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Volume 26, Number 5—May 2020
Synopsis

Biphasic Outbreak of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease in Eldercare Facility, New Zealand

Kate A. Worthing, Anja Werno, Ramon Pink, Liam McIntyre, Glen P. Carter, Deborah A. Williamson1, and Mark R. Davies1Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: The University of Melbourne at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (K.A. Worthing, L. McIntyre, G.P. Carter, D.A. Williamson, M.R. Davies); Canterbury Health Laboratories, South Island, New Zealand (A. Werno); Canterbury District Health Board, South Island (R. Pink)

Main Article

Figure

Comparative genomic analyses of 55 (18 outbreak and 37 nonoutbreak) associated emm81 group A Streptococcus (GAS) isolates from New Zealand, 2014. A) Midpoint-rooted maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the emm81 GAS population based on alignment of 336 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Green branches indicate nonoutbreak isolates and blue branches indicate the clonal outbreak isolates. Outbreak isolates obtained from eldercare residents (blue) and staff members (orange) were i

Figure. Comparative genomic analyses of 55 (18 outbreak and 37 nonoutbreak) associated emm81 group A Streptococcus (GAS) isolates from New Zealand, 2014. A) Midpoint-rooted maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the emm81 GAS population based on alignment of 336 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Green branches indicate nonoutbreak isolates and blue branches indicate the clonal outbreak isolates. Outbreak isolates obtained from eldercare residents (blue) and staff members (orange) were indistinguishable at the whole-genome level. Numbers on major internal nodes indicate branch support as a percentage over 100 bootstrap replicates. The tree was created by using RAxML (13) and annotated by using iTOL (16). B) Comparative analyses of 55 emm81 draft genome assemblies from outbreak (blue) and nonoutbreak (green) isolates mapped against a new reference GAS genome from the outbreak, DMG1800716. A large DNA sequence coinciding with a 45.4-kb ICE, ICE-SpDMG1800716, is absent in the nonoutbreak isolates compared with all outbreak isolates. The image was created by using BLAST Ring Image Generator (12). C) Schematic representation and pairwise sequence comparison (BLASTn, https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) of ICE-SpDMG1800716 relative to the closest known homologue, ICE-Sp1108 (17). The genomic integration site of ICE-SpDMG1800716 is shown relative to a nonoutbreak emm81 isolate, DMG1800744. Red bars refer to 100% BLASTn homology as determined by Easyfig (18). The macrolide resistance gene erm(TR) is shown in dark blue and the abortive infection genes (AbiE) in green. ICE, integrative conjugative element; SNPs, single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

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1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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