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Volume 27, Number 8—August 2021

Spatial, Ecologic, and Clinical Epidemiology of Community-Onset, Ceftriaxone-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Cook County, Illinois, USA

Vanessa SardáComments to Author , William E. Trick, Huiyuan Zhang, and David N. Schwartz
Author affiliations: Cook County Health, Chicago, IL, USA (V. Sardá, W.E. Trick, H. Zhang, D.N. Schwartz); Rush Medical College, Chicago (V. Sardá, W.E. Trick, D.N. Schwartz)

Main Article

Table 4

Individual and population-level risk factors for ceftriaxone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in patients, Cook County Health healthcare system, Illinois, USA, 2016–2018*

No. (%) isolates

Bivariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
p value
Total no. isolates
10,891 (100)
9,856 (90.5)
1,035 (9.5)

F 7,853 (72.1) 7,215 (66.2) 638 (5.9) Referent
3,038 (27.9)
2,641 (24.2)
397 (3.7)

1.7 (1.5–1.9)
Age group, y
18–34 2,011 (18.6) 1,895 (17.4) 116 (1.2) Referent
35–51 3,109 (28.5) 2,846 (26.1) 263 (2.4) 1.5 (1.2–1.9) <0.01
52–68 4,092 (37.5) 3,667 (33.7) 425 (3.8) 1.9 (1.5–2.3) <0.01
69–85 1,471 (13.5) 1,259 (11.6) 212 (1.9) 2.8 (2.2–3.5) <0.01
208 (1.9)
189 (90.9)
19 (9.1)

1.6 (0.9–2.7)
Race and ethnicity
Non-Hispanic White 997 (9.2) 902 (8.3) 95 (0.9) 1.6 (1.2–2.0) <0.01
Non-Hispanic Black 4,394 (40.4) 4,120 (37.8) 274 (2.6) Referent
Hispanic 4,898 (44.9) 4,324 (39.7) 574 (5.2) 1.9 (1.7–2.3) <0.01
602 (5.5)
510 (4.7)
92 (0.8)

2.7 (2.1–3.5
Encounter type
Outpatient 5,889 (54.1) 5,419 (49.8) 470 (4.3) Referent
Emergency department 2,890 (26.5) 2,655 (24.4) 235 (2.1) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.80
2,112 (19.4)
1,782 (16.4)
330 (3.0)

2.1 (1.8–2.5)
Mean % foreign-born population (SD)‡ 21.5 (17.0) 21.04 (17.0) 25.8 (16.2) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) <0.01

*Values are no. (%) except as indicated. OR, odds ratio. †Other refers to isolates from participants who identified as non-Hispanic and reported race as Asian (3% of all isolates), American Indian/Alaska Native (0.4%), multiple races (0.1%), or unknown race (0.8%). ‡Based on data from 2017 American Community Survey 5-year estimates (19).

Main Article

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Page updated: July 18, 2021
Page reviewed: July 18, 2021
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