Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019
Research

Survey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Enzootic Focus, Spain, 2011–2015

Ana NegredoComments to Author , Miguel Ángel Habela, Eva Ramírez de Arellano, Francisco Diez, Fátima Lasala, Pablo López, Ana Sarriá, Nuria Labiod, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Miguel Arenas, Antonio Tenorio, Agustín Estrada-Peña, and Maria Paz Sánchez-Seco
Author affiliations: National Center of Microbiology, Madrid, Spain (A. Negredo, E. Ramírez de Arellano, F. Diez, F. Lasala, P. López, N. Labiod, A. Tenorio, M.P. Sánchez-Seco); University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain (M.Á. Habela, R. Calero-Bernal); La Paz Hospital, Madrid (A. Sarriá); University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain (M. Arenas); University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain (A. Estrada-Peña)

Main Article

Figure 2

Maximum clade credibility genealogy based on partial (175-nt) sequences of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus small RNA segment of viruses from Spain and reference sequences. Numbers along branches indicate posterior probability values for the groups (values <0.70 are not shown). Triangles indicate newly sequenced strains from Spain reported in this study, which are identified by geographic origin, sampling site, and sampling year. Other sequences are indicated by GenBank accession num

Figure 2. Maximum clade credibility genealogy based on partial (175-nt) sequences of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus small RNA segment of viruses from Spain and reference sequences. Numbers along branches indicate posterior probability values for the groups (values <0.70 are not shown). Triangles indicate newly sequenced strains from Spain reported in this study, which are identified by geographic origin, sampling site, and sampling year. Other sequences are indicated by GenBank accession number, strain, geographic origin, and sampling year. Sequences from this study indicated with an asterisk are included in European Molecular Biology Laboratory/GenBank databases. Genotypes are indicated in roman numerals and named according to Carroll et al. (30). Equivalent clade nomenclature is listed according to Chamberlain et al. (31) and indicated at right. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.

Main Article

References
  1. World Health Organization. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Fact sheet no. 208; 2013 [cited 2019 Mar 6]. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs208/en
  2. Whitehouse  CA. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Antiviral Res. 2004;64:14560. DOIPubMed
  3. Ergonul  O. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: new outbreaks, new discoveries. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:21520. DOIPubMed
  4. Estrada-Peña  A, Palomar  AM, Santibáñez  P, Sánchez  N, Habela  MA, Portillo  A, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks, Southwestern Europe, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:17980. DOIPubMed
  5. Negredo  A, de la Calle-Prieto  F, Palencia-Herrejón  E, Mora-Rillo  M, Astray-Mochales  J, Sánchez-Seco  MP, et al.; Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever@Madrid Working Group. Autochthonous Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Spain. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:15461. DOIPubMed
  6. Hoogstraal  H. The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa. J Med Entomol. 1979;15:307417. DOIPubMed
  7. Gonzalez  JP, Camicas  JL, Cornet  JP, Wilson  ML. Biological and clinical responses of west African sheep to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus experimental infection. Res Virol. 1998;149:44555. DOIPubMed
  8. Spengler  JR, Estrada-Peña  A, Garrison  AR, Schmaljohn  C, Spiropoulou  CF, Bergeron  É, et al. A chronological review of experimental infection studies of the role of wild animals and livestock in the maintenance and transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Antiviral Res. 2016;135:3147. DOIPubMed
  9. Wasfi  F, Dowall  S, Ghabbari  T, Bosworth  A, Chakroun  M, Varghese  A, et al. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia. Parasite. 2016;23:10. DOIPubMed
  10. Gargili  A, Estrada-Peña  A, Spengler  JR, Lukashev  A, Nuttall  PA, Bente  DA. The role of ticks in the maintenance and transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: A review of published field and laboratory studies. Antiviral Res. 2017;144:93119. DOIPubMed
  11. Gunes  T, Poyraz  O, Vatansever  Z. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks collected from humans, livestock, and picnic sites in the hyperendemic region of Turkey. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:14116. DOIPubMed
  12. Sherifi  K, Cadar  D, Muji  S, Robaj  A, Ahmeti  S, Jakupi  X, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in ticks in Kosovo, 2012. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e3168. DOIPubMed
  13. Bente  DA, Forrester  NL, Watts  DM, McAuley  AJ, Whitehouse  CA, Bray  M. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity. Antiviral Res. 2013;100:15989. DOIPubMed
  14. Spengler  JR, Estrada-Peña  A. Host preferences support the prominent role of Hyalomma ticks in the ecology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018;12:e0006248. DOIPubMed
  15. Papa  A, Ma  B, Kouidou  S, Tang  Q, Hang  C, Antoniadis  A. Genetic characterization of the M RNA segment of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:503. DOIPubMed
  16. Burt  FJ, Swanepoel  R. Molecular epidemiology of African and Asian Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever isolates. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:65966. DOIPubMed
  17. Christova  I, Di Caro  A, Papa  A, Castilletti  C, Andonova  L, Kalvatchev  N, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, southwestern Bulgaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:9835. DOIPubMed
  18. Maltezou  HC, Maltezos  E, Papa  A. Contact tracing and serosurvey among healthcare workers exposed to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Greece. Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41:87780. DOIPubMed
  19. Mishra  AC, Mehta  M, Mourya  DT, Gandhi  S. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in India. Lancet. 2011;378:372. DOIPubMed
  20. Aradaib  IE, Erickson  BR, Karsany  MS, Khristova  ML, Elageb  RM, Mohamed  ME, et al. Multiple Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains are associated with disease outbreaks in Sudan, 2008-2009. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1159. DOIPubMed
  21. Mustafa  ML, Ayazi  E, Mohareb  E, Yingst  S, Zayed  A, Rossi  CA, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Afghanistan, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:19401. DOIPubMed
  22. Nabeth  P, Cheikh  DO, Lo  B, Faye  O, Vall  IO, Niang  M, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mauritania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:21439. DOIPubMed
  23. Papa  A, Velo  E, Papadimitriou  E, Cahani  G, Kota  M, Bino  S. Ecology of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever endemic area in Albania. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:7136. DOIPubMed
  24. Ramírez de Arellano  E, Hernández  L, Goyanes  MJ, Arsuaga  M, Cruz  AF, Negredo  A, et al. Phylogenetic Characterization of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:207880. DOIPubMed
  25. Cajimat  MNB, Rodriguez  SE, Schuster  IUE, Swetnam  DM, Ksiazek  TG, Habela  MA, et al. Genomic characterization of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Hyalomma tick from Spain, 2014. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017;17:7149. DOIPubMed
  26. Deyde  VM, Khristova  ML, Rollin  PE, Ksiazek  TG, Nichol  ST. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genomics and global diversity. J Virol. 2006;80:883442. DOIPubMed
  27. Zehender  G, Ebranati  E, Shkjezi  R, Papa  A, Luzzago  C, Gabanelli  E, et al. Bayesian phylogeography of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Europe. PLoS One. 2013;8:e79663. DOIPubMed
  28. de Sanidad  M, Sociales e Igualdad  S. Status report and assessment of the risk of transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (FHCC) in Spain, April 2017 [in Spanish] [cited 2017 May 1]. http://www.msssi.gob.es/profesionales/saludPublica/enfermedadesEmergentes/Crimea_Congo/docs/ACTUALIZACION_ER_FHCC_20.04.2017.pdf
  29. Drummond  AJ, Suchard  MA, Xie  D, Rambaut  A. Bayesian phylogenetics with BEAUti and the BEAST 1.7. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:196973. DOIPubMed
  30. Carroll  SA, Bird  BH, Rollin  PE, Nichol  ST. Ancient common ancestry of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;55:110310. DOIPubMed
  31. Chamberlain  J, Cook  N, Lloyd  G, Mioulet  V, Tolley  H, Hewson  R. Co-evolutionary patterns of variation in small and large RNA segments of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:333741. DOIPubMed
  32. Gergova  I, Kunchev  M, Kamarinchev  B. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus-tick survey in endemic areas in Bulgaria. J Med Virol. 2012;84:60814. DOIPubMed
  33. Estrada-Peña  A, Vatansever  Z, Gargili  A, Ergönul  O. The trend towards habitat fragmentation is the key factor driving the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:1194203. DOIPubMed
  34. Spengler  JR, Bente  DA. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Spain: new arrival or silent resident? N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1068. DOIPubMed
  35. Filipe  AR, Calisher  CH, Lazuick  J. Antibodies to Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever, Dhori, Thogoto and Bhanja viruses in southern Portugal. Acta Virol. 1985;29:3248.PubMed
  36. Palomar  AM, Portillo  A, Santibáñez  S, García-Álvarez  L, Muñoz-Sanz  A, Márquez  FJ, et al. Molecular (ticks) and serological (humans) study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the Iberian Peninsula, 2013-2015. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2017;35:3447. DOIPubMed
  37. Lindeborg  M, Barboutis  C, Ehrenborg  C, Fransson  T, Jaenson  TG, Lindgren  PE, et al. Migratory birds, ticks, and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:20957. DOIPubMed
  38. Palomar  AM, Portillo  A, Santibáñez  P, Mazuelas  D, Arizaga  J, Crespo  A, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks from migratory birds, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:2603. DOIPubMed
  39. Vanhomwegen  J, Alves  MJ, Zupanc  TA, Bino  S, Chinikar  S, Karlberg  H, et al. Diagnostic assays for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:195865. DOIPubMed

Main Article

Page created: May 20, 2019
Page updated: May 20, 2019
Page reviewed: May 20, 2019
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external