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Volume 26, Number 11—November 2020
Research

Case-Control Study of Use of Personal Protective Measures and Risk for SARS-CoV 2 Infection, Thailand

Pawinee Doung-ngern, Rapeepong Suphanchaimat, Apinya Panjangampatthana, Chawisar Janekrongtham, Duangrat Ruampoom, Nawaporn Daochaeng, Napatchakorn Eungkanit, Nichakul Pisitpayat, Nuengruethai Srisong, Oiythip Yasopa, Patchanee Plernprom, Pitiphon Promduangsi, Panita Kumphon, Paphanij Suangtho, Peeriya Watakulsin, Sarinya Chaiya, Somkid Kripattanapong, Thanawadee Chantian, Emily Bloss, Chawetsan Namwat, and Direk LimmathurotsakulComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (P. Doung-ngern, R. Suphanchaimat, A. Panjangampatthana, C. Janekrongtham, D. Ruampoom, N. Daochaeng, N. Eungkanit, N. Pisitpayat, N. Srisong, O. Yasopa, P. Plernprom, P. Promduangsi, P. Kumphon, P. Suangtho, P. Watakulsin, S. Chaiya, S. Kripattanapong, T. Chantian, C. Namwat); Thailand Ministry of Public Health–US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi (E. Bloss); Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand (D. Limmathurotsakul); University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (D. Limmathurotsakul)

Main Article

Table 2

Factors associated with compliance of mask wearing among coronavirus disease cases and controls, Thailand, March–April 2020*

Factors Not wearing masks, no. (%), n = 602 Sometimes wearing masks, no. (%), n = 204 Always wearing masks, no. (%), n = 227 p value†
Sex n = 601 n = 204 n = 227
F 277 (46.1) 75 (36.8) 112 (49.3) 0.03
M
324 (53.9)
129 (63.2)
115 (50.7)

Age group, y n = 594 n = 204 n = 225
<15 45 (7.6) 5/204 (2%) 3/225 (1%) <0.001
>15–40 269 (45.3) 117/204 (57%) 132/225 (59%)
>40–65 236 (39.7) 76/204 (37%) 84/225 (37%)
>65
44 (7.4)
6/204 (3%)
6/225 (3%)

Contact places‡ n = 602 n = 204 n = 227
Nightclub 84 (14.0) 51 (25.0) 91 (40.1) <0.001
Boxing stadium 48 (8.0) 66 (32.4) 29 (12.8)
Workplace 178 (29.6) 46 (22.5) 64 (28.2)
Household 167 (27.7) 27 (13.2) 33 (14.5)
Others
125 (20.7)
14 (6.9)
10 (4.4)

Shortest distance of contact n = 588 n = 191 n = 212
Physical contact 246 (41.8) 96 (50.3) 76 (35.8) 0.005
<1 m without physical contact 238 (40.5) 70 (36.6) 83 (39.1)
>1 m
104 (17.7)
25 (13.1)
53 (25.0)

Duration of contact within 1 m n = 590 n = 190 n = 205
>60 min 396 (67.1) 143 (75.3) 121 (59.0) <0.001
>15–60 min 120 (20.3) 23 (12.1) 30 (14.6)
<15 min
74 (12.5)
24 (12.6)
54 (26.3)

Sharing dishes or cups§ n = 601 n = 203 n = 226
N 361 (60.1) 130 (64.0) 200 (88.5) <0.001
Y
240 (39.9)
73 (36.0)
26 (11.5)

Sharing cigarettes¶ n = 600 n = 202 n = 226
N 586 (97.7) 194 (96.0) 223 (98.7) 0.29
Y
14 (2.3)
8 (4.0)
3 (1.3)

Handwashing# n = 594 n = 203 n = 224
None 142 (23.9) 16 (7.9) 6 (2.7) <0.001
Sometimes 298 (50.2) 99 (48.8) 42 (18.8)
Often
154 (25.9)
88 (43.3)
176 (78.6)

*Data not available for all cases and controls for all factors. Wearing masks incorrectly, such as not covering both nose and mouth, was considered the same as not wearing a mask for analyses.
†p values were estimated by using univariable multinomial logistic regression models. Missing values were imputed using the imputation model. 
‡The state enterprise office was included as a workplace. Others included restaurants, markets, malls, religious places, and households of index patients or other persons but not living together (e.g., persons not living in that household).
§Sharing multiserving dishes and using communal serving utensils to portion food individually was not categorized as sharing dishes. 
¶Included sharing electronic cigarettes and any vaping devices.
#Included washing with soap and water, and by using alcohol-based solutions.

Main Article

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