complete genomic regions (17kDa, gltA, ompA, ompB, and sca4) and conducted multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analyses. The molecular isolate from Peru is distinct from the original R. asembonensis strain from Kenya.

EID Loyola S, Flores-Mendoza C, Torre A, Kocher C, Melendrez M, Luce-Fedrow A, et al. Rickettsia asembonensis Characterization by Multilocus Sequence Typing of Complete Genes, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):931-933. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.170323
AMA Loyola S, Flores-Mendoza C, Torre A, et al. Rickettsia asembonensis Characterization by Multilocus Sequence Typing of Complete Genes, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):931-933. doi:10.3201/eid2405.170323.
APA Loyola, S., Flores-Mendoza, C., Torre, A., Kocher, C., Melendrez, M., Luce-Fedrow, A....Leguia, M. (2018). Rickettsia asembonensis Characterization by Multilocus Sequence Typing of Complete Genes, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 931-933. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.170323.

Spontaneous Abortion Associated with Zika Virus Infection and Persistent Viremia [PDF - 415 KB - 3 pages]
A. Goncé et al.

We report a case of spontaneous abortion associated with Zika virus infection in a pregnant woman who traveled from Spain to the Dominican Republic and developed a rash. Maternal Zika viremia persisted at least 31 days after onset of symptoms and 21 days after uterine evacuation.

EID Goncé A, Martínez MJ, Marbán-Castro E, Saco A, Soler A, Alvarez-Mora M, et al. Spontaneous Abortion Associated with Zika Virus Infection and Persistent Viremia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):933-935. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171479
AMA Goncé A, Martínez MJ, Marbán-Castro E, et al. Spontaneous Abortion Associated with Zika Virus Infection and Persistent Viremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):933-935. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171479.
APA Goncé, A., Martínez, M. J., Marbán-Castro, E., Saco, A., Soler, A., Alvarez-Mora, M....Bardají, A. (2018). Spontaneous Abortion Associated with Zika Virus Infection and Persistent Viremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 933-935. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171479.

Isolation of Oropouche Virus from Febrile Patient, Ecuador [PDF - 389 KB - 3 pages]
E. L. Wise et al.

We report identification of an Oropouche virus strain in a febrile patient from Ecuador by using metagenomic sequencing and real-time reverse transcription PCR. Virus was isolated from patient serum by using Vero cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole-genome sequence showed the virus to be similar to a strain from Peru.

EID Wise EL, Pullan ST, Márquez S, Paz V, Mosquera JD, Zapata S, et al. Isolation of Oropouche Virus from Febrile Patient, Ecuador. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):935-937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171569
AMA Wise EL, Pullan ST, Márquez S, et al. Isolation of Oropouche Virus from Febrile Patient, Ecuador. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):935-937. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171569.
APA Wise, E. L., Pullan, S. T., Márquez, S., Paz, V., Mosquera, J. D., Zapata, S....Logue, C. H. (2018). Isolation of Oropouche Virus from Febrile Patient, Ecuador. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 935-937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171569.

A Mental Models Approach to Assessing Public Understanding of Zika Virus, Guatemala [PDF - 290 KB - 2 pages]
B. G. Southwell et al.

Mental models are cognitive representations of phenomena that can constrain efforts to reduce infectious disease. In a study of Zika virus awareness in Guatemala, many participants referred to experiences with other mosquitoborne diseases during discussions of Zika virus. These results highlight the importance of past experiences for Zika virus understanding.

EID Southwell BG, Ray SE, Vazquez NN, Ligorria T, Kelly BJ. A Mental Models Approach to Assessing Public Understanding of Zika Virus, Guatemala. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):938-939. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171570
AMA Southwell BG, Ray SE, Vazquez NN, et al. A Mental Models Approach to Assessing Public Understanding of Zika Virus, Guatemala. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):938-939. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171570.
APA Southwell, B. G., Ray, S. E., Vazquez, N. N., Ligorria, T., & Kelly, B. J. (2018). A Mental Models Approach to Assessing Public Understanding of Zika Virus, Guatemala. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 938-939. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171570.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Immunoglobulins as Potential Biomarkers of Chikungunya Encephalitis [PDF - 313 KB - 3 pages]
M. Puccioni-Sohler et al.

Chikungunya virus causes fever and severe polyarthritis or arthralgia and is associated with neurologic manifestations that are sometimes challenging to diagnose. We demonstrate intrathecal synthesis of chikungunya antibodies in a patient with a history of acute infection complicated by encephalitis. The specificity of the intracerebral immune response supports early chikungunya-associated encephalitis diagnosis.

EID Puccioni-Sohler M, Farias L, Cabral-Castro M, Zalis MG, Kalil RS, Salgado MF. Cerebrospinal Fluid Immunoglobulins as Potential Biomarkers of Chikungunya Encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):939-941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171763
AMA Puccioni-Sohler M, Farias L, Cabral-Castro M, et al. Cerebrospinal Fluid Immunoglobulins as Potential Biomarkers of Chikungunya Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):939-941. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171763.
APA Puccioni-Sohler, M., Farias, L., Cabral-Castro, M., Zalis, M. G., Kalil, R. S., & Salgado, M. F. (2018). Cerebrospinal Fluid Immunoglobulins as Potential Biomarkers of Chikungunya Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 939-941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171763.

Chronic Genotype 3 Hepatitis E in Pregnant Woman Receiving Infliximab and Azathioprine [PDF - 400 KB - 3 pages]
C. Charre et al.

Acute hepatitis E virus infection during pregnancy has a high fatality rate in developing countries. Little data are available on chronic infection in pregnant women. We report a case of chronic hepatitis E during treatment with infliximab and azathioprine, without adverse event during pregnancy and with spontaneous resolution after delivery.

EID Charre C, Ramière C, Dumortier J, Abravanel F, Lhomme S, Gincul R, et al. Chronic Genotype 3 Hepatitis E in Pregnant Woman Receiving Infliximab and Azathioprine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):941-943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171845
AMA Charre C, Ramière C, Dumortier J, et al. Chronic Genotype 3 Hepatitis E in Pregnant Woman Receiving Infliximab and Azathioprine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):941-943. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171845.
APA Charre, C., Ramière, C., Dumortier, J., Abravanel, F., Lhomme, S., Gincul, R....Scholtès, C. (2018). Chronic Genotype 3 Hepatitis E in Pregnant Woman Receiving Infliximab and Azathioprine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 941-943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171845.

Multiple Introductions of Influenza A(H5N8) Virus into Poultry, Egypt, 2017 [PDF - 1023 KB - 4 pages]
A. H. Salaheldin et al.

After high mortality rates among commercial poultry were reported in Egypt in 2017, we genetically characterized 4 distinct influenza A(H5N8) viruses isolated from poultry. Full-genome analysis indicated separate introductions of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 reassortants from Europe and Asia into Egypt, which poses a serious threat for poultry and humans.

EID Salaheldin AH, El-Hamid H, Elbestawy AR, Veits J, Hafez HM, Mettenleiter TC, et al. Multiple Introductions of Influenza A(H5N8) Virus into Poultry, Egypt, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):943-946. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171935
AMA Salaheldin AH, El-Hamid H, Elbestawy AR, et al. Multiple Introductions of Influenza A(H5N8) Virus into Poultry, Egypt, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):943-946. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171935.
APA Salaheldin, A. H., El-Hamid, H., Elbestawy, A. R., Veits, J., Hafez, H. M., Mettenleiter, T. C....Abdelwhab, E. M. (2018). Multiple Introductions of Influenza A(H5N8) Virus into Poultry, Egypt, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 943-946. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171935.

Fatal Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infections Caused by Siberian and European Subtypes, Finland, 2015 [PDF - 979 KB - 3 pages]
S. Kuivanen et al.

In most locations except for Russia, tick-borne encephalitis is mainly caused by the European virus subtype. In 2015, fatal infections caused by European and Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus subtypes in the same Ixodes ricinus tick focus in Finland raised concern over further spread of the Siberian subtype among widespread tick species.

EID Kuivanen S, Smura T, Rantanen K, Kämppi L, Kantonen J, Kero M, et al. Fatal Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infections Caused by Siberian and European Subtypes, Finland, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):946-948. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171986
AMA Kuivanen S, Smura T, Rantanen K, et al. Fatal Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infections Caused by Siberian and European Subtypes, Finland, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):946-948. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171986.
APA Kuivanen, S., Smura, T., Rantanen, K., Kämppi, L., Kantonen, J., Kero, M....Vapalahti, O. (2018). Fatal Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infections Caused by Siberian and European Subtypes, Finland, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 946-948. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171986.

Zika Virus IgG in Infants with Microcephaly, Guinea-Bissau, 2016 [PDF - 339 KB - 3 pages]
M. Rosenstierne et al.

We analyzed blood samples from infants born with microcephaly and their mothers in Guinea-Bissau in 2016 for pathogens associated with birth defects. No Zika virus RNA was detected, but Zika virus IgG was highly prevalent. We recommend implementing pathogen screening of infants with congenital defects in Guinea-Bissau.

EID Rosenstierne M, Schaltz-Buchholzer F, Bruzadelli F, Có A, Cardoso P, Jørgensen C, et al. Zika Virus IgG in Infants with Microcephaly, Guinea-Bissau, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):948-950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.180153
AMA Rosenstierne M, Schaltz-Buchholzer F, Bruzadelli F, et al. Zika Virus IgG in Infants with Microcephaly, Guinea-Bissau, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):948-950. doi:10.3201/eid2405.180153.
APA Rosenstierne, M., Schaltz-Buchholzer, F., Bruzadelli, F., Có, A., Cardoso, P., Jørgensen, C....Fomsgaard, A. (2018). Zika Virus IgG in Infants with Microcephaly, Guinea-Bissau, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 948-950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.180153.
Letters

Heterogeneous and Dynamic Prevalence of Asymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections [PDF - 321 KB - 1 page]
N. Leung and B. J. Cowling
EID Leung N, Cowling BJ. Heterogeneous and Dynamic Prevalence of Asymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.160782
AMA Leung N, Cowling BJ. Heterogeneous and Dynamic Prevalence of Asymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):950. doi:10.3201/eid2405.160782.
APA Leung, N., & Cowling, B. J. (2018). Heterogeneous and Dynamic Prevalence of Asymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.160782.

Mycobacterium lepromatosis Lepromatous Leprosy in US Citizen Who Traveled to Disease-Endemic Areas [PDF - 390 KB - 2 pages]
A. Singh and D. Chauhan
EID Singh A, Chauhan D. Mycobacterium lepromatosis Lepromatous Leprosy in US Citizen Who Traveled to Disease-Endemic Areas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):951-952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171972
AMA Singh A, Chauhan D. Mycobacterium lepromatosis Lepromatous Leprosy in US Citizen Who Traveled to Disease-Endemic Areas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):951-952. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171972.
APA Singh, A., & Chauhan, D. (2018). Mycobacterium lepromatosis Lepromatous Leprosy in US Citizen Who Traveled to Disease-Endemic Areas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 951-952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171972.

Spread of Plague by Respiratory Droplets or Ectoparasites [PDF - 368 KB - 1 page]
C. Evans
EID Evans C. Spread of Plague by Respiratory Droplets or Ectoparasites. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.172067
AMA Evans C. Spread of Plague by Respiratory Droplets or Ectoparasites. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):952. doi:10.3201/eid2405.172067.
APA Evans, C. (2018). Spread of Plague by Respiratory Droplets or Ectoparasites. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.172067.

Human Infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, China, 2013 [PDF - 1.25 MB - 2 pages]
D. Dance et al.
EID Dance D, Sarovich D, Price EP, Limmathurotsakul D, Currie BJ. Human Infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):953-954. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.180238
AMA Dance D, Sarovich D, Price EP, et al. Human Infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):953-954. doi:10.3201/eid2405.180238.
APA Dance, D., Sarovich, D., Price, E. P., Limmathurotsakul, D., & Currie, B. J. (2018). Human Infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 953-954. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.180238.

Heterogeneous and Dynamic Prevalence of Asymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections [PDF - 158 KB - 1 page]
L. Furuya-Kanamori and L. Yakob
EID Furuya-Kanamori L, Yakob L. Heterogeneous and Dynamic Prevalence of Asymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):951. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.180075
AMA Furuya-Kanamori L, Yakob L. Heterogeneous and Dynamic Prevalence of Asymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):951. doi:10.3201/eid2405.180075.
APA Furuya-Kanamori, L., & Yakob, L. (2018). Heterogeneous and Dynamic Prevalence of Asymptomatic Influenza Virus Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 951. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.180075.

Potentially Same Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses in Nicaragua and Brazil [PDF - 318 KB - 1 page]
T. Vieira et al.
EID Vieira T, Qurollo BA, Mongruel A, Baggio RA, Vidotto O, Breitschwerdt EB, et al. Potentially Same Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses in Nicaragua and Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.172076
AMA Vieira T, Qurollo BA, Mongruel A, et al. Potentially Same Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses in Nicaragua and Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):953. doi:10.3201/eid2405.172076.
APA Vieira, T., Qurollo, B. A., Mongruel, A., Baggio, R. A., Vidotto, O., Breitschwerdt, E. B....Vieira, R. (2018). Potentially Same Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses in Nicaragua and Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.172076.
Books and Media

The Power of Plagues, Second Edition [PDF - 377 KB - 1 page]
T. J. Marrie
EID Marrie TJ. The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171918
AMA Marrie TJ. The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):955. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171918.
APA Marrie, T. J. (2018). The Power of Plagues, Second Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.171918.

Catching Breath: The Making and Unmaking of Tuberculosis [PDF - 399 KB - 1 page]
M. J. Oxtoby and E. M. Dufort
EID Oxtoby MJ, Dufort EM. Catching Breath: The Making and Unmaking of Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.180185
AMA Oxtoby MJ, Dufort EM. Catching Breath: The Making and Unmaking of Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):956. doi:10.3201/eid2405.180185.
APA Oxtoby, M. J., & Dufort, E. M. (2018). Catching Breath: The Making and Unmaking of Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.180185.
About the Cover

Revealing Details in Light and Shadows [PDF - 2.41 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove and R. Tucker
EID Breedlove B, Tucker R. Revealing Details in Light and Shadows. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):957-958. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.ac2405
AMA Breedlove B, Tucker R. Revealing Details in Light and Shadows. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):957-958. doi:10.3201/eid2405.ac2405.
APA Breedlove, B., & Tucker, R. (2018). Revealing Details in Light and Shadows. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 957-958. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.ac2405.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Oropouche Virus [PDF - 327 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry and F. A. Murphy
EID Henry R, Murphy FA. Etymologia: Oropouche Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(5):937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.et2405
AMA Henry R, Murphy FA. Etymologia: Oropouche Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(5):937. doi:10.3201/eid2405.et2405.
APA Henry, R., & Murphy, F. A. (2018). Etymologia: Oropouche Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2405.et2405.
Page created: April 24, 2018
Page updated: April 24, 2018
Page reviewed: April 24, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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