Surface‒Aerosol Stability and Pathogenicity of Diverse Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Strains, 2012‒2018
Neeltje van Doremalen1
, Michael Letko1
, Robert J. Fischer, Trenton Bushmaker, Jonathan Schulz, Claude K. Yinda, Stephanie N. Seifert, Nam Joong Kim, Maged G. Hemida, Ghazi Kayali, Wan Beom Park, Ranawaka A.P.M. Perera, Azaibi Tamin, Natalie J. Thornburg, Suxiang Tong, Krista Queen, Maria D. van Kerkhove, Young Ki Choi, Myoung-don Oh, Abdullah M. Assiri, Malik Peiris, Susan I. Gerber, and Vincent J. Munster
Author affiliations: National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA (N. van Doremalen, M. Letko, R.J. Fischer, T. Bushmaker, J. Schulz, C.K. Yinda, S.N. Seifert, V.J. Munster); Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA (M. Leitko, S.N. Seifert); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea (N.J. Kim, W.B. Park, M.-d. Oh); King Faisal University, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia (M.G. Hemida); Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt (M.G. Hemida); University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, Texas, USA (G. Kayali); University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (R.A.P.M. Perera, M. Peiris); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (A. Tamin, N.J. Thornburg, S. Tong, K. Queen, S.I. Gerber); World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (M.D. van Kerkhove); Chungbuk National University, Cheongju City, South Korea (Y.K. Choi); Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (A.M. Assiri)
Figure 4. In vivo replication of different Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains. hDPP4 mice were inoculated intranasally with 103 TCID50 of MERS-CoV. Four mice were euthanized on day 3, and the remaining 6 mice were monitored for survival. A) Relative weight loss of hDPP4 mice. B) Survival of hDPP4 mice. C) Oropharyngeal shedding of MERS-CoV as measured by using an UpE quantitative reverse transcription PCR. D) Amount of shedding per experiment per mouse calculated by using area under the curve (AUC) analysis of viral load in oropharyngeal swab specimens. Results are displayed per mouse per virus strain. E) Viral load in lung tissue obtained from mice euthanized at day 3. F) Viral mRNA load in lung tissue obtained from mice euthanized at day 3. G) Percentage of positive pixels quantified from lung tissues stained for MERS-CoV antigen. Colors in panels D‒F match those for strains in panels A‒-C; strain sources are listed in the legend for Figure 1. Statistical significance was compared by using 1-way analysis of variance, followed by a Bonferroni multiple comparisons test. Dotted lines indicate limits of detection. TCID50, median tissue culture infectious dose. *p<0.05.
Page created: August 26, 2021
Page updated: November 19, 2021
Page reviewed: November 19, 2021
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.