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Volume 26, Number 9—September 2020

Evaluation of World Health Organization–Recommended Hand Hygiene Formulations

Miranda SuchomelComments to Author , Maren Eggers, Steffen Maier, Axel Kramer, Stephanie J. Dancer, and Didier Pittet
Author affiliations: Medical University, Vienna, Austria (M. Suchomel, S. Maier); Laboratory Prof. Gisela Enders & Colleagues MVZ and Institute of Virology, Infectiology and Epidemiology e.V., Stuttgart, Germany (M. Eggers); University of Medicine, Greifswald, Germany (A. Kramer); Hairmyres Hospital, National Health Service, Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK (S.J. Dancer); Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (S.J. Dancer); World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (D. Pittet); University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva (D. Pittet)

Main Article


Immediate and 3-hour effects after 3-minute application of modified WHO formulations compared with 3-minute applications of reference surgical hand antiseptic treatment according to European Norm 12791

Formulation Immediate effect
3-hour effect
Mean log10 reduction Hodges-Lehmann upper 97.5% confidence limit† Mean log10 reduction Hodges-Lehmann upper 97.5% confidence limit‡
WHO I modified with ethanol 2.99 ± 1.03 0.03 n.i. 1.95 ± 0.97 0.55 n.i.
WHO II modified with isopropanol 2.95 ± 1.03 0.23 n.i. 2.17 ± 1·48 0.47 n.i.
Reference 2.64 ± 0.93 Not applicable 2.02 ± 1.06 Not applicable

*n = 24 study participants. n.i., noninferior versus reference; WHO, World Health Organization.
†With an agreed inferiority margin of 0.75 log10.
‡With an agreed inferiority margin of 0.85 log10.

Main Article

Page created: May 27, 2020
Page updated: August 18, 2020
Page reviewed: August 18, 2020
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