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Volume 28, Number 1—January 2022

Risk Factors for SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among US Healthcare Personnel, May–December 2020

Nora CheaComments to Author , Cedric J. Brown, Taniece Eure, Rebecca Alkis Ramirez, Gregory Blazek, Austin R. Penna, Ruoran Li, Christopher A. Czaja, Helen Johnston, Devra Barter, Betsy Feighner Miller, Kathleen Angell, Kristen E. Marshall, Ashley Fell, Sara Lovett, Sarah Lim, Ruth Lynfield, Sarah Shrum Davis, Erin C. Phipps, Marla Sievers, Ghinwa Dumyati, Cathleen Concannon, Kathryn McCullough, Amy Woods, Sandhya Seshadri, Christopher Myers, Rebecca Pierce, Valerie L.S. Ocampo, Judith A. Guzman-Cottrill, Gabriela Escutia, Monika Samper, Nicola D. Thompson, Shelley S. Magill, and Cheri T. Grigg
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (N. Chea, C.J. Brown, T. Eure, R.A. Ramirez, G. Blazek, A.R. Penna, R. Li, K.E. Marshall, N.D. Thompson, S.S. Magill, C.T. Grigg); Chenega Professional & Technical Services, LLC, Chesapeake, Virginia, USA (C.J. Brown, T. Eure); Chenega Enterprise Systems & Solutions, LLC, Chesapeake (G. Blazek); Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, Colorado, USA (C.A. Czaja, H. Johnston, D. Barter, B.F. Miller, K. Angell, K.E. Marshall); Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA (A. Fell, S. Lovett, S. Lim, R. Lynfield); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA (S.S. Davis, E.C. Phipps); New Mexico Department of Health, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (M. Sievers); University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA (G. Dumyati, C. Concannon, K. McCullough, A. Woods, S. Seshadri, C. Myers); Oregon Health Authority, Portland, Oregon, USA (R. Pierce, V.L.S. Ocampo, J.A. Guzman-Cottrill, G. Escutia, M. Samper)

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Table 1

Multivariable conditional logistic regression model to identify characteristics, activities, and practices associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among US healthcare personnel (model 1)*

Characteristic No. (%)
(95% CI)† p value
n = 345 Controls, 
n = 622
Close contact with persons with COVID-19 outside the workplace‡
No, unknown, or not reported§ 218 (63.2) 560 (90) Referent
127 (36.8)
62 (10.0)
6.2 (4.1–9.4)
Close contact with COVID-19 patients in the workplace‡¶
No, unknown, or not reported 232 (67.2) 398 (68.3) Referent
113 (32.8)
197 (31.7)
1.6 (1.1–2.3)
<30 y 107 (31.0) 143 (23.0) Referent
≥30 y
238 (69.0)
473 (76.1)
0.7 (0.5–1.0)
Any underlying medical condition(s)**
No 112 (32.5) 222 (35.7) Referent
233 (67.5)
400 (64.3)
1.3 (0.9–1.8)
Race and ethnicity††
White, non-Hispanic 194 (56.2) 406 (65.3) Referent
Hispanic or Latino 86 (24.9) 106 (17.0) 1.7 (1.1–2.6) 0.02
Black, non-Hispanic 25 (7.2) 28 (4.5) 1.7 (0.9–3.2) 0.12
Asian, non-Hispanic 17 (4.9) 29 (4.7) 1.2 (0.6–2.5) 0.56
Other or multiple races, non-Hispanic, or race or ethnicity not reported
23 (6.8)
53 (8.5)
0.9 (0.5–1.8)
Healthcare role
Registered nurse 96 (27.8) 201 (32.3) Referent
Administrative personnel 47 (13.6) 50 (8.0) 1.8 (1.1–3.2) 0.04
Physician 20 (5.8) 63 (10.1) 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 0.73
Nursing assistant or patient care technician 24 (7.0) 36 (5.8) 1.1 (0.6–2.2) 0.78
Medical assistant 16 (4.6) 23 (3.7) 1.1 (0.5–2.5) 0.88
Other role anticipated to have substantial patient contact‡‡ 58 (16.8) 107 (17.2) 0.9 (0.6–1.5) 0.83
Other role anticipated to have moderate patient contact§§ 51 (14.8) 77 (12.4) 1.1 (0.7–1.9) 0.70
Other role anticipated to have minimal patient contact¶¶ 24 (7.0) 36 (5.8) 1.4 (0.7–2.7) 0.32
Other role with undefined level of patient contact 9 (2.6) 29 (4.7) 0.6 (0.2–1.4) 0.25

*amOR, adjusted matched odds ratio; COVID-19, coronavirus disease; IQR, interquartile range; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. †Model included 967 healthcare personnel: 345 cases and 622 controls. Among these, there were 71 pairs of 1 case and 1 control, 271 clusters of 1 case and 2 controls, and 3 clusters of 1 case and 3 controls. ‡In the 14 d before illness onset or SARS-CoV-2 virus test specimen collection date. §15 cases and 14 controls reported that they did not know if they had close contact with persons with COVID-19 outside the workplace; data were missing for 1 control. ¶15 cases and 27 controls reported that they did not know if they had close contact with COVID-19 patients in the workplace; data were missing for 1 control. #Age was not reported for 6 controls; these healthcare personnel were grouped as <30 y. **Asthma, rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or other chronic lung diseases, hypertension or heart conditions, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease or hemodialysis, autoimmune or rheumatologic disease, active cancer, solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant, other immunosuppressing conditions, chronic liver disease, pregnancy, current or recent smoking (i.e., within a year of SARS-CoV-2 virus test specimen collection date), and obesity or severe obesity with body mass index >30. ††Race was not reported for 16 cases and 27 controls; ethnicity was missing for 14 cases and 24 controls. ‡‡Dental healthcare provider, emergency medical services personnel, licensed practical nurse, nurse practitioner, occupational therapist, other nurse, physician assistant, physical therapist or assistant, phlebotomist, respiratory therapist, radiology technician, speech-language pathologist, and surgical, medical, or emergency technician. §§Nonphysician behavioral health provider, chaplain, care coordinator, dietician, environmental services personnel, food services personnel, patient transport personnel, research personnel, social worker, or student. ¶¶Facilities maintenance personnel, medical equipment technician, laboratory personnel, or pharmacist. Detailed healthcare roles and area of the facility in which HCP worked are available in Appendix Tables 2 and 3 (

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Page created: November 10, 2021
Page updated: December 20, 2021
Page reviewed: December 20, 2021
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