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Volume 26, Number 5—May 2020
Policy Review

Nonpharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Nonhealthcare Settings—Social Distancing Measures

Min W. Fong1, Huizhi Gao1, Jessica Y. Wong, Jingyi Xiao, Eunice Y.C. Shiu, Sukhyun Ryu, and Benjamin J. CowlingComments to Author 
Author affiliations: University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Main Article

Table 1

Summary of results for systematic review of literature on nonpharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza*

Type of NPI No. studies identified Study designs included Main findings
Observational, simulation
Isolation has moderate impact in reducing influenza transmission and impact.
Intervention study, observational, simulation
Quarantine has general moderate impact in reducing influenza transmission and impact.
Contact tracing
Combination of contact tracing with other measures (e.g., isolation and quarantine) can reduce influenza transmission and impact; the addition of contact tracing to existing measures might provide only modest benefit but will need substantial resources.
School closure
Planned holiday 28 Observational The transmission of influenza decreases during routine school holidays but might increase after schools reopen.
Reactive closures 16 Observational The effectiveness of reactive school closure varies.
Preemptive closures
Preemptive school closure has moderate impact in reducing influenza transmission.
Workplace measures
Intervention study, observational, simulation
Workplace measures are effective; combination with other interventions will further strengthen the effect.
Workplace closures
Workplace closures might have modest impact in reducing influenza transmission.
Avoiding crowding
Timely and sustained application of measures to avoid crowding might reduce influenza transmission.
*Details of literature review are described in the Appendix.

Main Article

1These first authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: April 16, 2020
Page updated: April 16, 2020
Page reviewed: April 16, 2020
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