Volume 26, Number 11—November 2020
Measuring Timeliness of Outbreak Response in the World Health Organization African Region, 2017–2019
|Categories||Total no.†||Time to detection (15)||Time to notification (15)||Time to end (15)|
|Middle and high||140||1.01 (0.68–1.52)||1.11 (0.71–1.73)||1.07 (0.78–1.73)|
||p = 0.5147
||p = 0.6289
||p = 0.1513
|WHO subregion (10)|
|Eastern and Southern||133||Referent||Referent||Referent|
|Western||102||1.02 (0.52–1.46)||0.84 (0.47–1.50)||0.94 (0.56–1.54)|
|Central||61||0.81 (0.49–1.38)||1.13 (0.65–1.97)||0.55 (0.33–0.90)|
||p = 0.0427
||p = 0.6784
||p = 0.0608
|Outbreak start date‡ (15)|
|2018||101||1.68 (1.16–2.34)||0.46 (0.31–0.70)||1.57 (1.08–2.27)|
|2019||87||2.59 (1.71–3.94)||0.40 (0.25–0.64)||0.94 (0.63–1.43)|
||p = 0.0000
||p = 0.0000
||p = 0.0182
|No. refugees from elsewhere (13)|
|High‡||97||1.61 (0.96–2.70)||0.82 (0.45–1.48)||0.80 (0.48–1.33)|
||p = 0.2017
||p = 0.8066
||p = 0.0236
|IDP, % population (13)|
|High‡||84||1.01 (0.64–2.70)||1.38 (0.85–2.23)||0.70 (0.47–1.04)|
||p = 0.8446
||p = 0.2843
||p = 0.0163
|Disease category (13)|
|Vectorborne||48||0.59 (0.34–1.03)||1.18 (0.63–2.22)||0.89 (0.54–1.45)|
|Viral hemorrhagic fever||56||0.40 (0.25–0.66)||1.57 (0.89–2.77)||1.20 (0.75–1.91)|
|Vaccine-preventable||85||0.46 (0.29–0.73)||1.19 (0.69–2.05)||0.53 (0.34–0.83)|
|Other||33||0.44 (0.34–1.05)||0.91 (0.47–1.78)||1.45 (0.85–2.46)|
||p = 0.0023
||p = 0.4704
||p = 0.0014
|Current health expenditure, % GDP (13)|
|High§||134||1.11 (0.75–1.65)||0.93 (0.58–1.49)||1.02 (0.69–1.51)|
||p = 0.5415
||p = 0.7700
||p = 0.9354
|Population density (13)|
|High§||95||1.10 (0.74–1.61)||0.98 (0.64–1.49)||0.96 (0.67–1.38)|
|Significance||p = 0.6555||p = 0.9258||p = 0.8251|
*GDP, gross domestic product; IDP, internally displaced persons; IQR, interquartile range. †Numbers, based on records of total outbreaks meeting selection criteria (total for each modality = 296). ‡Five dates missing in initial dataset. §Low indicates < median, high indicates > median of in-country value for variable compared with that value for all countries in the African region.
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