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Volume 26, Number 11—November 2020
Research

Case-Control Study of Use of Personal Protective Measures and Risk for SARS-CoV 2 Infection, Thailand

Pawinee Doung-ngern, Rapeepong Suphanchaimat, Apinya Panjangampatthana, Chawisar Janekrongtham, Duangrat Ruampoom, Nawaporn Daochaeng, Napatchakorn Eungkanit, Nichakul Pisitpayat, Nuengruethai Srisong, Oiythip Yasopa, Patchanee Plernprom, Pitiphon Promduangsi, Panita Kumphon, Paphanij Suangtho, Peeriya Watakulsin, Sarinya Chaiya, Somkid Kripattanapong, Thanawadee Chantian, Emily Bloss, Chawetsan Namwat, and Direk LimmathurotsakulComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (P. Doung-ngern, R. Suphanchaimat, A. Panjangampatthana, C. Janekrongtham, D. Ruampoom, N. Daochaeng, N. Eungkanit, N. Pisitpayat, N. Srisong, O. Yasopa, P. Plernprom, P. Promduangsi, P. Kumphon, P. Suangtho, P. Watakulsin, S. Chaiya, S. Kripattanapong, T. Chantian, C. Namwat); Thailand Ministry of Public Health–US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi (E. Bloss); Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand (D. Limmathurotsakul); University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (D. Limmathurotsakul)

Main Article

Table 1

Factors associated with coronavirus disease among persons followed through contract tracing, Thailand, March–April 2020*

Factors COVID-19 cases, no. (%), N = 211† Controls, no. (%), N = 839† Crude odds ratio (95% CI)‡ p value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)‡ p value
Sex n = 211 n = 838
F 65 (30.8) 404 (48.2) Referent 0.52 Referent 0.37
M
146 (69.2)
434 (51.8)
0.83 (0.47–1.46)

0.76 (0.41–1.41)

Age group, y n =211 n = 829
<15 6 (2.8) 49 (5.9) 0.65 (0.17–2.48) 0.29 0.57 (0.15–2.21) 0.21
>15–40 94 (44.5) 435 (52.5) Referent Referent
>40–65 98 (46.4) 302 (36.4) 1.65 (0.91–2.97) 1.77 (0.94–3.32)
>65
13 (6.2)
43 (5.0)
1.29 (0.33–5.07)

0.97 (0.22–4.24)

Contact place§ n = 211 n = 839
Nightclub 35 (16.6) 193 (23.0) NA NA NA NA
Boxing stadium 125 (59.2) 19 (2.3)
Workplace 11 (5.2) 286 (34.0)
Household 38 (18.0) 192 (22.9)
Others
2 (0.9)
149 (17.8)




Shortest distance of contact n = 197 n = 809
Physical contact 132 (67.0) 292 (36.1) Referent 0.001 Referent 0.02
<1 m without physical contact 61 (30.9) 335 (41.4) 0.76 (0.43–1.35) 1.09 (0.58–2.07)
>1 m
4 (2.0)
182 (22.5)
0.08 (0.02–0.31)

0.15 (0.04–0.63)

Duration of contact within 1 m n = 199 n = 801
>60 min 180 (90.4) 487 (60.8) Referent 0.003 Referent 0.09
>15–60 min 14 (7.0) 162 (20.2) 0.53 (0.24–1.17) 0.67 (0.29–1.55)
<15 min
5 (2.5)
152 (19.0)
0.13 (0.04–0.46)

0.24 (0.07–0.90)

Sharing dishes or cups¶ n = 210 n = 837
N 125 (59.5) 576 (68.8) Referent 0.001 Referent 0.39
Y
85 (40.5)
261 (31.2)
2.71 (1.48–4.94)

1.33 (0.70–2.54)

Sharing cigarettes# n = 209 n = 836
N 196 (93.8) 824 (98.6) Referent 0.001 Referent 0.03
Y
13 (6.2)
12 (1.4)
6.12 (2.12–17.72)

3.47 (1.09–11.02)

Handwashing** n = 210 n = 826
None 44 (20.9) 121 (14.6) Referent <0.001 Referent 0.045
Sometimes 114 (54.3) 333 (40.3) 0.41 (0.18–0.91) 0.34 (0.14–0.81)
Often
52 (24.8)
372 (45.0)
0.19 (0.08–0.46)

0.33 (0.13–0.87)

Type of mask†† n = 211 n = 834
None 102 (48.3) 500 (60.0) Referent 0.003
Nonmedical masks only 25 (11.8) 77 (9.2) 0.78 (0.32–1.90)
Nonmedical and medical 12 (5.7) 48 (5.8) 0.46 (0.13–1.64)
Medical mask only
72 (34.1)
209 (25.0)
0.25 (0.12–0.53)



Compliance with mask-wearing†† n = 210 n = 823
Not wearing a mask 102 (48.6) 500 (60.7) Referent <0.001 Referent 0.006
Wearing a mask sometimes 79 (37.6) 125 (15.2) 0.75 (0.37–1.52) 0.87 (0.41–1.84)
Always wearing a mask
29 (13.8)
198 (24.1)
0.16 (0.07–0.36)

0.23 (0.09–0.60)

*NA, not applicable; COVID-19, coronavirus disease.
†Data not available for all cases and controls for all factors.
‡Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression with random effects for location and for index patient nested within the same location. 
§The state enterprise office was included as a workplace. Others included restaurants, markets, malls, religious places, and households of index patients or other persons by persons not living in that household. Location was included in the model as a random effect variable. 
¶Sharing multiserving dishes and using communal serving utensils to portion food individually was not categorized as sharing dishes. 
#Included sharing electronic cigarettes and any vaping devices. 
**Included washing with soap and water, and by using alcohol-based solutions. 
††Wearing masks incorrectly, such as not covering both nose and mouth, was considered the same as not wearing a mask for analyses. Crude odds ratios of wearing mask and of each factor evaluated were estimated using logistic regression with random effects for location and for index patient nested within the same location to take into account clustering; therefore, the crude odds ratios are not equal to dividing of the odds in the case group by the odds in the control group.

Main Article

Page created: September 02, 2020
Page updated: October 17, 2020 10:22 PM EDT
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