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Volume 28, Number 1—January 2022

Coronavirus Disease Case Definitions, Diagnostic Testing Criteria, and Surveillance in 25 Countries with Highest Reported Case Counts

Amitabh B. Suthar1Comments to Author , Sara Schubert1, Julie Garon, Alexia Couture, Amy M. Brown, and Sana Charania
Author affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 3

Selected confirmed case definition criteria across 25 countries with the highest COVID-19 case counts, current as of January 1, 2021*

Diagnostic testing

Clinical symptoms

Epidemiologic criteria
PCR test
Antigen test
Ab test
Positive test (NS)
Radiograph imaging
Meet suspected case definition
Loss of taste or smell
Travel history
Confirmed contact
WHO definition
Argentina X X X X X
Bangladesh† X
Brazil X X X X X X
Chile X X X X
Colombia X X
France‡ X X
Germany‡ X X
India† X
Indonesia X
Iran X
Iraq† X
Israel X
Italy‡ X X
Mexico X X X X
Pakistan † X
Peru X X X X X X
Philippines† X X
Russia X X X
Saudi Arabia X X X X X
South Africa X
Spain X X X X
Turkey X X X X X X
Ukraine X
United Kingdom X
United States X
No. (%) countries§ 18 (72) 10 (40) 2 (8) 7 (28) 1 (4) 7 (28) 6 (24) 3 (12) 4 (16) 6 (24)

*Complete data are available in Appendix Table 7 ; X indicates the criterion was sufficient for, or a potential component of, the confirmed case definition requirement(s). Full confirmed case definitions can be found in Appendix Table 6. Ab, antibody; hosp., hospitalized; NS, not specified; WHO, World Health Organization. †World Health Organization definition (confirmed case definition did not change between March 2020 and August 2020 update).
‡European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control definition. §Denominator is 25 countries with confirmed case definitions.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: October 19, 2021
Page updated: December 20, 2021
Page reviewed: December 20, 2021
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