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Volume 24, Number 6—June 2018

Widespread Treponema pallidum Infection in Nonhuman Primates, Tanzania

Idrissa S. Chuma, Emmanuel K. Batamuzi1, D. Anthony Collins, Robert D. Fyumagwa, Luisa K. Hallmaier-Wacker, Rudovick R. Kazwala, Julius D. Keyyu, Inyasi A. Lejora, Iddi F. Lipende, Simone Lüert, Filipa M.D. Paciência, Alexander Piel, Fiona A. Stewart, Dietmar Zinner, Christian Roos, and Sascha KnaufComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania (I.S. Chuma, E.K. Batamuzi, R.R. Kazwala, I.F. Lipende); German Primate Center, Leibniz-Institute for Primate Research, Göttingen, Germany (I.S. Chuma, L.K. Hallmaier-Wacker, S. Lüert, F.M.D. Paciência, D. Zinner, C. Roos, S. Knauf); Jane Goodall Institute, Kigoma, Tanzania (D.A. Collins); Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute, Arusha, Tanzania (R.D. Fyumagwa, J.D. Keyyu); Tanzania National Parks, Arusha (I.A. Lejora); Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK, and Greater Mahale Ecosystem Research and Conservation Project, Kigoma (A. Piel, F.A. Stewart)

Main Article


Test results of Treponema pallidum infection in samples of free-ranging nonhuman primate species, Tanzania*

No. (%)
Total/seropositive/skin lesion/PCR positive†

Olive baboon (Papio anubis) 137 (47.4) 86 34/34/12/12 52/51/31/30‡ 51 29/0/1‡/NA 22/0/1‡/NA
Yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus) 75 (26.0) 33 17/17/2/2 16/16/5/5 42 27/0/1§/NA 15/0/0/NA
Vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) 45 (15.6) 35 21/21/10/8‡ 14/14/1/1 10 7/0/0/NA 3/0/0/NA
Blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) 15 (5.2) 2 1/0/1/1 1/1/0/0 13 8/0/0/NA 5/0/0/NA
Red-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus ascanius) 2 (0.7) 0 NA NA 2 2/0/0/NA NA
Zanzibar red colobus (Piliocolobus kirkii) 10 (3.5) 0 NA NA 10 4/0/0/NA 6/0/0/NA
Udzungwa red colobus (Piliocolobus gordonorum) 3 (1.0) 0 NA NA 3 2/0/0/NA 1/0/0/NA
Ugandan red colobus (Piliocolobus tephrosceles)
2 (0.7)

Total 289 (100.0) 156 73 83 133 81 52

*Results are based on the consensus of detected T. pallidum antibodies (ESPLINE TP) and PCR results of 3 independent gene targets (polA, tp47, and TP_0619). NA, not applicable.
†PCR was conducted only on animals with skin lesions.
‡No skin sample was available for some positive animals.
§Skin lesion at the genitalia most likely from fight; no tissue sample available.

Main Article


Page created: May 17, 2018
Page updated: May 17, 2018
Page reviewed: May 17, 2018
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