Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 28, Number 1—January 2022

Coronavirus Disease Case Definitions, Diagnostic Testing Criteria, and Surveillance in 25 Countries with Highest Reported Case Counts

Amitabh B. Suthar1Comments to Author , Sara Schubert1, Julie Garon, Alexia Couture, Amy M. Brown, and Sana Charania
Author affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 2

Selected probable case definition criteria across 25 countries with the highest COVID-19 case counts, current as of January 1, 2021*

Diagnostic testing

Clinical symptoms

Epidemiologic criteria
Inconcl. test
Antigen test
Radiograph imaging
Labored breathing
Loss of taste or smell
Travel history
Confirmed contact
WHO definition (reference) X X X X X X X X X
Bangladesh† X X X X X X X X X
Chile X X X X X X X X X X
Colombia X X X X X X X
France‡ X X X X X X
Germany‡ X X X X X X
India§ X X X X X X X X
Indonesia X X X
Iran X X X X X X
Iraq† X X X X X X X X X
Italy‡ X X X X X X
Pakistan§ X X X X X X X X
Philippines† X X X X X X X X X
Russia X X X X X X X
Saudi Arabia
South Africa
Spain X X X X X X X
Ukraine X
United Kingdom
United States X X X X X X X X
No. (%) countries including criterion¶ 6 (38) 2 (13) 10 (63) 13 (81) 15 (94) 11 (69) 14 (88) 12 (75) 8 (50) 6 (38) 13 (81)

*Complete data are available in Appendix Table 5; full probable case definitions are shown in Appendix Table 4. X indicates the criterion was sufficient for, or a potential component of, the probable case definition requirement(s). COVID-19, coronavirus disease; hosp., hospitalized; inconcl., inconclusive; SARI, severe acute respiratory infection; WHO, World Health Organization.
†World Health Organization definition (updated August 2020). ‡European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control definition. §World Health Organization definition (updated March 2020).
¶Denominator is 16 countries with probable case definition.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: October 19, 2021
Page updated: December 20, 2021
Page reviewed: December 20, 2021
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.