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Volume 26, Number 7—July 2020

Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in an Urban Slum, Brazil

Rosângela O. Anjos, Vánio André Mugabe, Patrícia S.S. Moreira, Caroline X. Carvalho, Moyra M. Portilho, Ricardo Khouri, Gielson A. Sacramento, Nivison R.R. Nery, Mitermayer G. Reis, Uriel D. Kitron, Albert I. Ko, Federico Costa, and Guilherme S. RibeiroComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Brazil (R.O. Anjos, P.S.S. Moreira, C.X. Carvalho, M.M. Portilho, R. Khouri, G.A. Sacramento, N.R.R. Nery Jr., M.G. Reis, U.D. Kitron, A.I. Ko, F. Costa, G.S. Ribeiro); Universidade Licungo, Quelimane, Mozambique (V.A. Mugabe); Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (V.A. Mugabe, R. Khouri, N.R.R. Nery Jr., M.G. Reis, F. Costa, G.S. Ribeiro); Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA (M.G. Reis, A.I. Ko, F. Costa); Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (U.D. Kitron); University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK (F. Costa); Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK (F. Costa)

Main Article

Table 2

Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios for persons with previous chikungunya virus infection, by demographic and clinical characteristics, Salvador, Brazil, November 2016–February 2017

Characteristic Crude prevalence ratio (95% CI)* Adjusted prevalence ratio (95% CI)†
Sociodemographic Model 1
Illiteracy 1.60 (0.99–2.60)
Not working 1.28 (0.97–1.68)
Residence located in an unpaved street 1.52 (1.07–2.15) 1.52 (1.07–2.15)
Type of residence construction
Plastered wall Referent
Unplastered wall 1.47 (0.92–2.35)
Wood/Other material
1.86 (1.06–3.28)

Clinical: reported symptoms‡ Model 2
Fever and arthralgia
None Referent Referent
Only fever 1.29 (0.89–1.86) 0.96 (0.62–1.49)
Only arthralgia 2.45 (1.60–3.75) 1.55 (0.95–2.53)
Both, not simultaneous 1.91 (0.97–3.77) 1.22 (0.56–2.67)
Both, simultaneous 3.64 (2.51–5.28) 2.26 (1.43–3.57)
Myalgia 1.75 (1.23–2.50)
Rash 2.28 (1.68–3.08)
Pruritus 2.14 (1.51–3.03)
Presumptive clinical diagnosis
Chikungunya 4.66 (3.35–6.48) 2.83 (1.97–4.05)
Dengue 1.67 (1.09–2.56)
Zika 2.45 (1.78–3.39)

*Crude prevalence ratios shown for variables with bivariate p values <0.20, selected for inclusion in the initial multiple variable model.
†Two different multiple variable models were applied using backward selection. The first model included only sociodemographic variables to investigate potential exposures associated with CHIKV infection; the second model included only clinical characteristics to investigate predictors of seropositivity.
‡Reported symptoms with onset after January 2015.

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Page created: April 08, 2020
Page updated: June 18, 2020
Page reviewed: June 18, 2020
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