Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 29, Number 2—February 2023

Bartonella spp. and Typhus Group Rickettsiae among Persons Experiencing Homelessness, São Paulo, Brazil

Álvaro A. Faccini-Martínez, Louise Bach Kmetiuk, Lucas S. Blanton, Laís Giuliane Felipetto, Mara Lúcia Gravinatti, Jorge Timenetsky, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Andrea Pires dos Santos, Marcelo B. Labruna, Gustavo Monti, Alexander Welker Biondo, and David H. WalkerComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Servicios y Asesorías en Infectología, Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, Colombia (Á.A. Faccini-Martínez); University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA (Á.A. Faccini-Martínez, L.S. Blanton, D.H. Walker); Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Curitiba, Brazil (L.B. Kmetiuk, F.B. Figueiredo); Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba (L.G. Felipetto, A.W. Biondo); Central Paulista University Center, São Carlos, Brazil (M.L. Gravinatti); University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (M.L. Gravinatti, J. Timenetsky, M.B. Labruna); São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil (L.R. Gonçalves, R Z. Machado, M.R. André); Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA (A.P. dos Santos); Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands (G. Monti)

Main Article


Conditional logistic regression model results showing factors associated with exposure to Bartonella spp. and TGR among persons experiencing homelessness in São Paulo, Brazil, June–August 2018*

Model variables Odds ratio (90% CI) p value
Bartonella spp.†
Intercept 1.72 (0.86–3.56) 0.20
Not white Referent NA
White 1.03 (0.30–5.40) 0.97
Body lice infestation
No Referent NA
Yes 2.86 (1.06–8.06) 0.08
Have cats
No Referent NA
0.24 (0.04–1.10)
Intercept 0.47 (0.21–1.02) 0.11
Not white Referent NA
White 3.94 (1.56–10.67) 0.02
Cause of homelessness: unemployment
No Referent NA
Yes 2.33 (1.02–5.46) 0.09
Frequency of changing clothes
>Monthly Referent NA
Monthly 0.01 (0.001–99.53) 0.99
Syphilis infection
No Referent NA
Yes 3.64 (1.50–9.37) 0.02
Duration of homelessness
<1 y Referent NA
>1 y
0.65 (0.28–1.51)
Combined Bartonella spp. and TGR§
Intercept 0.001 (0.0001–0.03) 0.02
Not white Referent NA
White 5.56 (2.18–15.50) 0.004
Total plasma protein 2.01 (1.04–4.00) 0.086
Packed cell volume 1.09 (0.99–1.21) 0.127
Cause of homelessness: family conflicts
No Referent NA
Yes 0.36 (0.16–0.80) 0.038
Frequency of changing clothes
>Monthly Referent NA
Monthly 0.08 (0.07–0.42) 0.03

*Bayesian information criteria (BICs) were used to assess the goodness-of-fit for each model. NA, not applicable; TGR, typhus group rickettsiae. †Model BIC = 100.1. ‡Model BIC = 139.6. §Model BIC = 140.5.

Main Article

Page created: December 20, 2022
Page updated: January 21, 2023
Page reviewed: January 21, 2023
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.