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Issue Cover for Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019

[PDF - 54.49 MB - 228 pages]

Perspective

Using Big Data to Monitor the Introduction and Spread of Chikungunya, Europe, 2017 [PDF - 3.27 MB - 9 pages]
J. Rocklöv et al.

With regard to fully harvesting the potential of big data, public health lags behind other fields. To determine this potential, we applied big data (air passenger volume from international areas with active chikungunya transmission, Twitter data, and vectorial capacity estimates of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes) to the 2017 chikungunya outbreaks in Europe to assess the risks for virus transmission, virus importation, and short-range dispersion from the outbreak foci. We found that indicators based on voluminous and velocious data can help identify virus dispersion from outbreak foci and that vector abundance and vectorial capacity estimates can provide information on local climate suitability for mosquitoborne outbreaks. In contrast, more established indicators based on Wikipedia and Google Trends search strings were less timely. We found that a combination of novel and disparate datasets can be used in real time to prevent and control emerging and reemerging infectious diseases.

EID Rocklöv J, Tozan Y, Ramadona A, Sewe MO, Sudre B, Garrido J, et al. Using Big Data to Monitor the Introduction and Spread of Chikungunya, Europe, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1041-1049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180138
AMA Rocklöv J, Tozan Y, Ramadona A, et al. Using Big Data to Monitor the Introduction and Spread of Chikungunya, Europe, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1041-1049. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180138.
APA Rocklöv, J., Tozan, Y., Ramadona, A., Sewe, M. O., Sudre, B., Garrido, J....Semenza, J. C. (2019). Using Big Data to Monitor the Introduction and Spread of Chikungunya, Europe, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1041-1049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180138.

West Nile and Usutu Virus Infections and Challenges to Blood Safety in the European Union [PDF - 825 KB - 8 pages]
D. Domanović et al.

West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) circulate in several European Union (EU) countries. The risk of transfusion-transmitted West Nile virus (TT-WNV) has been recognized, and preventive blood safety measures have been implemented. We summarized the applied interventions in the EU countries and assessed the safety of the blood supply by compiling data on WNV positivity among blood donors and on reported TT-WNV cases. The paucity of reported TT-WNV infections and the screening results suggest that blood safety interventions are effective. However, limited circulation of WNV in the EU and presumed underrecognition or underreporting of TT-WNV cases contribute to the present situation. Because of cross-reactivity between genetically related flaviviruses in the automated nucleic acid test systems, USUV-positive blood donations are found during routine WNV screening. The clinical relevance of USUV infection in humans and the risk of USUV to blood safety are unknown.

EID Domanović D, Gossner CM, Lieshout-Krikke R, Mayr W, Baroti-Toth K, Dobrota A, et al. West Nile and Usutu Virus Infections and Challenges to Blood Safety in the European Union. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1050-1057. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181755
AMA Domanović D, Gossner CM, Lieshout-Krikke R, et al. West Nile and Usutu Virus Infections and Challenges to Blood Safety in the European Union. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1050-1057. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181755.
APA Domanović, D., Gossner, C. M., Lieshout-Krikke, R., Mayr, W., Baroti-Toth, K., Dobrota, A....Nowotny, N. (2019). West Nile and Usutu Virus Infections and Challenges to Blood Safety in the European Union. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1050-1057. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181755.
Synopses

Immunopathology of Fatal Human Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 Encephalitis, Germany, 2011–2013 [PDF - 6.90 MB - 8 pages]
D. Tappe et al.

Variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1) is a zoonotic virus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans who are infected after contact with exotic squirrels. We analyzed the brain lesions and the immune responses in all 4 known human cases that showed panencephalitis. Inflammatory infiltrates in areas positive for VSBV-1 RNA and antigen consisted of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, with perivascular B-cell accumulation. Strong microglial response and bizarre astroglial expansion were present. Areas of malacia contained neutrophils and foamy microglia and macrophages. Immunopathologic examination during infection showed cleavage of caspase 3 in brain cells adjacent to CD8+ cells and widespread p53 expression, hallmarks of apoptosis. Cerebrospinal fluid analyses over time demonstrated increasing protein concentrations and cell counts, paralleled by pathologic lactate elevations in all patients. The most severe cerebrospinal fluid and histologic changes occurred in the patient with the highest viral load, shortest duration of disease, and most medical preconditions.

EID Tappe D, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Rauch J, Allartz P, Herden C. Immunopathology of Fatal Human Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 Encephalitis, Germany, 2011–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1058-1065. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181082
AMA Tappe D, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Rauch J, et al. Immunopathology of Fatal Human Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 Encephalitis, Germany, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1058-1065. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181082.
APA Tappe, D., Schmidt-Chanasit, J., Rauch, J., Allartz, P., & Herden, C. (2019). Immunopathology of Fatal Human Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 Encephalitis, Germany, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1058-1065. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181082.

Medscape CME Activity
Epidemiologic and Clinical Features of Lassa Fever Outbreak in Nigeria, January 1–May 6, 2018 [PDF - 1.90 MB - 9 pages]
E. A. Ilori et al.

Lassa fever (LF) is endemic to Nigeria, where the disease causes substantial rates of illness and death. In this article, we report an analysis of the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of the LF outbreak that occurred in Nigeria during January 1–May 6, 2018. A total of 1,893 cases were reported; 423 were laboratory-confirmed cases, among which 106 deaths were recorded (case-fatality rate 25.1%). Among all confirmed cases, 37 occurred in healthcare workers. The secondary attack rate among 5,001 contacts was 0.56%. Most (80.6%) confirmed cases were reported from 3 states (Edo, Ondo, and Ebonyi). Fatal outcomes were significantly associated with being elderly; no administration of ribavirin; and the presence of a cough, hemorrhaging, and unconsciousness. The findings in this study should lead to further LF research and provide guidance to those preparing to respond to future outbreaks.

EID Ilori EA, Furuse Y, Ipadeola OB, Dan-Nwafor CC, Abubakar A, Womi-Eteng OE, et al. Epidemiologic and Clinical Features of Lassa Fever Outbreak in Nigeria, January 1–May 6, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1066-1074. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181035
AMA Ilori EA, Furuse Y, Ipadeola OB, et al. Epidemiologic and Clinical Features of Lassa Fever Outbreak in Nigeria, January 1–May 6, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1066-1074. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181035.
APA Ilori, E. A., Furuse, Y., Ipadeola, O. B., Dan-Nwafor, C. C., Abubakar, A., Womi-Eteng, O. E....Ihekweazu, C. (2019). Epidemiologic and Clinical Features of Lassa Fever Outbreak in Nigeria, January 1–May 6, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1066-1074. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181035.

Medscape CME Activity
Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Musculoskeletal Infection Cases from a Tertiary Referral Center, Colorado, USA [PDF - 578 KB - 7 pages]
N. Goldstein et al.

Nontuberculous mycobacteria represent an uncommon but important cause of infection of the musculoskeletal system. Such infections require aggressive medical and surgical treatment, and cases are often complicated by delayed diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed all 14 nonspinal cases of nontuberculous mycobacterial musculoskeletal infections treated over 6 years by orthopedic surgeons at a university-affiliated tertiary referral center. All patients required multiple antimicrobial agents along with aggressive surgical treatment; 13 of 14 patients ultimately achieved cure. Four patients required amputation to control the infection. Half these patients were immunosuppressed by medications or other medical illness when they sought care at the referral center. Six cases involved joint prostheses; all ultimately required hardware removal and placement of an antimicrobial spacer for eradication of infection. Our findings highlight the importance of vigilance for nontuberculous mycobacterial musculoskeletal infection, particularly in patients who are immunosuppressed or have a history of musculoskeletal surgery.

EID Goldstein N, St. Clair J, Kasperbauer SH, Daley CL, Lindeque B. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Musculoskeletal Infection Cases from a Tertiary Referral Center, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1075-1083. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181041
AMA Goldstein N, St. Clair J, Kasperbauer SH, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Musculoskeletal Infection Cases from a Tertiary Referral Center, Colorado, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1075-1083. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181041.
APA Goldstein, N., St. Clair, J., Kasperbauer, S. H., Daley, C. L., & Lindeque, B. (2019). Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Musculoskeletal Infection Cases from a Tertiary Referral Center, Colorado, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1075-1083. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181041.
Research

Phenotypic and Genomic Analyses of Burkholderia stabilis Clinical Contamination, Switzerland [PDF - 1.16 MB - 9 pages]
H. Seth-Smith et al.

A recent hospital outbreak related to premoistened gloves used to wash patients exposed the difficulties of defining Burkholderia species in clinical settings. The outbreak strain displayed key B. stabilis phenotypes, including the inability to grow at 42°C; we used whole-genome sequencing to confirm the pathogen was B. stabilis. The outbreak strain genome comprises 3 chromosomes and a plasmid, sharing an average nucleotide identity of 98.4% with B. stabilis ATCC27515 BAA-67, but with 13% novel coding sequences. The genome lacks identifiable virulence factors and has no apparent increase in encoded antimicrobial drug resistance, few insertion sequences, and few pseudogenes, suggesting this outbreak was an opportunistic infection by an environmental strain not adapted to human pathogenicity. The diversity among outbreak isolates (22 from patients and 16 from washing gloves) is only 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the genome remains plastic, with large elements stochastically lost from outbreak isolates.

EID Seth-Smith H, Casanova C, Sommerstein R, Meinel DM, Abdelbary M, Blanc DS, et al. Phenotypic and Genomic Analyses of Burkholderia stabilis Clinical Contamination, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1084-1092. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.172119
AMA Seth-Smith H, Casanova C, Sommerstein R, et al. Phenotypic and Genomic Analyses of Burkholderia stabilis Clinical Contamination, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1084-1092. doi:10.3201/eid2506.172119.
APA Seth-Smith, H., Casanova, C., Sommerstein, R., Meinel, D. M., Abdelbary, M., Blanc, D. S....Egli, A. (2019). Phenotypic and Genomic Analyses of Burkholderia stabilis Clinical Contamination, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1084-1092. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.172119.

Patterns of Abundance, Host Use, and Everglades Virus Infection in Culex (Melanoconion) cedecei Mosquitoes, Florida, USA [PDF - 1.54 MB - 8 pages]
I. J. Hoyer et al.

Everglades virus (EVEV), subtype II within the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus complex, is a mosquitoborne zoonotic pathogen endemic to south Florida, USA. EVEV infection in humans is considered rare, probably because of the sylvatic nature of the vector, the Culex (Melanoconion) cedecei mosquito. The introduction of Cx. panocossa, a tropical vector mosquito of VEE virus subtypes that inhabits urban areas, may increase human EVEV exposure. Field studies investigating spatial and temporal patterns of abundance, host use, and EVEV infection of Cx. cedecei mosquitoes in Everglades National Park found that vector abundance was dynamic across season and region. Rodents, particularly Sigmodon hispidus rats, were primary vertebrate hosts, constituting 77%–100% of Cx. cedecei blood meals. Humans were fed upon at several locations. We detected EVEV infection in Cx. cedecei mosquitoes in lower and upper regions of Everglades National Park only during the wet season, despite an abundance of Cx. cedecei mosquitoes at other sampling times.

EID Hoyer IJ, Acevedo C, Wiggins K, Alto BW, Burkett-Cadena ND. Patterns of Abundance, Host Use, and Everglades Virus Infection in Culex (Melanoconion) cedecei Mosquitoes, Florida, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1093-1100. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180338
AMA Hoyer IJ, Acevedo C, Wiggins K, et al. Patterns of Abundance, Host Use, and Everglades Virus Infection in Culex (Melanoconion) cedecei Mosquitoes, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1093-1100. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180338.
APA Hoyer, I. J., Acevedo, C., Wiggins, K., Alto, B. W., & Burkett-Cadena, N. D. (2019). Patterns of Abundance, Host Use, and Everglades Virus Infection in Culex (Melanoconion) cedecei Mosquitoes, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1093-1100. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180338.

Assessment of Economic Burden of Concurrent Measles and Rubella Outbreaks, Romania, 2011–2012 [PDF - 720 KB - 9 pages]
J. Njau et al.

We estimated the economic impact of concurrent measles and rubella outbreaks in Romania during 2011–2012. We collected costs from surveys of 428 case-patients and caretakers, government records, and health staff interviews. We then estimated financial and opportunity costs. During the study period, 12,427 measles cases and 24,627 rubella cases were recorded; 27 infants had congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The cost of the outbreaks was US $9.9 million. Cost per case was US $439 for measles, US $132 for rubella, and US $44,051 for CRS. Up to 36% of households needed to borrow money to pay for illness treatment. Approximately 17% of patients continued to work while ill to pay their treatment expenses. Our key study findings were that households incurred a high economic burden compared with their incomes, the health sector bore most costs, and CRS costs were substantial and relevant to include in rubella outbreak cost studies.

EID Njau J, Janta D, Stanescu A, Pallas SS, Pistol A, Khetsuriani N, et al. Assessment of Economic Burden of Concurrent Measles and Rubella Outbreaks, Romania, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1101-1109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180339
AMA Njau J, Janta D, Stanescu A, et al. Assessment of Economic Burden of Concurrent Measles and Rubella Outbreaks, Romania, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1101-1109. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180339.
APA Njau, J., Janta, D., Stanescu, A., Pallas, S. S., Pistol, A., Khetsuriani, N....Zimmerman, L. (2019). Assessment of Economic Burden of Concurrent Measles and Rubella Outbreaks, Romania, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1101-1109. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180339.

Novel Orthobunyavirus Causing Severe Kidney Disease in Broiler Chickens, Malaysia, 2014–2017 [PDF - 3.00 MB - 8 pages]
V. Palya et al.

During 2014–2017, we isolated a novel orthobunyavirus from broiler chickens with severe kidney lesions in the state of Kedah, Malaysia; we named the virus Kedah fatal kidney syndrome virus (KFKSV). Affected chickens became listless and diarrheic before dying suddenly. Necropsies detected pale and swollen kidneys with signs of gout, enlarged and fragile livers, and pale hearts. Experimental infection of broiler chickens with KFKSV reproduced the disease and pathologic conditions observed in the field, fulfilling the Koch’s postulates. Gene sequencing indicated high nucleotide identities between KFKSV isolates (99%) and moderate nucleotide identities with the orthobunyavirus Umbre virus in the large (78%), medium (77%), and small (86%) genomic segments. KFKSV may be pathogenic for other host species, including humans.

EID Palya V, Kovács E, Marton S, Tatár-Kis T, Felföldi B, Forró B, et al. Novel Orthobunyavirus Causing Severe Kidney Disease in Broiler Chickens, Malaysia, 2014–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1110-1117. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181661
AMA Palya V, Kovács E, Marton S, et al. Novel Orthobunyavirus Causing Severe Kidney Disease in Broiler Chickens, Malaysia, 2014–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1110-1117. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181661.
APA Palya, V., Kovács, E., Marton, S., Tatár-Kis, T., Felföldi, B., Forró, B....Bányai, K. (2019). Novel Orthobunyavirus Causing Severe Kidney Disease in Broiler Chickens, Malaysia, 2014–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1110-1117. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181661.

Joint Estimation of Relative Risk for Dengue and Zika Infections, Colombia, 2015–2016 [PDF - 4.70 MB - 9 pages]
D. Martínez-Bello et al.

We jointly estimated relative risk for dengue and Zika virus disease (Zika) in Colombia, establishing the spatial association between them at the department and city levels for October 2015–December 2016. Cases of dengue and Zika were allocated to the 87 municipalities of 1 department and the 293 census sections of 1 city in Colombia. We fitted 8 hierarchical Bayesian Poisson joint models of relative risk for dengue and Zika, including area- and disease-specific random effects accounting for several spatial patterns of disease risk (clustered or uncorrelated heterogeneity) within and between both diseases. Most of the dengue and Zika high-risk municipalities varied in their risk distribution; those for Zika were in the northern part of the department and dengue in the southern to northeastern parts. At city level, spatially clustered patterns of dengue high-risk census sections indicated Zika high-risk areas. This information can be used to inform public health decision making.

EID Martínez-Bello D, López-Quílez A, Prieto A. Joint Estimation of Relative Risk for Dengue and Zika Infections, Colombia, 2015–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1118-1126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180392
AMA Martínez-Bello D, López-Quílez A, Prieto A. Joint Estimation of Relative Risk for Dengue and Zika Infections, Colombia, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1118-1126. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180392.
APA Martínez-Bello, D., López-Quílez, A., & Prieto, A. (2019). Joint Estimation of Relative Risk for Dengue and Zika Infections, Colombia, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1118-1126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180392.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality, Beijing, China, 2007–2015 [PDF - 2.28 MB - 9 pages]
J. Yu et al.

During July 2007–June 2015, we enrolled 4,225 hospitalized children with pneumonia in a study to determine the seasonality of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in Beijing, China. We defined season as the period during which >10% of total PCRs performed each week were RSV positive. We identified 8 distinctive RSV seasons. On average, the season onset occurred at week 41 (mid-October) and lasted 33 weeks, through week 20 of the next year (mid-May); 97% of all RSV-positive cases occurred during the season. RSV seasons occurred 3–5 weeks earlier and lasted ≈6 weeks longer in RSV subgroup A–dominant years than in RSV subgroup B–dominant years. Our analysis indicates that monitoring such RSV subgroup shifts might provide better estimates for the onset of RSV transmission. PCR-based tests could be a flexible or complementary way of determining RSV seasonality in locations where RSV surveillance is less well-established, such as local hospitals throughout China.

EID Yu J, Liu C, Xiao Y, Xiang Z, Zhou H, Chen L, et al. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality, Beijing, China, 2007–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1127-1135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180532
AMA Yu J, Liu C, Xiao Y, et al. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality, Beijing, China, 2007–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1127-1135. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180532.
APA Yu, J., Liu, C., Xiao, Y., Xiang, Z., Zhou, H., Chen, L....Wang, J. (2019). Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality, Beijing, China, 2007–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1127-1135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180532.

Enhancement of Risk for Lyme Disease by Landscape Connectivity, New York, New York, USA [PDF - 1.72 MB - 8 pages]
M. C. VanAcker et al.

Most tickborne disease studies in the United States are conducted in low-intensity residential development and forested areas, leaving much unknown about urban infection risks. To understand Lyme disease risk in New York, New York, USA, we conducted tick surveys in 24 parks throughout all 5 boroughs and assessed how park connectivity and landscape composition contribute to Ixodes scapularis tick nymphal densities and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. We used circuit theory models to determine how parks differentially maintain landscape connectivity for white-tailed deer, the reproductive host for I. scapularis ticks. We found forested parks with vegetated buffers and increased connectivity had higher nymph densities, and the degree of park connectivity strongly determined B. burgdorferi nymphal infection prevalence. Our study challenges the perspective that tickborne disease risk is restricted to suburban and natural settings and emphasizes the need to understand how green space design affects vector and host communities in areas of emerging urban tickborne disease.

EID VanAcker MC, Little E, Molaei G, Bajwa WI, Diuk-Wasser MA. Enhancement of Risk for Lyme Disease by Landscape Connectivity, New York, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1136-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181741
AMA VanAcker MC, Little E, Molaei G, et al. Enhancement of Risk for Lyme Disease by Landscape Connectivity, New York, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1136-1143. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181741.
APA VanAcker, M. C., Little, E., Molaei, G., Bajwa, W. I., & Diuk-Wasser, M. A. (2019). Enhancement of Risk for Lyme Disease by Landscape Connectivity, New York, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1136-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181741.

Use of Single-Injection Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccine to Protect Nonhuman Primates Against Lethal Nipah Virus Disease [PDF - 3.41 MB - 9 pages]
C. E. Mire et al.

Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes high case-fatality rates (CFRs) in humans. Two NiV strains have caused outbreaks: the Malaysia strain (NiVM), discovered in 1998–1999 in Malaysia and Singapore (≈40% CFR); and the Bangladesh strain (NiVB), discovered in Bangladesh and India in 2001 (≈80% CFR). Recently, NiVB in African green monkeys resulted in a more severe and lethal disease than NiVM. No NiV vaccines or treatments are licensed for human use. We assessed replication-restricted single-injection recombinant vesicular stomatitis vaccine NiV vaccine vectors expressing the NiV glycoproteins against NiVB challenge in African green monkeys. All vaccinated animals survived to the study endpoint without signs of NiV disease; all showed development of NiV F Ig, NiV G IgG, or both, as well as neutralizing antibody titers. These data show protective efficacy against a stringent and relevant NiVB model of human infection.

EID Mire CE, Geisbert JB, Agans KN, Versteeg KM, Deer DJ, Satterfield BA, et al. Use of Single-Injection Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccine to Protect Nonhuman Primates Against Lethal Nipah Virus Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1144-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181620
AMA Mire CE, Geisbert JB, Agans KN, et al. Use of Single-Injection Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccine to Protect Nonhuman Primates Against Lethal Nipah Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1144-1152. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181620.
APA Mire, C. E., Geisbert, J. B., Agans, K. N., Versteeg, K. M., Deer, D. J., Satterfield, B. A....Geisbert, T. W. (2019). Use of Single-Injection Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccine to Protect Nonhuman Primates Against Lethal Nipah Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1144-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181620.

Performance of 2 Commercial Serologic Tests for Diagnosing Zika Virus Infection [PDF - 3.42 MB - 8 pages]
S. Matheus et al.

Reliable serologic tests are needed for diagnosis and surveillance of Zika virus infection. We evaluated the Euroimmun and Dia.Pro serologic tests for detection of Zika virus IgM and IgG by using a panel of 199 samples from a region endemic for flaviviruses. Kinetics of Zika virus antibodies were monitored from 300 sequential specimens sampled over a period of 10 months after infection. We observed suboptimal performance; sensitivity for Zika virus IgM was low, especially in the Euroimmun assay (49%), whereas IgM could be detected for months with the Dia.pro assay. The specificity of the Zika virus IgG assays was also low, especially that of Dia.Pro (62%); findings were strongly influenced by the epidemiologic context. These results highlight the complexity of serologic diagnosis of Zika virus infection in regions endemic for flaviviruses. Accurate analysis of the performance of assays is required to adapt and interpret algorithms.

EID Matheus S, Talla C, Labeau B, de Laval F, Briolant S, Berthelot L, et al. Performance of 2 Commercial Serologic Tests for Diagnosing Zika Virus Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1153-1160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180361
AMA Matheus S, Talla C, Labeau B, et al. Performance of 2 Commercial Serologic Tests for Diagnosing Zika Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1153-1160. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180361.
APA Matheus, S., Talla, C., Labeau, B., de Laval, F., Briolant, S., Berthelot, L....Rousset, D. (2019). Performance of 2 Commercial Serologic Tests for Diagnosing Zika Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1153-1160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180361.

Sequential Emergence and Wide Spread of Neutralization Escape Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Mutants, South Korea, 2015 [PDF - 2.35 MB - 8 pages]
Y. Kim et al.

The unexpectedly large outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome in South Korea in 2015 was initiated by an infected traveler and amplified by several “superspreading” events. Previously, we reported the emergence and spread of mutant Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus bearing spike mutations (I529T or D510G) with reduced affinity to human receptor CD26 during the outbreak. To assess the potential association of spike mutations with superspreading events, we collected virus genetic information reported during the outbreak and systemically analyzed the relationship of spike sequences and epidemiology. We found sequential emergence of the spike mutations in 2 superspreaders. In vivo virulence of the mutant viruses seems to decline in human patients, as assessed by fever duration in affected persons. In addition, neutralizing activity against these 2 mutant viruses in serum samples from mice immunized with wild-type spike antigen were gradually reduced, suggesting emergence and wide spread of neutralization escapers during the outbreak.

EID Kim Y, Aigerim A, Park U, Kim Y, Rhee J, Choi J, et al. Sequential Emergence and Wide Spread of Neutralization Escape Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Mutants, South Korea, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1161-1168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181722
AMA Kim Y, Aigerim A, Park U, et al. Sequential Emergence and Wide Spread of Neutralization Escape Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Mutants, South Korea, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1161-1168. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181722.
APA Kim, Y., Aigerim, A., Park, U., Kim, Y., Rhee, J., Choi, J....Cho, N. (2019). Sequential Emergence and Wide Spread of Neutralization Escape Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Mutants, South Korea, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1161-1168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181722.

Mass Die-Off of Saiga Antelopes, Kazakhstan, 2015 [PDF - 1.09 MB - 8 pages]
S. Fereidouni et al.

In 2015, a mass die-off of ≈200,000 saiga antelopes in central Kazakhstan was caused by hemorrhagic septicemia attributable to the bacterium Pasteurella multocida serotype B. Previous analyses have indicated that environmental triggers associated with weather conditions, specifically air moisture and temperature in the region of the saiga antelope calving during the 10-day period running up to the event, were critical to the proliferation of latent bacteria and were comparable to conditions accompanying historically similar die-offs in the same areas. We investigated whether additional viral or bacterial pathogens could be detected in samples from affected animals using 3 different high-throughput sequencing approaches. We did not identify pathogens associated with commensal bacterial opportunisms in blood, kidney, or lung samples and thus concluded that P. multocida serotype B was the primary cause of the disease.

EID Fereidouni S, Freimanis GL, Orynbayev M, Ribeca P, Flannery J, King DP, et al. Mass Die-Off of Saiga Antelopes, Kazakhstan, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1169-1176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180990
AMA Fereidouni S, Freimanis GL, Orynbayev M, et al. Mass Die-Off of Saiga Antelopes, Kazakhstan, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1169-1176. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180990.
APA Fereidouni, S., Freimanis, G. L., Orynbayev, M., Ribeca, P., Flannery, J., King, D. P....Kock, R. (2019). Mass Die-Off of Saiga Antelopes, Kazakhstan, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1169-1176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180990.

Survey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Enzootic Focus, Spain, 2011–2015 [PDF - 801 KB - 8 pages]
A. Negredo et al.

During 2011–2015, we conducted a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) survey in captured ticks that were feeding mainly on wild and domestic ungulates in Spain, where presence of this virus had been reported previously. We detected CCHFV RNA in Hyalomma lusitanicum and H. marginatum ticks for 3 of the 5 years. The rate of infected ticks was 2.78% (44/1,579), which was similar to those for other countries in Europe with endemic foci for CCHFV (Kosovo, Bulgaria, and Albania). These data confirm the established spread of CCHFV into western Europe. Phylogenetic study of the small RNA segment showed Africa-3 clade as the only genotype identified, although we observed cocirculation of genetic variants during 2011 and 2015. We could not rule out genetic reassortments because of lack of sequence data for the medium and large RNA segments of the virus genome.

EID Negredo A, Habela M, Ramírez de Arellano E, Diez F, Lasala F, López P, et al. Survey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Enzootic Focus, Spain, 2011–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1177-1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180877
AMA Negredo A, Habela M, Ramírez de Arellano E, et al. Survey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Enzootic Focus, Spain, 2011–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1177-1184. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180877.
APA Negredo, A., Habela, M., Ramírez de Arellano, E., Diez, F., Lasala, F., López, P....Sánchez-Seco, M. (2019). Survey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Enzootic Focus, Spain, 2011–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1177-1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180877.
Historical Review

Equine Influenza Virus—A Neglected, Reemergent Disease Threat [PDF - 989 KB - 7 pages]
A. Sack et al.

Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a common, highly contagious equid respiratory disease. Historically, EIV outbreaks have caused high levels of equine illness and economic damage. Outbreaks have occurred worldwide in the past decade. The risk for EIV infection is not limited to equids; dogs, cats, and humans are susceptible. In addition, equids are at risk from infection with avian influenza viruses, which can increase mortality rates. EIV is spread by direct and indirect contact, and recent epizootics also suggest wind-aided aerosol transmission. Increased international transport and commerce in horses, along with difficulties in controlling EIV with vaccination, could lead to emergent EIV strains and potential global spread. We review the history and epidemiology of EIV infections, describe neglected aspects of EIV surveillance, and discuss the potential for novel EIV strains to cause substantial disease burden and subsequent economic distress.

EID Sack A, Cullinane A, Daramragchaa U, Chuluunbaatar M, Gonchigoo B, Gray GC. Equine Influenza Virus—A Neglected, Reemergent Disease Threat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1185-1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.161846
AMA Sack A, Cullinane A, Daramragchaa U, et al. Equine Influenza Virus—A Neglected, Reemergent Disease Threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1185-1191. doi:10.3201/eid2506.161846.
APA Sack, A., Cullinane, A., Daramragchaa, U., Chuluunbaatar, M., Gonchigoo, B., & Gray, G. C. (2019). Equine Influenza Virus—A Neglected, Reemergent Disease Threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1185-1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.161846.
Dispatches

Outbreak of Vaccinia Virus Infection from Occupational Exposure, China, 2017 [PDF - 1.13 MB - 4 pages]
B. Lu et al.

Human infections with vaccinia virus (VACV), mostly from laboratory accidents or contact with infected animals, have occurred since smallpox was eradicated in 1980. No recent cases have been reported in China. We report on an outbreak of VACV from occupational exposure to rabbit skins inoculated with VACV.

EID Lu B, Cui L, Gu M, Shi C, Sun C, Zhao K, et al. Outbreak of Vaccinia Virus Infection from Occupational Exposure, China, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1192-1195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.171306
AMA Lu B, Cui L, Gu M, et al. Outbreak of Vaccinia Virus Infection from Occupational Exposure, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1192-1195. doi:10.3201/eid2506.171306.
APA Lu, B., Cui, L., Gu, M., Shi, C., Sun, C., Zhao, K....Bao, C. (2019). Outbreak of Vaccinia Virus Infection from Occupational Exposure, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1192-1195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.171306.

Pertactin-Negative and Filamentous Hemagglutinin-Negative Bordetella pertussis, Australia, 2013–2017 [PDF - 1.61 MB - 4 pages]
Z. Xu et al.

During the 2008–2012 pertussis epidemic in Australia, pertactin (Prn)–negative Bordetella pertussis emerged. We analyzed 78 isolates from the 2013–2017 epidemic and documented continued expansion of Prn-negative ptxP3 B. pertussis strains. We also detected a filamentous hemagglutinin-negative and Prn-negative B. pertussis isolate.

EID Xu Z, Octavia S, Luu L, Payne M, Timms V, Tay C, et al. Pertactin-Negative and Filamentous Hemagglutinin-Negative Bordetella pertussis, Australia, 2013–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1196-1199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180240
AMA Xu Z, Octavia S, Luu L, et al. Pertactin-Negative and Filamentous Hemagglutinin-Negative Bordetella pertussis, Australia, 2013–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1196-1199. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180240.
APA Xu, Z., Octavia, S., Luu, L., Payne, M., Timms, V., Tay, C....Lan, R. (2019). Pertactin-Negative and Filamentous Hemagglutinin-Negative Bordetella pertussis, Australia, 2013–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1196-1199. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180240.

Increase in Enterovirus D68 Infections in Young Children, United Kingdom, 2006–2016 [PDF - 2.27 MB - 4 pages]
E. Kamau et al.

We determined the change in seroprevalence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in the United Kingdom in age-stratified cohorts from 2006 to 2016, the period during which EV-D68 emerged as a cause of severe respiratory disease occasionally leading to paralysis. Infections were acquired primarily in infants and young children, and incidence was markedly higher in 2016.

EID Kamau E, Harvala H, Blomqvist S, Nguyen D, Horby P, Pebody R, et al. Increase in Enterovirus D68 Infections in Young Children, United Kingdom, 2006–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1200-1203. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181759
AMA Kamau E, Harvala H, Blomqvist S, et al. Increase in Enterovirus D68 Infections in Young Children, United Kingdom, 2006–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1200-1203. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181759.
APA Kamau, E., Harvala, H., Blomqvist, S., Nguyen, D., Horby, P., Pebody, R....Simmonds, P. (2019). Increase in Enterovirus D68 Infections in Young Children, United Kingdom, 2006–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1200-1203. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181759.

Multirecombinant Enterovirus A71 Subgenogroup C1 Isolates Associated with Neurologic Disease, France, 2016–2017 [PDF - 1.85 MB - 5 pages]
S. Ngangas et al.

In 2016, an upsurge of neurologic disease associated with infection with multirecombinant enterovirus A71 subgenogroup C1 lineage viruses was reported in France. These viruses emerged in the 2000s; 1 recombinant is widespread. This virus lineage has the potential to be associated with a long-term risk for severe disease among children.

EID Ngangas S, Lukashev A, Jugie G, Ivanova O, Mansuy J, Mengelle C, et al. Multirecombinant Enterovirus A71 Subgenogroup C1 Isolates Associated with Neurologic Disease, France, 2016–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1204-1208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181460
AMA Ngangas S, Lukashev A, Jugie G, et al. Multirecombinant Enterovirus A71 Subgenogroup C1 Isolates Associated with Neurologic Disease, France, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1204-1208. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181460.
APA Ngangas, S., Lukashev, A., Jugie, G., Ivanova, O., Mansuy, J., Mengelle, C....Bailly, J. (2019). Multirecombinant Enterovirus A71 Subgenogroup C1 Isolates Associated with Neurologic Disease, France, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1204-1208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181460.

New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase 5–Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 258, Southwest China, 2017 [PDF - 3.55 MB - 5 pages]
X. Zhang et al.

We isolated a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 5 (NDM-5)–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 258 strain in southwest China during 2017. The blaNDM-5 gene was acquired by horizontal plasmid transfer from NDM-5–producing Escherichia coli. We identified genomic characteristics in ST258 strains that differed from those of global K. pneumoniae carbapenemase–producing strains.

EID Zhang X, Wan W, Yu H, Wang M, Zhang H, Lv J, et al. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase 5–Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 258, Southwest China, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1209-1213. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181939
AMA Zhang X, Wan W, Yu H, et al. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase 5–Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 258, Southwest China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1209-1213. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181939.
APA Zhang, X., Wan, W., Yu, H., Wang, M., Zhang, H., Lv, J....Chen, L. (2019). New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase 5–Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 258, Southwest China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1209-1213. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181939.

Scrub Typhus in Continental Chile, 2016–2018 [PDF - 1.02 MB - 4 pages]
T. Weitzel et al.

Endemic scrub typhus was recently detected on Chiloé Island in southern Chile. We report a series of cases, acquired over a wide geographical range in continental Chile during 2016–2018, demonstrating that this emerging rickettsial infection is also found on the mainland of South America.

EID Weitzel T, Abarca K, Martínez-Valdebenito C, Acosta-Jamett G, Jiang J, Richards AL. Scrub Typhus in Continental Chile, 2016–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1214-1217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181860
AMA Weitzel T, Abarca K, Martínez-Valdebenito C, et al. Scrub Typhus in Continental Chile, 2016–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1214-1217. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181860.
APA Weitzel, T., Abarca, K., Martínez-Valdebenito, C., Acosta-Jamett, G., Jiang, J., & Richards, A. L. (2019). Scrub Typhus in Continental Chile, 2016–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1214-1217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181860.
Research Letters

National Surveillance of Legionnaires’ Disease, China, 2014–2016 [PDF - 354 KB - 2 pages]
T. Qin et al.

We report national surveillance of Legionnaires’ disease in China. Urine samples from 11 (3.85%) of 286 patients with severe pneumonia of unknown cause were positive for the Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen. We isolated Legionella strains from 7 patients. Improved diagnostic testing is needed for this underestimated disease in China.

EID Qin T, Ren H, Chen D, Zhou H, Jiang L, Wu D, et al. National Surveillance of Legionnaires’ Disease, China, 2014–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1218-1219. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.171431
AMA Qin T, Ren H, Chen D, et al. National Surveillance of Legionnaires’ Disease, China, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1218-1219. doi:10.3201/eid2506.171431.
APA Qin, T., Ren, H., Chen, D., Zhou, H., Jiang, L., Wu, D....Pei, F. (2019). National Surveillance of Legionnaires’ Disease, China, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1218-1219. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.171431.

Molecular Evidence of Human Monkeypox Virus Infection, Sierra Leone [PDF - 453 KB - 3 pages]
F. Ye et al.

Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic disease endemic to Africa. In 2017, we confirmed a case of human monkeypox virus in Sierra Leone by molecular and serologic methods. Sequencing analysis indicated the virus belongs to the West African clade and data suggest it was likely transmitted by wild animals.

EID Ye F, Song J, Zhao L, Zhang Y, Xia L, Zhu L, et al. Molecular Evidence of Human Monkeypox Virus Infection, Sierra Leone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1220-1222. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180296
AMA Ye F, Song J, Zhao L, et al. Molecular Evidence of Human Monkeypox Virus Infection, Sierra Leone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1220-1222. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180296.
APA Ye, F., Song, J., Zhao, L., Zhang, Y., Xia, L., Zhu, L....Tan, W. (2019). Molecular Evidence of Human Monkeypox Virus Infection, Sierra Leone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1220-1222. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.180296.

Leishmaniasis in Norway Rats in Sewers, Barcelona, Spain [PDF - 347 KB - 3 pages]
M. Galán-Puchades et al.

We detected Leishmania infantum in 98 Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) trapped in parks and sewers of Barcelona, Spain. The 84 rats from the sewers showed a prevalence of 33.3% and up to 2,272 estimated parasites. These results, in the most abundant potential reservoir in cities, is of public health concern.

EID Galán-Puchades M, Gómez-Samblás M, Suárez-Morán JM, Osuna A, Sanxis-Furió J, Pascual J, et al. Leishmaniasis in Norway Rats in Sewers, Barcelona, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1222-1224. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181027
AMA Galán-Puchades M, Gómez-Samblás M, Suárez-Morán JM, et al. Leishmaniasis in Norway Rats in Sewers, Barcelona, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1222-1224. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181027.
APA Galán-Puchades, M., Gómez-Samblás, M., Suárez-Morán, J. M., Osuna, A., Sanxis-Furió, J., Pascual, J....Fuentes, M. V. (2019). Leishmaniasis in Norway Rats in Sewers, Barcelona, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1222-1224. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181027.

Influenza D Virus Infection in Dromedary Camels, Ethiopia [PDF - 566 KB - 3 pages]
S. Murakami et al.

Influenza D virus has been found to cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We surveyed healthy dromedary camels in Ethiopia and found a high seroprevalence for this virus, in contrast to animals co-existing with the camels. Our observation implies that dromedary camels may play an important role in the circulation of influenza D virus.

EID Murakami S, Odagiri T, Melaku S, Bazartseren B, Ishida H, Takenaka-Uema A, et al. Influenza D Virus Infection in Dromedary Camels, Ethiopia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1224-1226. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181158
AMA Murakami S, Odagiri T, Melaku S, et al. Influenza D Virus Infection in Dromedary Camels, Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1224-1226. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181158.
APA Murakami, S., Odagiri, T., Melaku, S., Bazartseren, B., Ishida, H., Takenaka-Uema, A....Horimoto, T. (2019). Influenza D Virus Infection in Dromedary Camels, Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1224-1226. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181158.

Absence of Neospora caninum DNA in Human Clinical Samples, Spain [PDF - 348 KB - 2 pages]
R. Calero-Bernal et al.

Low antibody titers to Neospora caninum have been reported in humans, but infection has not been confirmed. We used N. caninum–specific PCR to test 600 clinical samples from patients with toxoplasmosis signs but Toxoplasma gondii–negative PCR results. We did not detect N. caninum DNA, demonstrating it is an unlikely opportunistic zoonotic agent.

EID Calero-Bernal R, Horcajo P, Hernández M, Ortega-Mora L, Fuentes I. Absence of Neospora caninum DNA in Human Clinical Samples, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1226-1227. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181431
AMA Calero-Bernal R, Horcajo P, Hernández M, et al. Absence of Neospora caninum DNA in Human Clinical Samples, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1226-1227. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181431.
APA Calero-Bernal, R., Horcajo, P., Hernández, M., Ortega-Mora, L., & Fuentes, I. (2019). Absence of Neospora caninum DNA in Human Clinical Samples, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1226-1227. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181431.

Reemergence of Classical Swine Fever, Japan, 2018 [PDF - 791 KB - 4 pages]
A. Postel et al.

In September 2018, classical swine fever reemerged in Japan after 26 years, affecting domestic pigs and wild boars. The causative virus belongs to the 2.1 subgenotype, which caused repeated outbreaks in eastern and Southeast Asia. Intensive surveillance of swine and vaccination of wild boars will help control and eradicate this disease in Japan.

EID Postel A, Nishi T, Kameyama K, Meyer D, Suckstorff O, Becher P. Reemergence of Classical Swine Fever, Japan, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1228-1231. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181578
AMA Postel A, Nishi T, Kameyama K, et al. Reemergence of Classical Swine Fever, Japan, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1228-1231. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181578.
APA Postel, A., Nishi, T., Kameyama, K., Meyer, D., Suckstorff, O., & Becher, P. (2019). Reemergence of Classical Swine Fever, Japan, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1228-1231. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181578.

African Swine Fever Virus in Pork Brought into South Korea by Travelers from China, August 2018 [PDF - 546 KB - 3 pages]
H. Kim et al.

We tested samples of pork products confiscated from travelers to South Korea for African swine fever virus (ASFV). We detected ASFV in 4 food items confiscated from travelers from Shenyang, China, in August 2018. Surveillance of pork products at country entry points is needed to mitigate the risk for ASFV introduction.

EID Kim H, Lee M, Lee S, Kim D, Seo S, Kang H, et al. African Swine Fever Virus in Pork Brought into South Korea by Travelers from China, August 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1231-1233. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181684
AMA Kim H, Lee M, Lee S, et al. African Swine Fever Virus in Pork Brought into South Korea by Travelers from China, August 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1231-1233. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181684.
APA Kim, H., Lee, M., Lee, S., Kim, D., Seo, S., Kang, H....Nam, H. (2019). African Swine Fever Virus in Pork Brought into South Korea by Travelers from China, August 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1231-1233. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181684.

Hepatitis E Virus Infection in European Brown Hares, Germany, 2007–2014 [PDF - 506 KB - 3 pages]
V. Corman et al.

Rabbit-associated hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) cause zoonotic infections. We investigated 2,389 hares in Germany during 2007–2014. Complete genome characterization of a hare-associated HEV strain revealed close genomic relatedness to rabbit-associated HEV strains. Although hare-specific HEV seroprevalence was low, at 2.6%, hares represent a potential source of sporadic HEV infections.

EID Corman V, Hilgensloh L, Voigt U, Marklewitz M, Siebert U, Drosten C, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in European Brown Hares, Germany, 2007–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1233-1235. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181618
AMA Corman V, Hilgensloh L, Voigt U, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in European Brown Hares, Germany, 2007–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1233-1235. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181618.
APA Corman, V., Hilgensloh, L., Voigt, U., Marklewitz, M., Siebert, U., Drosten, C....Drexler, J. (2019). Hepatitis E Virus Infection in European Brown Hares, Germany, 2007–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1233-1235. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181618.

Sarcoptic Mange of Fox Origin in Multiple Farm Animals and Scabies in Humans, Switzerland, 2018 [PDF - 2.55 MB - 4 pages]
S. Pisano et al.

Fox-derived Sarcoptes scabiei mites caused an outbreak of mange on a farm in Switzerland in 2018. Pruritic skin lesions suggestive of S. scabiei mite infestation developed in 4 humans who had direct contact with affected farm animals but not foxes. Sarcoptic mange is continuously spreading; such outbreaks affecting humans could start occurring more frequently.

EID Pisano S, Ryser-Degiorgis M, Rossi L, Peano A, Keckeis K, Roosje P. Sarcoptic Mange of Fox Origin in Multiple Farm Animals and Scabies in Humans, Switzerland, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1235-1238. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181891
AMA Pisano S, Ryser-Degiorgis M, Rossi L, et al. Sarcoptic Mange of Fox Origin in Multiple Farm Animals and Scabies in Humans, Switzerland, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1235-1238. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181891.
APA Pisano, S., Ryser-Degiorgis, M., Rossi, L., Peano, A., Keckeis, K., & Roosje, P. (2019). Sarcoptic Mange of Fox Origin in Multiple Farm Animals and Scabies in Humans, Switzerland, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1235-1238. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181891.

Suboptimal Handling of Piccolo Samples or Reagent Discs for Consideration in Ebola Response [PDF - 365 KB - 3 pages]
J. R. Spengler et al.

Operating clinical analyzers within recommended parameters can be challenging during outbreak response. Using the Piccolo Xpress point-of-care blood chemistry analyzer on guinea pig blood, we found that values of many analytes are still readily comparable when samples and reagent discs are handled at various conditions outside of manufacturer recommendations.

EID Spengler JR, Welch SR, Genzer SC, Coleman-McCray J, Harmon JR, Nichol ST, et al. Suboptimal Handling of Piccolo Samples or Reagent Discs for Consideration in Ebola Response. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1238-1240. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181928
AMA Spengler JR, Welch SR, Genzer SC, et al. Suboptimal Handling of Piccolo Samples or Reagent Discs for Consideration in Ebola Response. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1238-1240. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181928.
APA Spengler, J. R., Welch, S. R., Genzer, S. C., Coleman-McCray, J., Harmon, J. R., Nichol, S. T....Spiropoulou, C. F. (2019). Suboptimal Handling of Piccolo Samples or Reagent Discs for Consideration in Ebola Response. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1238-1240. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181928.

Infection with New York Orthohantavirus and Associated Respiratory Failure and Multiple Cerebral Complications [PDF - 784 KB - 3 pages]
R. Fernando et al.

We report a case of infection with New York orthohantavirus in a woman who showed renal impairment and hemorrhage, complicated by hydrocephalus, in Long Island, New York, USA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this virus was genetically similar to a New York orthohantavirus isolated in the same region during 1993.

EID Fernando R, Capone D, Elrich S, Mantovani R, Quarles L, D’Amato A, et al. Infection with New York Orthohantavirus and Associated Respiratory Failure and Multiple Cerebral Complications. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1241-1243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181966
AMA Fernando R, Capone D, Elrich S, et al. Infection with New York Orthohantavirus and Associated Respiratory Failure and Multiple Cerebral Complications. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1241-1243. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181966.
APA Fernando, R., Capone, D., Elrich, S., Mantovani, R., Quarles, L., D’Amato, A....Marcos, L. A. (2019). Infection with New York Orthohantavirus and Associated Respiratory Failure and Multiple Cerebral Complications. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1241-1243. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181966.

Rickettsia japonica Infection after Land Leech Bite, Japan [PDF - 879 KB - 3 pages]
E. Sando et al.

We report a case of Rickettsia japonica infection in an 81-year-old man in central Japan. The patient had fever, rash, and an eschar but no evidence of a tick bite. His symptoms began 8 days after a land leech bite. The land leech is a potential vector of R. japonica.

EID Sando E, Suzuki M, Katayama M, Taira M, Fujita H, Ariyoshi K. Rickettsia japonica Infection after Land Leech Bite, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1243-1245. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181985
AMA Sando E, Suzuki M, Katayama M, et al. Rickettsia japonica Infection after Land Leech Bite, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1243-1245. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181985.
APA Sando, E., Suzuki, M., Katayama, M., Taira, M., Fujita, H., & Ariyoshi, K. (2019). Rickettsia japonica Infection after Land Leech Bite, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1243-1245. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181985.

Schistosome Interactions within the Schistosoma haematobium Group, Malawi [PDF - 484 KB - 3 pages]
B. L. Webster et al.

Molecular analysis of atypical schistosome eggs retrieved from children in Malawi revealed genetic interactions occurring between human (Schistosoma haematobium) and livestock (S. mattheei and S. bovis) schistosome species. Detection of hybrid schistosomes adds a notable new perspective to the epidemiology and control of urogenital schistosomiasis in central Africa.

EID Webster BL, Alharbi MH, Kayuni S, Makaula P, Halstead F, Christiansen R, et al. Schistosome Interactions within the Schistosoma haematobium Group, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1245-1247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.190020
AMA Webster BL, Alharbi MH, Kayuni S, et al. Schistosome Interactions within the Schistosoma haematobium Group, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1245-1247. doi:10.3201/eid2506.190020.
APA Webster, B. L., Alharbi, M. H., Kayuni, S., Makaula, P., Halstead, F., Christiansen, R....Stothard, J. (2019). Schistosome Interactions within the Schistosoma haematobium Group, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1245-1247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.190020.

Hepatitis Rebound after Infection with Yellow Fever Virus [PDF - 364 KB - 2 pages]
B. Denis et al.

In 2018, yellow fever with hepatitis was diagnosed for 2 unvaccinated travelers returning to France from Brazil. Hepatitis persisted for >6 months; liver enzyme levels again increased 2 months after disease onset with no detection of yellow fever virus RNA or other pathogens. Persistent hepatitis with hepatic cytolysis rebound probably resulted from immune response.

EID Denis B, Chirio D, Ponscarme D, Brichler S, Colin de Verdière N, Simon F, et al. Hepatitis Rebound after Infection with Yellow Fever Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1248-1249. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.190069
AMA Denis B, Chirio D, Ponscarme D, et al. Hepatitis Rebound after Infection with Yellow Fever Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1248-1249. doi:10.3201/eid2506.190069.
APA Denis, B., Chirio, D., Ponscarme, D., Brichler, S., Colin de Verdière, N., Simon, F....Molina, J. (2019). Hepatitis Rebound after Infection with Yellow Fever Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1248-1249. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.190069.

Comparative Analysis of Whole-Genome Sequence of African Swine Fever Virus Belgium 2018/1 [PDF - 333 KB - 4 pages]
J. H. Forth et al.

We analyzed the whole-genome sequence of African swine fever virus Belgium 2018/1. The strain fits into the European genotype II (>99.98% identity). The high-coverage sequence revealed 15 differences compared with an improved African swine fever virus Georgia 2007/1 sequence. However, in the absence of genetic markers, no spatial or temporal correlations could be defined.

EID Forth JH, Tignon M, Cay A, Forth LF, Höper D, Blome S, et al. Comparative Analysis of Whole-Genome Sequence of African Swine Fever Virus Belgium 2018/1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1249-1252. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.190286
AMA Forth JH, Tignon M, Cay A, et al. Comparative Analysis of Whole-Genome Sequence of African Swine Fever Virus Belgium 2018/1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1249-1252. doi:10.3201/eid2506.190286.
APA Forth, J. H., Tignon, M., Cay, A., Forth, L. F., Höper, D., Blome, S....Beer, M. (2019). Comparative Analysis of Whole-Genome Sequence of African Swine Fever Virus Belgium 2018/1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1249-1252. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.190286.

Highly Pathogenic Swine Getah Virus in Blue Foxes, Eastern China, 2017 [PDF - 1.82 MB - 3 pages]
N. Shi et al.

We isolated Getah virus from infected foxes in Shandong Province, eastern China. We sequenced the complete Getah virus genome, and phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship with a highly pathogenic swine epidemic strain in China. Epidemiologic investigation showed that pigs might play a pivotal role in disease transmission to foxes.

EID Shi N, Li L, Lu R, Yan X, Liu H. Highly Pathogenic Swine Getah Virus in Blue Foxes, Eastern China, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1252-1254. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181983
AMA Shi N, Li L, Lu R, et al. Highly Pathogenic Swine Getah Virus in Blue Foxes, Eastern China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1252-1254. doi:10.3201/eid2506.181983.
APA Shi, N., Li, L., Lu, R., Yan, X., & Liu, H. (2019). Highly Pathogenic Swine Getah Virus in Blue Foxes, Eastern China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1252-1254. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.181983.
About the Cover

The Red Boy, the Black Cat [PDF - 908 KB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. The Red Boy, the Black Cat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1256-1257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.ac2506
AMA Breedlove B. The Red Boy, the Black Cat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1256-1257. doi:10.3201/eid2506.ac2506.
APA Breedlove, B. (2019). The Red Boy, the Black Cat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1256-1257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.ac2506.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Neospora caninum [PDF - 487 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry
EID Henry R. Etymologia: Neospora caninum. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1228. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.et2506
AMA Henry R. Etymologia: Neospora caninum. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1228. doi:10.3201/eid2506.et2506.
APA Henry, R. (2019). Etymologia: Neospora caninum. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1228. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.et2506.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 25, No. 5 [PDF - 607 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 25, No. 5. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1254. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.c12506
AMA Correction: Vol. 25, No. 5. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1254. doi:10.3201/eid2506.c12506.
APA (2019). Correction: Vol. 25, No. 5. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1254. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.c12506.

Correction: Vol. 25, No. 3 [PDF - 581 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 25, No. 3. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1255. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.c22506
AMA Correction: Vol. 25, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(6):1255. doi:10.3201/eid2506.c22506.
APA (2019). Correction: Vol. 25, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(6), 1255. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2506.c22506.
Page created: May 24, 2019
Page updated: May 24, 2019
Page reviewed: May 24, 2019
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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