, Raskit Lachmann, Alexandra Holzer, Sven Halbedel, Antje Flieger, and Klaus Stark
Figure 1. Distribution of pregnancy-associated and non–pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases, by year and quarter, Germany, 2010–2019 (n = 5,576). In the x-axis labels, I corresponds to January–March, II to April–June, III to July–September, and IV to October–December. Before the third quarter of 2015, two groups of patients were not included in the reference definition: those with unknown or unfulfilled clinical criteria and those with nucleic acid detection only. Data from these groups are displayed separately to make the changes in trends over time more apparent.