Volume 28, Number 2—February 2022
Viral Interference between Respiratory Viruses
|Interfering virus||Second virus||Observed effect in patients, animal models, and ex vivo systems||Results and statistical significance||Reference|
|pH1N1||H3N2||Prevents A(H3N2) shedding in ferret model||No H3N2 virus shedding||(17)|
||Prevents or delays IBV shedding in ferret model
||Peak delayed by 1.8 d (p = 0.014)
|IAV||RSV||Reduced likelihood of co-detection in patients||OR 0.11 (95% CI 0.00–0.92)||(18)|
|Reduced likelihood of co-detection in patients||OR 0.37 (95% CI 0.24–0.57)||(19)|
|Prevents or delays RSV shedding in ferret model
||Peak delayed by 2 d (p = 0.009)
|RSV||HMPV||Reduced likelihood of co-detection in patients||OR 0.27 (95% CI 0.09–0.80)||(19)|
|Reduces HMPV replication in HAEC model
||By 1 or 2 log after 5 d (p<0.05)
|HRV||IAV||Reduced likelihood of co-detection in patients||OR 0.06 (95% CI 0.01–0.24)||(18)|
|Reduced likelihood of co-detection in patients||OR 0.08 (95% CI 0.02–0.30)||(21)|
|Reduced likelihood of co-detection in patients||OR 0.15 (95% CI 0.04–0.53)||(22)|
|Reduced likelihood of co-detection in patients||OR 0.16 (95% CI 0.09–0.28)||(23)|
|Reduces IAV replication in HAEC model
||>15-fold after 24 h (p = 0.0002)
|RSV||HRV||Reduced infection rate with HRV in patients||8% vs. 14% (p<0.049)||(24)|
|Reduced likelihood of co-infection in patients||OR 0.17 (95% CI 0.09–0.33)||(18)|
|TCRI study||OR 0.30 (95% CI 0.22‒0.40)||(25)|
|INSPIRE study||OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.11–0.28)||(25)|
||OR 0.34 (95% CI 0.16–0.72)
|HRV||SARS-CoV-2||Reduces SARS-CoV-2 replication in HAEC model||By 3 log after 48 h (p = 0.006)||(26)|
|By 3.5 log after 72 h (p<0.0001)||(27)|
*HAEC, human airway epithelial cells; HMPV, human metapneumovirus; HRV, human rhinovirus; IAV, influenza A virus; IBV, influenza B virus; INSPIRE, Infant Susceptibility to Pulmonary Infections and Asthma Following RSV Exposure (in a region of the southeastern United States); MAKI, trial on the effects of RSV prophylaxis with palivuzimab in healthy preterm infants in the Netherlands; OR, odds ratio; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; TCRI, Tennessee Children’s Respiratory Initiative.
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