Volume 27, Number 7—July 2021
Shiga Toxin–Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Adults, France, 2009–2017
|Median age, y (IQR)
|Median age-weighted Charlson Comorbidity Index (IQR)||2.00 (1.00–4.25)|
|Tobacco use within previous 3 y
|>1 underlying condition||69 (71.9)|
|Cardiovascular disease||48 (50.0)|
|Arterial hypertension||38 (39.6)|
|Diabetes mellitus||12 (12.5)|
|Venous thromboembolic disease||11 (11.5)|
|Heart disease†||20 (20.8)|
|History of kidney transplant||5 (5.2)|
|Stage 2 CKD||4 (4.2)|
|Stage 3 CKD||8 (8.3)|
|Stage 4 CKD||3 (3.1)|
|Digestive disorder§||29 (30.2)|
|Gastrointestinal disorder||18 (18.8)|
|Biliopancreatic disorder||9 (9.4)|
|Hepatic disorder||4 (4.2)|
|Autoimmune or inflammatory disease¶||11 (11.5)|
|History of bone marrow or solid organ transplant#||8 (8.3)|
|Hematologic disease**||8 (8.3)|
|Active cancer††||8 (8.3)|
|Primary immunodeficiency§§||2 (2.1)|
|Immunosuppressive treatment||12 (12.5)|
|Calcineurin inhibitors||7 (7.3)|
|Azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil||7 (7.3)|
*Values are no. (%) patients except as indicated. CKD, chronic kidney disease; IQR, interquartile range. †8 patients had hypertensive disease, 4 had ischemic disease, 4 had hypertensive and ischemic disease, 2 had valvular cardiopathy, 1 had pulmonary hypertension, and 1 had unspecified heart disease. ‡According to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines (15). §8 patients had gastric, small bowel, or colonic resection; 2 had history of bariatric surgery; 3 had chronic diarrhea from diverticulosis; 1 had graft-versus-host disease; 1 had colonic endometriosis; 1 had microscopic colitis; 1 had AA amyloidosis; 1 had neurovegetative disorder (1 each); 3 had recurrent pyogenic cholangitis; 1 had sclerosing cholangitis; 2 had a double kidney-pancreas transplantation; 3 had chronic pancreatitis; 2 had cirrhosis; 1 had history of liver transplant; and 1 had autoimmune hepatitis. ¶2 patients had mixed connective tissue disease, 1 had systemic sclerosis, 1 had sclerosing cholangitis, 1 had microscopic polyangiitis, 3 had type 1 diabetes, 1 had multiple sclerosis, and 2 had psoriasis. #3 patients had a history of kidney, 2 of double kidney–pancreas, 2 of bone marrow, and 1 of liver transplant. **1 patient had acute myeloid leukemia, 1 had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1 had Hodgkin’s lymphoma, 1 had clonal B-cell lymphocytosis, 1 had monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, 1 had Waldenström’s disease, 1 had myeloproliferative disorder, and 1 had myelodysplastic syndrome. ††3 patients had breast cancer, 1 had metastatic lung cancer, 1 had a gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor, 1 had bladder cancer, 1 had cervical cancer, and 1 had gastric cancer. ‡‡3 patients had AIDS, including 2 patients who received HIV diagnoses during treatment. §§2 patients had hypogammaglobulinemia, including 1 patient who had ICF1 syndrome caused by a DNMT3b germinal mutation. ¶¶5 patients had stroke sequelae, 3 had Parkinson’s disease, 1 had multiple sclerosis, 4 had cognitive impairment (including 1 patient who had Korsakoff syndrome and 1 who had vascular dementia), 1 had epilepsy, 1 had chronic polyradiculoneuropathy, and 5 had major depressive or bipolar disorder.
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1These first authors contributed equally to this article.
2Members of this group are listed at the end of this article.