Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 27, Number 9—September 2021


Lucas Nojosa OliveiraComments to Author  and Patrícia de Sousa Lima
Author affiliation: Faculdade Estácio de Sá de Goiás, Goiás, Brazil (L.N. Oliveira); Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Goiás (P. de Sousa Lima)

Cite This Article

Paracoccidioides [p′a ɾə kok-sidʺe-oiʹ d′ez]

Figure 1

Adolfo Lutz (1855‒1940). Unknown author, Wikimedia Commons

Figure 1. Adolfo Lutz (1855‒1940). Unknown author, Wikimedia Commons

From the Greek (para/παρά + kokkis [coccidia]), Adolpho Lutz (Figure 1) described Paracoccidioides in 1908. After analysis of oral and cervical lymph node lesions from infected patients, Lutz initially believed that he had detected Coccidioides. However, more extensive analysis showed that he had detected another fungus. Because of morphologic and clinical disease similarities, the name Paracoccidioides was suggested. The prefix para (near) indicates its similarity with Coccidioides.

Figure 2

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelium cells (left) and multibudding yeasts (right) by scanning electron microscopy.  Original magnifications ×1,500 for the left panel and ×3,000 for the right panel. Image adapted from Vieira e Silva et al. 1974.

Figure 2. Paracoccidioides brasiliensismycelium cells (left) and multibudding yeasts (right) by scanning electron microscopy.  Original magnifications ×1,500 for the left panel and ×3,000 for the right panel. Image adapted from Vieira...

Paracoccidioides is a thermally dimorphic fungus (Figure 2). It grows as an infective mycelium form (at 18°C–23°C) or a parasitic multibudding yeast form (at 35°C–37°C). It is composed of 2 species: P. brasiliensis and P. lutzi. They are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis. This systemic infection is endemic to Latin America (southern Mexico to northern Argentina). The highest number of cases are found in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Paracoccidioides conidia and mycelia are found in soil and transmitted by inhalation.



  1. Bocca  AL, Amaral  AC, Teixeira  MM, Sato  PK, Shikanai-Yasuda  MA, Soares Felipe  MS. Paracoccidioidomycosis: eco-epidemiology, taxonomy and clinical and therapeutic issues. Future Microbiol. 2013;8:117791. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chaves  AFA, Navarro  MV, de Barros  YN, Silva  RS, Xander  P, Batista  WL. Updates in Paracoccidioides biology and genetic advances in fungus manipulation. J Fungi (Basel). 2021;7:116. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Lutz  A. A pseudococcidic mycose located in the mouth and observed in Brazil: contribution to the knowledge of American hypoblatomycoses [in Portuguese]. Revista Semanal de Medicina e Cirurgia. 1908;22:1214.
  4. Turland  NJ, Wiersema  JH, Barrie  FR, Greuter  W, Hawksworth  DL, Herendeen  PS, et al., editors. International code of nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Regnum Vegetabile 159. Glashütten (Germany): Koeltz Botanical Books; 2018 [cited 2021 May 17].
  5. Viera e Silva  CR, de Mattos  MC, Fujimore  K. Scanning electron microscopy of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Study with and without pre-treatment with pooled sera from patients with ‘South American blastomycosis’. Mycopathol Mycol Appl. 1974;54:23551.PubMedGoogle Scholar




Cite This Article

DOI: 10.3201/eid2709.210461

Original Publication Date: August 19, 2021

Related Links


Table of Contents – Volume 27, Number 9—September 2021

EID Search Options
presentation_01 Advanced Article Search – Search articles by author and/or keyword.
presentation_01 Articles by Country Search – Search articles by the topic country.
presentation_01 Article Type Search – Search articles by article type and issue.



Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address:

Lucas Nojosa Oliveira, Faculdade Estácio de Sá de Goiás, Avenida Goiás 2151, Setor Central, Goiânia, Goiás, CEP 74063-010, Brazil

Send To

10000 character(s) remaining.


Page created: August 24, 2021
Page updated: August 24, 2021
Page reviewed: August 24, 2021
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.