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Volume 27, Number 9—September 2021

Patterns of Virus Exposure and Presumed Household Transmission among Persons with Coronavirus Disease, United States, January–April 2020

Rachel M. BurkeComments to Author , Laura Calderwood, Marie E. Killerby, Candace E. Ashworth, Abby L. Berns, Skyler Brennan, Jonathan M. Bressler, Laurel Harduar Morano, Nathaniel M. Lewis, Tiffanie M. Markus, Suzanne M. Newton, Jennifer S. Read, Tamara Rissman, Joanne Taylor, Jacqueline E. Tate, Claire M. Midgley, and for the COVID-19 Case Investigation Form Working Group
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (R.M. Burke, M.E. Killerby, L. Harduar Morano. N.M. Lewis, S.M. Newton, J. Taylor, J.E. Tate, C.M. Midgley); Cherokee Nation Assurance, Arlington, Virginia, USA (L. Calderwood),; Virginia Department of Health, Richmond, Virginia, USA (C.E. Ashworth); Rhode Island Department of Health, Providence, Rhode Island, USA (A.L. Berns); Georgia Department of Health, Atlanta (S. Brennan); Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Anchorage, Alaska, USA (J.M. Bressler); Pennsylvania Department of Health, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA (L. Harduar Morano); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA (T.M. Markus); Vermont Department of Health, Burlington, Vermont, USA (J. Read); University of Vermont, Burlington (J.S. Read); Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA (T. Rissman)

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Table 2

Factors associated with symptom status of 172 household contacts of 64 symptomatic index case-patients in households with presumed COVID-19 transmission, United States, January–April 2020*

Factor Unique households No. with symptoms/no. total contacts (%) aOR (95% CI)† p value‡
Contact sex 0.73
F 50 28/85 (32.9) Referent
29/87 (33.3)
0.90 (0.49–1.64)

Contact age, y 0.73
<18 25 13/50 (26.0) Referent
44/115 (38.3)
1.15 (0.53–2.47)

Household size, persons 0.006
<5 48 23/92 (25.0) Referent
34/80 (42.5)
3.56 (1.45–8.74)

Index case-patient age, y 0.035
<5 5 11/19 (57.9) 3.69 (0.65–20.95)
5–17 4 6/13 (46.2) 2.09 (0.39–11.05)
18–44 26 15/82 (18.3) Referent
45–64 21 20/49 (40.8) 4.61 (1.45–14.66)
5/9 (55.6)
15.43 (2.28–104.17)

Relationship of contact to index case-patient 0.070
Spouse 43 11/44 (25.0) Referent
Child 21 11/39 (28.2) 1.78 (0.58–5.45)
Parent 17 18/31 (58.1) 4.55 (1.22–17.00)
Other§ 23 17/58 (29.3) 1.47 (0.42–5.11)

*A total of 21 contacts from 5 households (i.e., 5 index case-patients) are excluded because of missing data: only relationship data for 7, only sex data for 2, only index case-patient’s age for 1; only contact’s age for 5, relationship and contact age for 6. Households with presumed transmission indicates households of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 case-patients where >1 household member exhibited symptoms; index case-patient indicates household /member with first reported onset of symptoms (regardless of laboratory confirmation); household contact indicates household member of the index case-patient. aOR, adjusted odds ratio (adjusted for all variables in the table); COVID-19, coronavirus disease. †Calculated using robust SEs. ‡Generalized Wald test. §Includes siblings, grandparents, grandchildren, friends, and any household relationship or contact other than spouse, child, or parent.

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Page created: June 21, 2021
Page updated: August 17, 2021
Page reviewed: August 17, 2021
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