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Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019

International Biological Reference Preparations for Epidemic Infectious Diseases

Tommy RamplingComments to Author , Mark Page, and Peter Horby
Author affiliations: Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, UK (T. Rampling); National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Potter’s Bar, UK (M. Page); University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (P. Horby)

Main Article

Table 1

Types of WHO reference preparations for epidemic infectious diseases*

Types of reference material Characteristic
International standards
Extensively characterized following international collaborative studies enable activity of biological preparations to be expressed in the same way globally, most commonly in international units
International reference reagents
Less extensively characterized than international standards. Not assigned international units. Reference reagents are interim and not intended to be replaced when they expire or are depleted.
International reference panels
Group of reference materials established to collectively aid evaluation of assays or diagnostic tests. Comply with requirements for WHO reference standards/reagents.
Working or secondary standard Reference standards established by regional or national authorities, or by other laboratories, that are calibrated against, and traceable to, the primary WHO materials and are intended for use in routine tests.

*WHO, World Health Organization.

Main Article

Page created: January 18, 2019
Page updated: January 18, 2019
Page reviewed: January 18, 2019
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.